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Lancashire anfc Cheshire 





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O.B.E. 1 

The Mail Coach : Changing Horses .... Frontispiece 
Early Coach Advertisements (five) .... To face 8, 9 
Variations of the Coach Road into Birkenhead 

To face 1 1 
Dale Street (North Side), showing a Fly 

Waggon To face 13 

London Mail Coach Advertisement .... ,, 16 

" Golden Lion " Inn, Dale Street .... ,, 17 

Liverpool " Umpire " Coach ,, 21 

Tranmere Ferry Steamer, 1817 '.... ,, 26 

" King's Arms " Inn, Water Street (Parish 

Offices, 1829) .... To face 27 



View of the Mill, looking West .... To face 33 


Harrington Mill .... .... .... To face 41 

Otterspool Fall .... .... ,, 41 

View of the Mill To face 43 

vi. Contents and Illustrations 






View of the Font 

To face 


THE ARCADE, with Outline Drawing .... 


THE FALL, with plate 

To face 


The Cherub and St. Michael 



Outline drawings of the Figures 

.... 56, 


St. Michael and the Dragon 

To face 




The Ancient Chasuble 


ST. PETER AND HIS KEY, with plate 

To face 




Drawings showing its Evolution .... 




Various forms of the Ray 


The figures P. 6 and 5 

To face 




The figures P. 7 and 6 .... 

To face 


P. 7 





HUDSON, M.A., F.S.A .... 100 

1. TABOR (fig.) 104 

Exeter Misericord, showing Pipe and 

Tabor To face 105 

Worcester Misericord, showing Nakers and 

Clarion To face 105 

2. RECORDER (fig.) 106 

Angel playing a Recorder .... To face 107 

3. BAGPIPE (Irish) (fig.) 108 

4. BAGPIPE (Scottish) (fig.) .... .... 109 

5. SHAWM (fig.) .... .... .... no 

Double Recorder. From Beverley To face 110 
Bagpiper. From Beverley .... 110 

Contents and Illustrations vii. 


6. TRUMPET, or CLARION (fig.) 112 

7. CLAVICYMBAL (fig.) 113 

Angel playing a Clavicymbal .... To face 113 

8. PORTATIVE ORGAN (front and side views) 114 

Psaltery, Portative Organ and Harp. 

From Beverley .... .... .... To face 116 

Positive Organ. From Boston .... ,, 116 

9. HARP (side and front views) .... .... 117 

10. PSALTERY (fig.) 118 

Viol. From Beverley To face 118 

Harp and Bagpipe. From Manchester 

To face 118 

11. DULCIMER (fig.) .... 119 

12. LUTE (fig.) .... .... 121 

13. FITHELE (fig.) .... 123 

14. SYMPHONY (fig.) 124 

Organistrum. From a sculptured group 
in the Rouen Museum, formerly 
belonging to the Cloister of St. Georges 
de Boscherville (12th Century) .... 124 



Leasowe Tower, 1593 : as reconstructed by 

Mr. Hopps To face 127 

Leasowe in 1800 : from a sketch by Lysons 

To face 132 
The Star Chamber Room as it was .... 138 

Doorway of 1593 (outline sketch) .... .... 139 

The Dated Stone .... .... .... To face 139 

Plan of Tower, etc. ; first and third floors .... 142 

APPENDIX I. A List of Facetious Book Titles 

on the Dummy Bookcase 145 

APPENDIX II. The Oxgangs in Wallasey, 1768 146 

viii. Contents and Illustrations 



F.S.A 149 

The Statuette .... .... To face 149 

The Flawford Virgin (Nottingham Museum) 

To face 151 

The Cadillac Sculpture .... 152 



F.S.A., AND F. C. BEAZLEY, F.S.A 153 








BY HENRY PEET, M.A., F.S.A. .... 215 


W. H. CHIPPINDALL .... 225 


Harrington Estate in Liverpool. Slitting 
Mills at Birkacre. Curates of Hale 
Chapel, 1560 (?) to 1633. Blundell of 
Little Crosby. The Kirkby Font. 
Wigan Church c. 1580. Longworth of 
Ormskirk. Rochdale Glebe. Dr. Kuer- 
den. Hambleton Chapel. Philip Bennet 
of Cartmel. Early Rectors of Wood- 
church. Cheshire Men in the Expedition 
of 1544. Sporting Rights in Minshull, 


INDEX 241 








A. H. ARKLE, O.B.E. 



Members of Council. 


F. W. BAILEY, D.S.O., M.R.C.S., 


R. CATON, M.D., F.R.C.P. 








Hon. Treasurer. 


Hon. Librarian. 

R. T. BAILEY, M.B.E., M.R.C.S., 

Hon. Secretary. 




Hon. Assistant Librarian 


Hon. Assistant Secretary. 



Hon. Editor. 

Excursion Committee. 

F. W. BAILEY, D.S.O., M.R.C.S. 

Photographic Committee. 

R. T. BAILEY, M.B.E., M.R.C.S., 


Officers of the <3octetp since Commencement. 


1. Right Hon. Francis, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire .... 1848 

2. Right Hon. Charles William, 3rd Earl of Sefton, Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire 1854 

3. General the Hon. Sir Edward Cust, K.C.H., D.C.L 1855 

4. Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone, M.P 1863 

5. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A., &c. 1866 

6. Rev. Canon Hume, D.C.L., LL.D., &c 1868 

7. The Very Rev. J. S. Howson, D.D., Dean of Chester 1875 

8. Thomas Glazebrook Rylands, F.S.A., &c. 1879 

9. Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Oxford, F.S.A 1885 

10. Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Chester, D.D. 1889 

11. Right Hon. Arthur, 16th Earl of Derby, K.G., G.C.B., Lord-Lieutenant of 

Lancashire 1903 

12. RIGHT Hon. EDWARD, 17m EARL OF DERBY, K. G., G.C.V.O., C.B 1908 





Rev. A. Hume 
Rev. A. Hume 
Rev. A. Hume 

Rev. A. Hume 
Rev. A. Hume 
Rev. A. Hume 


LL.D., and H. C. Pidgeon. 

LL.D., and Rev. Thomas Moore, M.A. 



Nicholas Waterhouse. 

David Buxton. 

David Buxton. 

David Buxton. 

C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 

C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 
[ E. M. Han'ce, LL.B. > 
I R. D. Radcliffe, M.A. 

R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., F.S.A. 

R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., F.S.A. 

R. D. Radclifie, M.A., F.S.A. 

W. F. Irvine, M.A., F.S.A. 

F. C. Beazley, F.S.A. 


Assistant Secretaries. 
Thomas G. Wedgwood. 
W. W. Rundell. 
J. H. Genn. 
J. H. Genn. 
Charles Dyall. 
Arthur Wakefield. 
Eugenio Londini. 
Eugenic Londini. 
T. N. Morton. 

T. N. Morton. 

T. N. Morton. 

T. N. Morton, W. F. Irvine. 

W. F. Irvine, Jas. A. Waite. 

Jas. A. Waite. 

Jas. A. Waite. 



1911. John Brownbill, M.A. 1 


J848. Thomas Avison, F.S.A. 

1860. William Burke. 

1867. John G. Jacob. 

1886. H. D. Eshelby, F.S.A. 


W. E. Gregson. 

F. C. Beazley, F.S.A. 

1911. S. W. Phipps. 
1922. P. C. BROWN. 



Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 
Rev. Thomas Moore, M.A. 
David Buxton. 
Nicholas Waterhouse. 
Nicholas Waterhouse. 
John R. Hughes. 
John R. Hughes. 
C. T. Gatty, F.S.A. 
E. M. Hance, LL.B. 

(Offices in abeyance.) 
W. Thompson Watkin. 
W. Thompson Watkin. 
George T. Shaw. 
George T. Shaw. 
George T. Shaw. 
George T. Shaw. 
R. T. BAILEY, M.B.E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 


Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 
Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. 
A. C. Gibson, F.S.A. 
A. C. Gibson, F.S.A. 
H. Ecroyd Smith. 
H. Ecroyd Smith. 
J. Harris Gibson. 
J. Harris Gibson. 
J. Harris Gibson. 

J. Harris Gibson. 
W. Forshaw Wilson. 
W. C. Ashby Pritt. 
Charles Potter. 
W. F. Price. 

Assistant Librarians. 
1911. JAMES A. WAITE. 1922. E. H. RIDEOUT, B.Sc., A.I.C. 

1 Before this date the Secretary was also Editor. 



Burnley . W. FARRER, D.Litt., Whitbarrow Lodge, 


Leigh . . . . W. D. PINK, Public Library, Leigh. 

Leyland .... The Rev. W. STUART WHITE, Healey Vicarage, 

Ormskirk . . . JAMES BROMLEY, J. P., The Homestead, Lathom. 

Rainford .... The Rev. Canon J. WRIGHT WILLIAMS, Farn- 

Sefton W. E. GREGSON, 43 Moor Lane, Great Crosby. 

S^J'LIl'l W. S. WEEKS, Westwood, Clitheroe. 

Pendle Hill } 

Wigan Sir T. R. RATCLIFFE-ELLIS, 18 King Street. 


Wray, near Lancaster Rev. C. L. REYNOLDS, M.A., Wray Vicarage, 

Darwen and] 

\ . . J. POM FRET, Public Library, Darwen. 


** The Council would be glad to hear from Gentlemen, not 

necessarily members of the Society, willing to volunteer 

as Hon. Local Secretaries for Districts in Lancashire 

and Cheshire not already provided for. 


THE authors of Papers are alone responsible for the state- 
ments and opinions in their several communications. 

In our last volume Dr. Nelson gave the blocks for the 
illustrations for his paper ; in the present volume he has 
also lent one of the blocks. Mr. Hudson has supplied the 
blocks illustrating his essay. 

The present volume has been prepared for the press by 
J. BROWNBILL, M.A., Honorary Editor. 

N.B. It is requested that notice be given to the Secretary of any 
errors, change of address, or death. 


(Corrected to 1st January, 1922) 

The names of Life Members are printed in BLACK TYPE. 


1889. April 4. Abraham, Miss E. C. Riverham, Grassen- 

dale Park, Liverpool. 

1908. Mar. 5. Accrington Public Library, Accrington. 
1910. Nov. 10. Anderton, Henry Ince. Hotel des Trois 

Couronnes, Vevey, Switzerland. 

1903. Jan. 15. Arkle, A. H., O.B.E., Elmhurst, Oxton, 

Birkenhead, Vice-President. 
1888. Mar. 22. Athenaeum Library. Liverpool. 
1899. Jan. 19. Atkinson, W. J. A. Hillside, Gateacre. 
1907. Sept. 16. Aubrey, F. E., L.D.S. 13 Upper Duke 

Street, Liverpool. Excursion Committee. 

1890. Jan. 23. Ayrton, William. 10 Dale Street, Liver- 


1904. Jan. 14. Bailey, F. W., D.S.O., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

51 Grove Street, Liverpool. Excursion 

1904. Jan. 14. Bailey, R. T., M.B.E., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

51 Grove Street, Liverpool. Hon. 

1918. Jan. 1. Baker, Harold R. P., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

77 Accrington Road, Blackburn. 
1886. Nov. 18. Banner, Sir John S. Harmood, M.P. Aston 

Hall, Preston Brook, Cheshire. 
1912. Jan. 18. Barlow, Miss A. L. 70 West Bank Road, 


1907. Feb. 21. Barrow-in-Furness, Free Library of. 
1912. Nov. 21. Barton, S. Saxon. The Beach, St. Michael's 

Hamlet, Liverpool. 

xiv. List of Members 


1914. Jan. 29. Barton, S. Saxon, Jun., O.B.E. The 
Beach, Southwood Road, St. Michael's 
Hamlet, Liverpool. 

1914. Jan. 1. Beazley, Eric B. Oak Dene, Noctorum, 


1899. Feb. 16. Beazley, Frank C., F.S.A. 46 Grosvenor 
Road, Claughton, Birkenhead. Vice- 

1921. Oct. 27. Bell, G. K. Hillock Cottage, Parbold. 

1915. Jan. 28. Benas, Bertram B. B., B.A., LL.B. 5 

Princes Avenue, Liverpool. 

1913. Oct. 30. Bennett, J. H. E. Cambrian Crescent, 


1918. Oct. 31. Bickerton, H. R., M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 
88 Rodney Street, Liverpool. 

1905. Nov. 2. Bickerton, T. H., M.R.C.S. 88 Rodney 
Street, Liverpool. 

1896. Jan. 16. Birkenhead Free Public Library. Birken- 

1889. Oct. 31. Birmingham Central Free Library. Ratcliff 

Place, Birmingham. 

1870. April 7. Blackburn Free Library. Blackburn. 
1921. Nov. 10. Blundell, Rev. Frederick, O.S.B., F.S.A. 

Scot. St. Anne's Priory, Edge Hill, 


1888. Mar. 22. Bodleian Library. Oxford. 
1907. Jan. 5. Bolton-le-Moors, Free Public Library of. 

1890. Nov. 6. Bootle Free Library. Oriel Road, Bootle. 

1888. Mar. 22. Boston Athenaeum. Boston, U.S.A. (C/o 

Messrs. E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 
Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 
London, W.C.). 

1889. Jan. 10. Boston Public Library. Boston, U.S.A. 

(C/o B. Quaritch, Ltd., 11 Grafton 
Street, London, W.) 
1912. Dec. 19. Bradford Public Library. Bradford. 

1891. Nov. 5. British Museum Library. (C/o Messrs. 

Dulau & Co., 34-36 Margaret Street, 
Cavendish Square, London, W.I.) 

1901. Nov. 7. Bromilow, Henry John. Green Bank, 

1914. Jan. 1. Brown, Percy C. 20 Penkett Road, 

Wallasey. Hon. Treasurer. 

1905. May 8. Brownbill, John, M.A. 7 Millman Street, 
London, W.C.I. 

List of Members xv. 


1914. Oct. 29. Bunbury, H. J. c/o Boodles, St. James' 

Street, London, S.W.I. 

1910. Feb. 17. Burnett, Miss Eleanor. Devonshire House, 
Devonshire Park, Birkenhead. 

1909. Jan. 21. Burnett, Miss M. Edith. Devonshire House, 

Devonshire Park, Birkenhead. 

1921. Jan. 20. Caldwell, Francis, C.B.E., M.V.O. 11 
Devonshire Road, Princes Park, Liver- 

1889. Feb. 21. Caton, Richard, C.B.E., M.D., LL.D., J.P. 
3 Livingston Drive South, Sefton Park, 

1913. Nov. 13. Cheers, Frank L. 41 Harthill Avenue, 
Allerton, Liverpool. 

1879. Jan. 9. Chetham's Library. Manchester. 

1900. Mar. 29. Chorley Free Public Library. Chorley. 

1910. Nov. 10. Clover, Mrs. G. R. Ramie, Manor Hill. 


1905. April 11. Congress, Library of. Washington, U.S.A. 

Per Edward G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 14 
Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 
London, W.C.) 

1902. Nov. 6. Coventry, Harold. 19 Claremont Road, 
West Kirby. 

1915. Feb. 25. Crossley, Frederick H. 19 Shavington 

Avenue, Hoole, Chester. 

1921. Dec. 8. Crowden, George Wm. 3 Menlove Avenue, 
Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 

1906. Mar. 1. Danson, Sir F. C., F.S.A. 74 Bidston Road, 

Oxton, Birkenhead. 

1907. July 15. Darwen Free Library. Darwen. 

1895. Nov. 7. De Hoghton, Sir James, Bart. Hoghton 

Tower, Preston. 
1921. Feb. 10. Dodgson, F. P. The Kinders, Arno Road, 

Oxton, Birkenhead. 

1918. Oct. 31. Duveen, James H. Tyn Dwfr Hall, Llan- 

1920. Feb. 12. Ellis, S. 9 Strand Street, Liverpool. 

1901. Feb. 14. Ellsworth, W. S. 11 Park Crescent, South- 


1910. Mar. 3. Elwell, Rev. H. E., M.A. Capenhurst 
Rectory, Chester. 

1919. Jan. 1. Entwistle, Peter. The Public Museum, 


xvi List of Members 


1914. Oct. 29. Eschwege, Maurice. 47 Lime Street, Liver- 

1920. Jan. 29. Ford-Jones, John, 35 Rocky Lane, Liver- 


1875. Jan. 7. Garnett, William. Quernmore Park, Lan- 

1907. April 22. Gladstone, Henry Neville. Burton Manor, 


1902. Nov. 6. Gladstone, Robert, B.CX., M.A. Woolton 
Vale, Liverpool. 

1921. Jan. 20. Haigh, Edwin, C. C. San Roque, Calder- 

stones, Liverpool. 

1906. Feb. 14. Hall, Lawrence. 6 Canning Street, Liver- 

1912. Jan. 18. Hand, Chas. R. Ivydene, Ashfield, Waver- 
tree, Liverpool. 

1890. Nov. 6. Hannay, A. M. 5 India Buildings, Water 

Street, Liverpool. 

1908. Jan. 13. Hargreaves, John. 64 Dacre Hill, Rock 


1912. Nov. 21. Harvard College Library. (Per E. G. Allen 

and Son, Ltd., 14 Grape Street, Shaftes- 
bury Avenue, London, W.C.) 

1916. Jan. 27. Heal, Albert H. Plymyard Manor, East- 
ham, Cheshire. 

1911. Oct. 25. Hignett, Theophilus. St. Ives, Sandfield 
Park, West Derby, Liverpool. 

1910. Feb. 3. Hind, Miss Alice. 27 Beech Road, Birken- 

1916. Nov. 9. Hockley, Rev. G. W., M.A. The Rectory, 
Hardman Street, Liverpool. 

1918. Jan. 31. Holt, Miss M. Fern Hill, New Brighton. 

1913. Oct. 30. Hughes, John. 280 Kensington, Liverpool. 

1919. Oct. 30. Humphreys, Dr. Richard, M.B., C.M. 1 

Cressington Park, Liverpool. 

1891. Nov. 5. Ireland, National Library of. (C/o Messrs. 

Hodges, Figgis & Co., Ltd., 20 Nassau 
Street, Dublin). 

1890. Nov. 6. Irvine, Wm. Fergusson, M.A., F.S.A. 56 
Park Road South, Birkenhead. V ice- 

1910. Nov. 10. John Rylands Library. Manchester. 

1918. Feb. 28. Johnson, Joseph B. Devonshire House, 
Devonshire Road, Princes Park, Liver- 

List of Members xvii. 


1912. Dec. 5. Jones, W. Bell. The Church House, 

Hawarden, Flintshire. 
1897. Nov. 4. Lancaster Free Public Library. Lancaster. 

1901. Jan. 17. Larkin, F. C., F.R.C.S. 18 Rodney Street, 

Liverpool. V ice-President. 

1913. Oct. 30. Lawson, P. H. 6 Shavington Avenue, 


1911 Jan. 19. Lee, Harold, J.P. 15 North John Street, 

1889. Mar. 7. Leeds Free Public Library. Leeds. 

1903. Dec. 17. Legge, Charles J. 3 Grosvenor Place, 
Claughton, Birkenhead. 

1916. Jan. 1. Leigh-Mallory, Rev. Herbert L., M.A. St. 
John's Vicarage, Slatey Road, Birken- 

1911. Oct. 25. Leigh Public Library. Leigh, Lancashire. 

1892. Feb. 25 Leverhulme, Right Honourable Lord. 

Thornton Manor, Thornton Hough, 

1920. Oct. 28. Linaker, R. Hyde. Hazelmere, Weston 

Road, Runcorn, Cheshire. 
1904 Jan. 28. Liverpool Free Library. Liverpool. 

1902. Jan. 16. Liverpool Library (Lyceum). Bold Street, 


1893. Nov. 2. Livesey, John. Barham, Wray Park Road, 

Reigate, Surrey. 

1921. Feb. 24. Livsey, Arthur C., A.M.I. E.E. Three Trees, 

Woodland Park, Prestatyn, Flintshire. 

1919. Jan. 1. Logan, John R. 81 Hartington Road, 


1911. Oct. 25. Lyell, George I. 10 Vernon Street, Liver- 

1914. Oct. 29. McCormack, Chas. V., M.R.C S., L.R.C.P. 

58 Merton Road, Bootle. 

1920. Jan. 1. Malley, Christopher. 6 West Bank Road, 

Edge Lane, Liverpool. 

1888. Mar. 22. Manchester Free Reference Library. Picca- 
dilly, Manchester. 

1888. Mar. 22. Manchester University. Manchester. 

1916. Oct. 28. Marshall Rev. W., M.A. Sarnesfield Court, 
Weobley, R.S.O., Herefordshire. 

1920. Feb. 26. Matthews, Godfrey W. 23 Holland Road, 

1914. Jan. 1. May, Walter T. 20 Huskisson Street. 

xviii. List of Members 


1904. Mar. 25. Mayer Free Library. Bebington, nr. Birken- 

1890. Nov. 6. Meade-King, Richard R. Sandfield Park, 

West Derby, Liverpool. 

1915. Jan. 28. Morton, Mrs. 124 Prenton Road West, 

1908. Dec. 10. Nelson, Philip, M.D., F.S.A., F.R.A.I. 
Beechwood, Calderstones, Liverpool. 
Hon. Secretary. 

1897. Mar. 25. New York, Public Library of. New York, 
U.S.A. (C/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 
Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.) 

1893. Feb. 9. Newberry Library. Chicago, U.S.A. (Per 
B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar 
Square, London, W C.) 

1919. Oct. 30. Nicholson, Alex. C., F.G.S. 45 Ferndale 
Road, Hoylake. 

1921. Feb. 24. Norris, George R. 5 Livingstone Drive, 

1911. Feb. 2. Nottingham Free Public Library. Notting- 

1907. July 15. Oldham Free Library. Oldham. 

1907. Mar. 21. Owen, Segar, F.R.I. B. A. Kelmscott, Apple- 
ton, Cheshire. 

1891. Dec. 17. Parker, Colonel John W. R., C.B., F.S.A. 

Browsholme Hall, Clitheroe. 
1910. April 21. Paterson, David. Vailima, Queen's Drive, 

Mossley Hill, Liverpool. 
1913. Oct. 30. Peabody Institute, The. Baltimore, U.S.A. 

(Per E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 12/14 

Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, 

London, W.C.) 

1916. Oct. 28. Peel, W. The Shrublands, Hoole, Chester. 
1890. Nov. 6. Peet, Henry, M.A., F.S.A., J.P. Manor 

Cottage, Cavendish Road, Birkenhead. 

V ice-President. 
1921. Oct. 27. Felling, Douglas L. 4 Curzon Road, 

1894. Nov. 1. Phipps, S. W. 32 Danehurst Road, 

1919. Jan. 30. Pigot, Rev. Harry V., M.A. Grappenhall 

Rectory, Warrington. 
1921. Jan. 20. Priestley, Frank C. Fieldhead, Prenton. 

List of Members 



1911. Jan. 19. Public Record Office, London. (Per H.M. 

Stationery Office, Princes Street, West- 
minster, London, S.W.) 
1888. Feb. 9. Radcliffe, Frederick M. Queen Insurance 

Buildings, Liverpool. 
1891. Jan. 22. Ratcliffe-Ellis, Sir Thomas R. 18 King 

Street, Wigan. 
1914. Oct. 29. Reynolds, Colonel Sir J. P., D.S.O., J.P., 

D.L. Dove Park, Woolton. 
1921. Feb. 10. Rideout, Eric H., B.Sc., A.I.C. 17 Regent 

Road, Wallasey. Hon. Assistant 

1918. Feb. 14. Robertson, Allan. 43 Exchange Buildings, 


Rochdale Free Public Library. Rochdale. 
Royden, E. B. Bidston Court, Oxton, 

Royds, Lady. 71 Eaton Place, London, 

Rylands, John Paul, F.S.A. 96 Bidston 

Road, Birkenhead. V ice-President. 
Rylands, William Harry, F.S.A. 1 Campden 

Hill Place, Netting Hill, London, W. 
St. Helens Free Public Library. St. Helens. 
Salford Royal Museum and Libraries. Peel 

Park, Salford. 
1888. Nov. 15. Sandeman, Lieut.-Col. John Glas, M.V.O., 

Sub-Officer H.M. Hon. Corps of Gentle- 
men at Arms. Whin-Hurst, Hayling 

Island, Havant. 
1888. Mar. 8. Shaw, G. T. Liverpool Free Library, 

1920. Jan. 1. Sheppard, Percy G., L.M.S., L.S.A. 59 

Edge Lane, Liverpool. 
1897. Jan. 28. Southport (Atkinson) Free Public Library. 

1899. April 13. Starkie, Colonel Edmund A. Le Gendre. 

Huntroyde, Burnley. 
1918. Feb. 14. Steele, E. W. Topham. 7 Christchurdi 

Road, Oxton. 

1905. Feb. 23. Stewart-Brown, R., M.A., F.S.A. Fairoaks, 

Bromborough, Cheshire. V ice-President. 
1911. Jan. 19. Stockport Public Library. Stockport. 

1906. Feb. 15. Stone, Park N. The Moorings, Neston. 


April 13. 
Dec. 3. 


Jan. 25. 


Nov. 3. 


Dec. 10. 


Mar. 22. 


July 15. 

xx. List of Members 


1891. Nov. 5. Stonyhurst College, Rev. the Rector of, S.J. 


1919. Oct. 30. Stott, Dr. J. Edwin, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. 

201 Edge Lane, Liverpool. 

1912. Feb. 29. Strype, Chas. F. 61 Greenbank Road, 

Devonshire Park, Birkenhead. 

1920. Oct. 28. Teare, W. Rimmer. 12 Bentley Road, 

Oxton, Birkenhead. 

1887. Feb. 10. Tempest, Mrs. Arthur Cedl. Broughton 

Hall, Skipton-in-Craven. 

1889. Feb. 21. Thompson, Edward P. Whitchurch, Salop. 
1911. Jan. 19. Timbrell, Rev. W. F. J., M.A. Coddington 

Rectory, Chester. 

1890. Nov. 6. Tonge, William Asheton. The Old Rectory, 

Warburton, Cheshire. 

1908. Aug. 22. Toronto Reference Library, Toronto, 
Canada. (C/o Wm. Dawson & Sons, 
Ltd., Cannon House, Bream's Buildings, 
London, E.C.4.) 

1888. Feb. 23. Toulmin & Sons, Ltd., George. Lancashire 

Daily Post Office, Preston. 

1889. Oct. 31. Turton, Fletcher Thomas. Hazel Bank, 

Huyton, Liverpool. 

1920. Jan. 1. Twemlow, J. A., B.A. 64 Upper Parliament 

Street, Liverpool. 

1919. Jan. 1. Veitch, Geo. S., M.A., Litt.D. Pelham 
House, Sandown Park, Wavertree, Liver- 

1903. Mar. 12. Victoria and Albert Museum Library. South 
Kensington, London, S.W. (Per Board 
of Education, Storekeeper's Department, 
South Kensington. 

1894. Nov. 1. Waite, Jas. A. 6 Fairfield Street, Fairfield, 
Liverpool. Hon. Assistant Secretary. 

1913. Nov. 27. Wales, National Library of. Aberystwyth. 
1918. Jan. 1. Wallasey Public Libraries. Wallasey, 


1894. April 5. Warburton, Rev. William, M.A. The 
Vicarage, Hoylake, Cheshire. 

1921. Oct. 27. Wardman, R. The Beeches, Massie Street, 


1892. Nov. 3. Warrington Museum. Warrington. 

1921. Mar. 10. Watson, A. E., L.D.S. 135 Upper Parlia- 
ment Street, Liverpool. 
1897. Nov. 4. Wearing, J. W., M.A. Parkfield, Lancaster. 

List of Members xxi. 


1918. Oct. 31. Webster, Rev. G. E., M.A. Tredington 

Village, Tewkesbury. 
1918. Jan. 31. Weld, Francis. Weld Road, Birkdale, 


1888. Dec. 13. Weldon, William Henry, C.V.O., F.S.A., 

Clarenceux King of Arms. College of 
Arms, London, E.G. 

1921. Mar. 24. White, Thomas, Jun. Junior Reform Club, 
Stanley Street, Liverpool. 

1889. Jan. 10. Wigan Free Public Library. Wigan. 

1906. Mar. 31. Wilkinson, W. The Limes, Victoria Park, 


1907. Oct. 10. Williams, R. Warner. Constitutional Club, 

1 Beresford Road, Birkenhead. 
1913. Oct. 30. Williams, Wm. H. 41 Laburnum Road, 

Fairfield, Liverpool. 
1885. Nov. 26. Wilson, W. Forshaw. 50 Cable Road, 

1915. Jan. 1. Winstanley, Herbert. Easby, Mersey Road, 

Aigburth, Liverpool. 

1913. Oct. 30. Wisconsin State Historical Society. 

Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (Per G. H. 

Stechert & Co., 2 Star Yard, Carey 

Street, Chancery Lane, London, W.C.) 
1905. Mar. 9. Withers, R. E. M. 13 Haymans Green, 

West Derby, Liverpool. 
1904. Jan. 28. Wolstenholme, Chas. M. 71 Park Road 

South, Birkenhead. 
1891. Nov. 19. Woodhouse, Miss E. D. Burghill Court, 

1909. Feb. 12. Woods, E. C., L.D.S. (Eng.). 76 Mount 

Pleasant, Liverpool. 
1920. jan. 29. Woods, E. C., Mrs. 76 Mount Pleasant, 



1914. Mar. 26. Boyd-Dawkins, W., M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., 

F.G.S., F.S.A. Fallowfield House, Fal- 

lowfield, Manchester. 
Carlyon-Britton, P. W. P., J.P., D.L., 

F.S.A., P.B.N.S. 43 Bedford Square, 

London, W.C. 
Evans, Sir Arthur, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.S., 

P.S.A., Youlbury, Berkshire. 

xxii. List of Members 


1914. Mar. 26. Green, Everard, F.S.A., Somerset Herald. 
College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E.G. 
James, Montagu R., D.Litt., F.S.A. Eton 

College, Eton. 
Lyte, Sir Henry C. Maxwell, K.C.B., M.A. 

61 Warwick Square, London, S.W. 
,, Prior, E. S., M.A., A.R.A., F.S.A. Fairview, 

Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. 
Read, Sir C. Hercules, LL.D., V.P.S.A. 

British Museum, London, W.C. 
1920. Lethaby, Prof. W. R., F.S.A. Ill Inverness 

Terrace, London, W.2. 

Biver, Count Paul. Jouy-en-Josas, Seine- 

et-Oise, France. 




Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Society. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Chester Archaeological Society. 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian Society. 

Exeter Diocesan Architectural and Archaeological Society. 

Kent Archaeological Society. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 

Leicestershire Archaeological Society. 

Architectural and Archaeological Society of Lincoln and Notts. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 


Congress of Archaeological Societies. 
Lancashire Parish Register Society. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society. 



By A. H. Arkle, O.B.E. 

Read 13 March, 1919, and 10 February, 1921. 

TTHERE appears to be little to be said about 
A coaching in England before the Restoration 
period. Jusserand tells us that coaches were 
introduced into England in 1564 : "A coach," 
he says, " was a strange monster in those days, 
and the sight of them put both horses and man 
into amazement ; some said it was a crab-shell 
brought out of China, and some imagined it to 
be one of the pagan temples in which the cannibals 
adored the devil." But a little before the 
Restoration the desire for travel, together with 
the growth of commercial life, brought into being 
that most picturesque of all the modes of travel 
we know of, the Stage Coach. 

In the Mercurius Politicus for 8 April, 1658, is 
the following advertisement : 

From the 26 April, 1658, there will continue to go stage 
coaches from the George Inn without Aldersgate, London, 
into the several cities and towns, for the rates and at the 
times hereafter mentioned and declared. 

To Salisbury, in 2 days xx. s. 

,, Exmaster, Hinnington 

and Exeter 4 days .... xl. s. 

, Doncaster and Ferribridge .... .... xxxv. s. 

, York, in 4 days xl. s. 

, Blandford and Doncaster in 2| days .... xxx. s. 

, Burput, in 3 days xxx. s. 

, Stamford, in 2 days .... .... .... xx. s. 

, Bawtrey, in 3 days xxx. s. 

2 Early Liverpool Coaching 


Ockinton, Plimouth 1. s. 

To Darneton, Ferryhil, Helperby and 

Northallerton xlv. s. 

Durham Iv. s. 

,, Newcastle .... .... .... .... .... Iv. s. 

Once every fortnight to Edinburgh, iv. a peece, on 

Every Friday to Wakefield, in 4 days .... xl. s. 

All persons who desire to travel into the cities and towns 
and roads herein hereafter mentioned and expressed, 
namely to Coventry, Litchfield, Stone, Namptwich, Chester, 
Warrington, Wigan, Chorley, Preston, Garstang, Lancaster 
and Kendal. 

Also to Stamford, Grantham, Newark, Tuxford, Bawtrey, 
Doncaster, Ferribridge, York, Helperby, North Allerton, 
Darneton, Ferry Hill, Durham, Newcastle, Wakefield, 
Leeds, and Halifax. 

Also to Salisbury, Blandford, Dorchester, Barput, Ex- 
master, Hinnington, Exeter, Ockinton, Plimouth and 
Cornwall, let them repair to the George Inn at Holborn 
Bridge, London, and thence they shall be in good coaches 
with good horses upon every Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday at and for reasonable rates. 

From the same paper of 24 June, 1658 : 

The Postmasters on Chester road petitioning have received 
orders and do accordingly publish the following advertise- 
ment : 

All gentlemen, merchants and others who have occasion 
to travel between London and Westchester, Manchester 
and Warrington, or any other town upon the road for the 
accommodation of trade, despatch of business and ease of 
purse, upon every Monday, Wednesday and Friday morning 
betwixt six and ten of the clock at the house of Mr. 
Christopher Charteris at the sign of the Hart's Horns in 
West Smithfield, and postmaster there, and at the postmaster 
at Chester and at the postmaster of Warrington, may have 
a good and able single horse or more furnished at 3d. the 
mile without charge of a guide, etc., etc. 

All those who intend to ride this way are desired to give 
a little notice beforehand if conveniently they can to the 
several postmasters where they first take horse. 

Early Liverpool Coaching 3 

My attention was called to these interesting 
extracts by Mr. F. C. Beazley. They are taken 
from the first volume of Notes and Queries. They 
give us the main lines of traffic as they existed 
at the time. 

That there were other ideas about the advan- 
tages of travel is evident from the following 
quotation from an early paper : 

In the year 1672, when throughout Great Britain there 
were only six stage coaches constantly going, a pamphlet 
was written for their suppression. It stated : " These 
stage coaches make gentlemen come to London on every 
small occasion, which otherwise they would not do but 
upon urgent necessity. Nay, the convenience of the 
passage makes their wives often come up, who rather than 
come on such long journeys on horseback would stay at 
home. Here when they have come to town they must 
presently be in the mode, get fine clothes, go to plays and 
treats and by these means get such a habit of idleness and 
love of pleasure that they are uneasy ever after." 

But the object of this paper is not to go into 
the question of coaches and coaching at large. 
I am only endeavouring to give an outline of 
how the coaching around Liverpool developed 
until it grew into the wonderful and efficient 
instrument which we find in the early nineteenth 
century until, indeed, its great rival steam 
drove it almost entirely off the road. 

John Ogilby published in 1675 his well-known 
book of road maps through England. He names 
and describes the great trunk roads of Great 
Britain as follows : 

1st. The Northern Road, extending to Berwick and thence 

to Edinburgh. 

2nd. The North-East Road to Yarmouth in Norfolk. 
3rd. The Kentish Road or Eastern to Dover. 
4th. The South-Western Road to Chichester and adjunct 

to the Great Western Road to Plymouth. 
5th. The due West or Bristol Road. 

6th. The North-West or Chester Road, extending to Holy- 

4 Early Liverpool Coaching 

Under these headings he adds a list of what 
are called " depending branches," and for the 
last of these main roads one of the depending 
branches is " Warrington to Liverpool," much in 
the same way as Neston is on a depending branch 
from Chester. 

These main roads go S.W., W., N.W., N.E., 
and E., but on none of these lines was the ancient 
town of Liverpool situated ; and until the trade 
with Ireland and the Plantations, especially the 
West Indies, began to develop, Liverpool was 
quietly pursuing various local industries, such as 
the potteries, with scarcely a thought of the vast 
field of commerce that was only just beginning 
to open to the enterprize and energy of her 

Until the middle of the 18th century, Liverpool 
was almost entirely cut off from the rest of the 
country by the want of good main roads. So 
far back as November, 1725, the Common 
Council, taking into consideration that the road 
between this town and Prescot " hath been 
almost impassable, and that the inhabitants of 
this town have suffered much for want of getting 
their coals home during the summer season, thro' 
the great rains that have happened in these 
parts, and that it would be highly necessary to 
get an act of Parliament for the repairing that 
road so that it may be passable at all times of 
the year and for erecting a turnpike thereon : 
It is now ordered that a petition to Parliament 
for that purpose be prepared." 

In January the following year (1726) the 
Council, taking into further consideration " the 
great charge of bringing coals and merchandises 
to this town and port in bad weather, and 
especially in the winter season and at all times 
when the weather happens to be wet and 

Early Liverpool Coaching 5 

unseasonable as it hath happened the last 
summer, and that the roads to the coal pits, and 
particularly in Prescot, cannot be sufficiently 
repaired by the statute work as it will be passable 
at such times, without the help and assistance of a 
toll : it is now ordered and agreed that applica- 
tion be made to Parliament to obtain an act for 
that purpose and that the treasurer do advance 
one-half of the charge." 

James Chadwick was employed to survey, 
measure and map out this road to Prescot; 1 for 
which he was advanced the sum of 3 3s. Yet, 
after all this, it seems that the two acts of 
Parliament, dated 1746 and 1753, were passed, 
and that a period of nearly 30 years elapsed 
before the road was properly completed from 
Liverpool to Warrington ; for it was only in 
1757 that a contract was entered into for making 
the unfinished part of the road between Prescot 
and Warrington, to be completed in two years. 

There must have been roads of a sort both 
from Wigan and Warrington into Liverpool by 
way of St. Helens and Prescot, but they were 
evidently in a sad state of unrepair, and no doubt 
until about 1760 most of the goods traffic between 
Liverpool and other towns was carried by pack 
horses, and passengers had to go on horseback 
as far as W T arrington and there wait for the stage 
wagon or post coach to their destination. 

From Troughton's History of Liverpool, speaking 
of the period before coaches were established, we 
gather that a stage coach from the north of 
England to London passed through Warrington 
every week. It was customary for travellers 
from Liverpool to the capital to go to Warrington 
on Sunday to be ready to set out in the coach 

1 Prescot Road began at the stone bridge which crossed the Pool 
at the top end of Dale Street, where is now William Brown Street. 

6 Early Liverpool Coaching 

at 3 a.m. on the Monday, and they thought 
themselves fortunate if they arrived in London 
late on the Saturday. Troughton, who probably 
wrote about 1805 or 1806, says (page 107) : 
" Vestiges of the old road from Warrington to 
Liverpool are yet discernible near the nursery at 
Wavertree, and this road or lane, which is not 
4 yards broad, is continued at intervals between 
the Edge Lane Road and Wavertree Lane to 
within a short distance of Wavertree Hall." 

Such being the difficulties and delays in com- 
pleting even one good road, how the merchants 
of those times must have welcomed the great 
canal system inaugurated by the Duke of Bridge- 
water and carried out by his engineer, Brindley ! 
In the same spirit of enterprize local business 
men saw early in the 19th century the enormous 
advantage of a rail road to enable them to cope 
with the increasing demands of the traffic to and 
from the port. 

At last, early in 1760, the road through Prescot 
to Warrington was completed, and Liverpool was 
united to the great trunk roads running in all 
directions throughout England. The first men- 
tion of a coach in connection with Liverpool occurs 
in an advertisement in the Liverpool Advertiser of 
14 January, 1757, referring probably to a casual 
arrival in Liverpool for which the proprietors 
wanted, if possible, to secure a return fare. It 
runs as follows : 

For Birmingham or other parts of Warwickshire, Oxford, 
London, Bath, or any place adjacent, a returned coach 
which will set out from Liverpool on the 20th or 21st 
instant. Apply to the Talbot Inn or Mr. John Crosbie, 

Another three years elapsed before a coach 
service began ; the first advertisement runs as 
follows : 

Early Liverpool Coaching 7 

A machine " sets out on Monday, Sept. 1st, 1760, and 
on every Monday and Thursday morning at 6 o'clock from 
Mr. Budworth's, the Bull's Head Inn in Manchester ; 
will call at the Red Lyon Inn in Warrington ; at Mr. 
Reynolds's, the Old Legs of Man, in Prescot ; and lies at 
Mr. Banner's, the Golden Fleece, in Liverpool. Returns 
from thence every Tuesday and Friday morning at 6 
o'clock, and calls at the above places on its way back to 
Manchester. Each passenger to pay 8s. and so in pro- 
portion for any part of the road. To be allowed 14 Ib. 
weight of luggage, and all above to pay Id. per pound. 
Perform'd (if God permits) by 


John Stonehewer was apparently the driver of 
this first venture for at least six or seven years, 
for I find a foot-note in Troughton's History of 
Liverpool which gives this extract from the 
Liverpool Chronicle of 21 January, 1768 : 

John Stonehewer, driver of the stage coach between 
Liverpool and Manchester, having been thrown off the 
box had his thigh broken by the fall, begs his thanks may 
be acceptable to his benefactors at Warrington for their 
generous contributions to the support of his wife and 4 
children during his illness. John is a careful, honest man, 
a good driver, and takes care of his horses. Those whose 
business requires frequent passing between Liverpool and 
Manchester have lost in him for a time a good servant, 
but they may accelerate his cure and make his misfortune 
easier by their donations at the Bull and Punch Bowl, Dale 
Street, where the poor man still continues very ill. 

Communication between Liverpool and Man- 
chester, while very important, was only one step 
on the way for bringing Liverpool into touch 
with all the great towns ; and of these, the most 
important was a good service with the Metropolis. 
So, in the spring of the next year, 20 March, 
1761, the following interesting announcement 
appeared in the press : 

The Liverpool, Warrington and Litchfield Flying Machine 
to London in 3 days, and as soon as the weather permits 
in 2 days, sets out from the Golden Lyon in Liverpool 

8 Early Liverpool Coaching 

every Monday and Thursday morning, and from the Bell 
Inn in Wood Street, London, every Monday and Thursday 
morning likewise ; and arrives at the above places 
Wednesday and Saturday. 

Prices from Liverpool, 2 6s. ; Warrington, 2 2s. ; 
Litchfield, 1 7s. Half the money to be paid at taking 
place and other half on taking coach. 14 Ibs. luggage ; 
all above to pay 3d. per Ib. Outside passengers and child 
on lap to pay half-price. And so in proportion for any 
part of the road. 

In June, 1763, the Flying Machine accomplished 
the journey in two days, travelling three days a 
week. But the times were difficult, and coach 
owners soon found that to maintain anything 
like a regularity in arriving at their destinations, 
it was absolutely necessary to have far better 
roads. Winter, with its flooding rain and snow, 
must have caused great inconvenience at the 
least to the travellers of those days, and one is 
inclined to think that a journey to London, 
especially in the winter months, required con- 
siderable fortitude. For instance, on 23 
January, 1767, the proprietors of the local paper 
say : 

Since our last the London mails have come in here very 
irregularly owing to the prodigious fall of snow, which has 
been much greater upwards than here. The mail which, 
had it come as usual, would have been here on Thursday 
15th, did not arrive till late on Sunday following ; that for 
Friday 16th, and Sunday 18th, both on Wednesday. As 
the frost is now broke with rain we are fearful that the 
waters are so much out as to cause a further delay to 
yesterday's and this day's mails, which were not arrived 
this morning at 10 o'clock. Therefore we publish the 
papers without waiting any longer for them. 

Again, in February the following year, 1768 : 

Owing to heavy rains which have fallen this week, the 
River Ribble at Walton Bridge was never known so high 
by 10 inches. The London mail, which should have come 
in here yesterday morning, did not arrive till 5 o'clock in 
the evening ; and as we fear, from the rains which fell 


Mambefter, Worrington, frejfot, and Lrverpod: 

:ETS out on Monday, SpcmbcT i. ijtfor 
and on every Monday and Thurf jay Mors- 
:,g. at fin o'Clock. from Mr. Budworh'j, the 
ibll't Head Inn. in Manchefier ; ill caH at 
che R d L" ]"n. in U'irrjigton ; t Mr. 
fteynoUs'5, ti:c Old Legs of Man, in Pttfcot ; 

add lie; at Mr Banner'*, the Golden Fleece, in Live pool Rttixntlruui 
thercejevetv Tucfday and Friday Mornin..-. Jt fi o'clock, and calls at 
the atx'Te Placet en its Way Kick to Miocheiier. Fach Hafficngcr to pay 
Eight Shillings, and fo In Projomcn Icr any Part ol'lhc Rojd. Tu be 
lllo-ed 14 Ib. Weight of Luggjge, <n3 all above t.i pay i d |*r Pound. 



To LONDON io three Day*, and at foon as tbe Weather per- 
mits in two Oays, 

SETS out from the Golden Uyon, in Liverpool, rver y Monday and 
'Itiurfdiy Mori.ii'g; snjftfim the Bill Inn, in WosJ-ftrect, London, 
rtery Mondi) and Thurfiiy Morning likcifc, anJ ariives at the above 

PRICES : From Li 
from Litcl.ficlJ. i I. 
and the other Half on 

Wcdnerday ar.d Satiuday. 

, 1. 6S. from Waninjton, a I. a i. and 
Half the Money to be pjid at taking Place, 
anu me omcr nan un Ldju coach, 

Each Paifcnger to be a!lo 'd 14 Ib. of Luggage ; ail abore to pay three 
Pence a Pound. Out-fid.- i >licngrtt, srd Children CTI Lap, to py HalJ 

. ; ar.d fo in Proportion tor ary Part of ih.- Ro-.d. 

/{_V No Plate, Money, Watches, ot ar> Thii.j ot Valise. 
counted for. unkfs ente'f'd ai fuch and paid for iccaidingt^ 

iU be c 

TAI.BOT ?NN, trrn,7t-frr*^T LIVERPOOL' 

The Ci.D-nd Wn^-AccwiTftMeo | 


to, O hours, with a (JUAKD, which ic ei;<bt hours left 
time than the tifual performsnce 

THW5UCH Wt-rrinjitoii, Nnnnwieli, Mid.Uewicl\, 
Stt'Ot, l.ichJkld, lHl Covetitiy, wtiich i* <tie 
^tlt and iniich ncart (i lo.if!, rvrfy Sno<!ny momiujj, : 
.I !>alf ,p*ft t-t\M n't! ,<; ; Jtl( j ev ciy Monday, Taefday, 
U'ert!trf<|ay.TUiir!:.y, an<i Ktijay, ai 5 in the evcnrnj. t 


u. N 

i:i? T(K th 

chrtlcr, snd lies ac rh Ao ff \. In 

.Nmb... j,t..h. t:.<: lull .\iglw, tc i toiiJ at iLc George Jnn. in Drrby 
r.' at Mitichefter ; tid i rtw ftme II.KS from M:cht.ner 10 

I.or Jon. Raci PalVnvcr 10 pay Tw Pmuij> Five SMIIuigt, a J to bo 
alio*td fowirctn J : onnJs \Veigfit of ui^igc. *l! t>nic c p*y T1>r<- 

: per PounJ. OjlfiJ' 
batf Trice, 

\Veight , . r . 7 

e Piflengw*, jod Children on Lap. t 
r JOHN HAN ro r. - . 

Ptrf#m'f( i/ GOD 


.V. B. Plicn -obc ukcr, mi] PiiceU taken ip, t Mr. IrUX nta< 
he ft^o.'-Ott Inn, in .\1arett-Slrfa-Ltxc. MAX^trrt*, tn ^ gj ^ 
ii L*4-Lt*t> JLaNDOM. le 



On ST^EL SPRINGS, wuh a OU.-VRL>. 
Thro' Prefect, Warringtoe, KnutsforH, liuimtS Chp<-', 
Barflcm, Hanlcy-Crtew, t'ttoicter, Burton upr>i. '1 ;cul, 
Afhhf de la Zonch, Lticefttr, Wclfoid aftH No-tlmrp- 
tnn, which it mucli (be bcB road, and veil k^iuwa by 
palTcngcrt to be (he qitkkcft co.-iveycc. 


Early Liverpool Coaching 9 

yesterday, the mail for to-day will be as late, we hope \ve 
shall be excused for publishing without waiting longer for 
Thursday's papers. 

But difficulties of weather or bad roads would 
not be likely to daunt the enterprising people of 
Lancashire ; and in October, 1767, we find that 
another Liverpool Flying Machine to London in 
three days was advertised to run twice a week. 
Setting out from the Talbot Inn, Water Street, 
on Tuesday 27th, it was to go thence to London 
every Tuesday and Saturday ; arriving in Liver- 
pool Monday and Friday during the winter 

The development of local traffic is shown by 
an announcement that a Prescot stage coach 
would set out from the Angel Inn on Sunday, 
29 November, 1768, about 9 a.m., for the Legs- 
of-Man and Bull Inn, Prescot, and return about 
5 o'clock for the Angel Inn ; and would continue 
the same every day in the week. Fares, Is. Qd. 
inside ; 6d. out. Thomas Adlington, driver. 

It is important to remember that for those 
who did not want Flying Machines there were 
" The Old and Constant Stage Wagons." These 

set out from the Nag's Head, Workhouse Lane, every 
Tuesday and Friday evenings, arriving at the Axe 
Inn, Aldermanbury, London, every Tuesday and Friday , 
leaving to return every Wednesday and Saturday, arriving 
at Liverpool every Tuesday and Friday, in 9 days ; carrying 
passengers and goods to London or any part of the road. 
Performed (if God permit) by 


Thomas Sutton, Bookkeeper ; who may be spoke with 
every day in the week upon Change at Change Hours. 

By April, 1773, the traffic to Manchester 
demanded a coach three times a week ; for John 
Randies, on removing from the George Inn, 

10 Early Liverpool Coaching 

High Street, to the Bull and Unicorn in Dale 
Street, states that the Manchester stage coach 
set out from the latter inn every Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday morning at 7 o'clock. 
This coach dined at Warrington each day at the 
George Inn, carrying passengers, etc., etc. 
Travellers would meet with friendly usage and 
good accommodation at the above inns. 

Something must next be said about another 
route from Liverpool to distant parts : that by 
crossing the Mersey by one of the numerous 
ferries, thence to Chester, there connecting with 
coaches to all parts. The ferries in these early 
days were all sailing boats, the first steamer to 
ply on cross traffic being the Etna, in 1817. 

It has already been shown that coaches were 
running from London to Chester at least as early 
as 1658, and as early as 1707 Blundell's Diary 
records that the writer made use of the " Eastom " 
ferry boat to go to Chester, and in 1709 he made 
use of the Rock House and Woodside Ferry. I 
can find no trace, however, of a coach running 
regularly between Chester and Woodside Ferry 
before 4 June, 1762, when it was announced 
that a new machine with six able horses would 
set out from the Golden Talbot, in Chester, for 
the Woodside Ferry Boathouse every Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday morning at 8 o'clock, 
and take passengers at 4s. each, returning at 
4 o'clock on the same day to Chester. The 
same machine went every Monday, Wednesday 
and Friday to Parkgate, at 2s. 6d. each. Boats 
would attend at the Woodside on the above days 
to carry passengers to Liverpool. 

It is somewhat difficult to determine what 
road the coaches used between Chester and 
Woodside. At first the route appears to have 
been from Chester to Bromborough Pool (the 


SHOW, NO Tne VflRious CO/HI- 


Early Liverpool Coaching 11 

present Chester Road) ; thence by Lower 
Bebington and Dacre Hill to Tranmere, along what 
is now Church Road, and down Whetstone Lane 
to Grange Lane (now Grange Road), and on to 
Woodside. About 1790 the Old Chester Road 
was improved and the coaches, after passing 
Lower Bebington to Dacre Hill, there turned to 
the right along the Old Chester Road, crossing 
the Pool (Tranmere) by the bridge, or rather 
embankment. In the Liverpool and Lancaster 
Herald of 7 August, 1790, we read as follows : 

We hear that the embankment at Birkenhead Pool in 
Cheshire to complete the communication of the turnpike 
road leading from Chester to the Woodside Ferry opposite 
this town was made possible for horses and carriages above 
the highest spring tides in the month of March last, and 
the turnpike road is now in such a state of forwardness 
that it is expected that anotner summer will complete the 
whole length from Chester to the above ferry ; the distance 
16 miles only. 

The New Chester Road, connecting Brom- 
borough Village with Birkenhead and avoiding 
the steep gradients by Lower Bebington, is quite 
a modern road, having been made about 1840 
by Mr. J. Brassey, the famous contractor. 

In 1774 we get the first mention of New Ferry. 
It had considerable advantages at that time. 
From that point to Chester was a much shorter 
road, and the rather difficult and hilly road over 
Tranmere Hill was avoided. At the same time 
the voyage was considerably shorter than that 
by Eastham (or, as it was sometimes called, 
Carlett Ferry), and it escaped the troublesome 
sandbanks of the river at that point, which made 
navigation for sailing boats both difficult and 
dangerous. The tenant at this period was Mr. 
Englefield Lloyd. A coach was fixed to set out 
from the New Ferry House every day at 9-30 in 
the morning for Chester (Pyed Bull Inn, Northgate 

12 Early Liverpool Coaching 

Street, kept by Simon Leet). Each passenger 
paid 4s. in, or 2s. outside. By applying to Richard 
Davenport at the Friendship Coffee House, Strand 
Street, Liverpool, passengers could be accommo- 
dated with boats to the said ferry on the shortest 

There was still another direction in which 
coach traffic was bound to develop the outlet 
from Liverpool at the north end. In October, 
1763, the development began by an advertisement 
that the Liverpool and Kendal stage coach 
machine would run from the White Lyon, Kendal, 
every Friday, arriving at the Black Horse and 
Rainbow, in High Street, Liverpool, next day 
(Saturday) to dinner. The return journey began 
on Monday morning. Passengers dined at the 
George Inn, Preston, and lay at the King's Arms, 
Lancaster, going on to Kendal the next morning. 
The fares to and from Kendal were 22s. ; to 
Lancaster, 16s. ; to Preston, 10s. ; and to Wigan, 
6s. ; children on lap and outside, half-price. 

The turnpike road from Liverpool through 
Ormskirk was not in existence as the Act for it 
was only obtained in 1770. The traffic, therefore, 
no doubt went either through Prescot and Wigan 
or via Warrington. I am indebted to Mr. R. 
Stewart-Brown for a notice that the first coach 
for Preston by the Ormskirk road, passed 
through Aughton on 15 June, 1774. 1 In this 
connection it is worth while quoting the earnings 
of the various gates between Liverpool and 
Preston : 

Walton, Lydiate, Burscough, Tarleton, Penwortham 

1775 174 57 20 96 91 

1779 201 72 105 100 100 

1803 424 194 234 184 330 

1806 530 190 222 198 466 

1811 700 302 260 300 416 
1 Newstead's Annals of Aughton. 

Early Liverpool Coaching 13 

These figures show the enormous development 
on this one main road. 

The extraordinary hours at which people of 
those times had to begin their journeys will not 
have escaped notice. It must have required a 
good deal of moral courage to get up in time for 
a coach starting off, as many did, at any hour 
between 3 and 6 a.m. or say on a winter's 
night at 9 p.m. for a long ride. Only a very 
small proportion of the population ventured to 
travel at all ; but those who did, had to carry out 
their project under trying and inconvenient 

It is important too to remember that while pas- 
senger traffic did not attain large dimensions until 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, the goods 
traffic of the country, stimulated no doubt by 
the competition of the canals, increased to a 
much larger extent. We find, for instance, that 
not only were stage waggons rumbling their way 
leisurely between Liverpool and London and 
other places, but also express waggons, or, as 
they called them, " Flying Waggons," which did 
the journey to London in five days, the pro- 
prietors hoping that such expedition would meet 
with proper reward. 

About 1780 the greatest of all coaching 
developments occurred : the invention of the 
mail coach. How did our forefathers manage 
with their mails ? Down to 1673, Liverpool had 
not even a horse post. About that date, the 
Deputy Postmaster General (Colonel Roger 
Whitley, probably a Cheshire man) admitted that 
something ought to be done to improve postal 
facilities. A letter is quoted in Hyde's book on 
the Early History of the Post, in which Whitley 
says : 'I agree with you that the trade of that 
industrious place (Liverpool) ought to have 

14 Early Liverpool Coaching 

quicker despatch in its correspondence and may 
deserve a horse post ; but if the charge is im- 
posed on the Office the benefit will not balance 
the expense." One can almost imagine that 
His Majesty's Post Office had this last phrase 
framed and placed in some prominent place for 
the benefit of succeeding generations. However, 
it seems that, with the help of Alderman Chandler, 
of Liverpool, this improvement was inaugurated, 
and this system of mail carriage was carried on 
for more than 100 years. Previous to 1673, 
letters (say) from Manchester for Ireland were 
carried up to London, and then by way of Chester 
and Holy head ; but in the year 1673 an improve- 
ment was effected, the letters being taken only 
as far south as Stone, in Staffordshire, there 
picking up the connection with the London 
mails. Brooke tells us that the Post Office for 
Liverpool in 1775, and for some years after, was 
in North John Street, on the east side, between 
Dale Street and the opening leading into Princes 
Street, and was just like what one sees in a small 
country town, with an aperture for receiving 
letters and a moveable square or little door-like 
opening in the window for delivery of letters. In 
that year (1775) Liverpool had only one letter 
carrier ; no town except London was allowed 
more than one. In 1800 the office was established 
at Old Post Office Place ; in 1839 it was transferred 
to Canning Place, part of the Dock Office of that 
period, where the head office remained till the 
large building in Victoria Street was built in 
1899. In 1792 the salary of the Postmaster was 
100 per annum ; Bath, at 150, was the highest 
out of London. In 1801, the charge for a single 
letter from London to Liverpool was 9d. 
However, better times were coming. In 1782, 
John Palmer put forward his plan for reform of 

Early Liverpool Coaching 15 

the postal system. There is a full account of 
him in the Dictionary of National Biography. 
He was born at Bath in 1742. His father (John 
Palmer) was a prosperous brewer and tallow 
chandler ; his mother was one of the Longs of 
Wraxall Manor, Wilts. Young John wished to 
go into the army, but eventually took his place 
in the counting house of the brewery until, owing 
to fear of consumption of the lungs, he had to 
give up the work. His father, in the meantime, 
had become proprietor of a theatre in Bath, and 
in 1768 obtained a practical monopoly of the 
theatrical properties in Bath for 21 years. Young 
Palmer acted for his father in London, and had 
to make many journeys in connection with his 
business. He noticed that the state post was 
the slowest mode of conveyance in the country. 
The mail then took three days between London 
and Bath, and he had frequently accomplished 
the distance in one. His plan for the reform of 
the postal service had for its main idea to send 
the mails by the stage coaches instead of by 
post boys on worn-out horses. The coach was 
to be guarded, to carry no outside passengers, 
and to travel at 8 or 9 miles per hour. After 
some delay and opposition from the postal 
officials, it was decided to try the plan on the 
London and Bristol Road, the first mail coach 
leaving Bristol for London on 2 August, 1784. 
On the 23rd August it was suggested that the 
mail coach service should be extended to Norwich, 
Nottingham, Liverpool and Manchester ; and by 
the autumn of 1785 mail coaches were also 
running to Leeds, Gloucester, Swansea, Hereford, 
Milford Haven, Worcester, Birmingham, Shrews- 
bury, Holyhead, Exeter, and many other places, 
and in 1786 to Edinburgh. On 11 October, 
1786, Palmer was appointed Comptroller General 

16 Early Liverpool Coaching 

of the Post Office. Honours poured in on him 
from many quarters, and amongst others he was 
presented with the freedom of Liverpool and 
Chester. He died at Brighton, 16 August, 1818, 
having done splendid work for the country. 
Before 1784 there had been constant robbery of 
the mails, but from 1784 to 1792 no mail coach 
was stopped or robbed. In 1788, 320 towns 
which formerly had a post three times a week, 
had one every day. The speed had been in- 
creased from 5 or 6 miles an hour to 7, and by 
1792 the old unsatisfactory coaches had all been 
replaced by new and modern types. 

On 14 July, 1785, the following announcement 
appeared in Gore's Advertiser : 

A further extension of Mr. Palmer's plan will take place 
on Sunday evening 24th inst., from which day the office 
will be open for the receipt of letters for London and the 
inter-places every night till 10-0 (except Fridays) and for 
the delivery of letters every morning at 8 o'clock except 

N.B. No business will be done at the office on Sunday 
from 10 in the morning till after evening service. It will 
likewise be shut up at 9 p.m. 

On 21 July in the same year appeared the 
following : 


The original Mail Coach with a guard all the way will 
set off on Monday 25th, at 4 in the morning to go in 30 
hours. 1 

Notice. That all carters, chaise boys, etc., betwixt 
Liverpool and London to observe when they hear the 
horn of the guard to the Mail Coach they are immediately 
to turn out of the road and make way for the same. If 
this caution is not strictly attended to, etc., etc. 

On 29 June, 1786, the mail was transferred 
from the Golden Lion to the hotel at the bottom 
of Lord Street, and the time of departure was 

1 On 1st September reduced to 27 hours. 


LION, D A L K - S T IlIiL T, 
I V E R P O O 1,. 



A l L ?B &\f COACH ' 

v^i ,'. V) 

fr v Tit*** N-I 

\Vith a GUARD JU^^^T . i, A!I thc VVa y> 

SETS out from the above INN every Morning at 
4 o'CI<M.k; and goes in 27 Helm, to >>e S 

Fare 3!. T ;s. 6.J. 

.Alio, The Ot and WELL-ACCUSTOMED 


i rhc AftOVEINN^ 

Goes iu 43 hf.uif, which i* lef" "' m c f1'" * u y ^' 
'nucltinc from jlii* place, fhro* Wiirrinpron, MttWIcwif h, 
^loiic. Li'ctifit' vrntry, every Sunday, m.-trin^ 

.it l.:-lf paft eith't o'clock? and every Monday. Tucj.'.ay. 
\v*f!ncfday, /I hurfday, an^l riMay, at 5 in the*vcnm ; . 
TiiQdc J<. IOF. vHnTidc ll 5" 

-The o,u!f COACH to BlKMUfOI***, f'> m the above 
Inn. ;',. . r.:. days aud hours lufi^e ll. 5*. 6d Out- 61 

Places in all the ab^ve ccucUt^ n be uken at the 
GOLDEN UON, Dale-arcrt. ONLY-' 

Full 'fare to he pait) al ukiug icat: ; and if fail <nog 
one bait \ill be returned. 

r H. FOK-SH AW, Liverpool, } 
frfowrtoi by < C CkOS^.KY, Waiiingion, S & Co. 

(.T. WILSON, 1-f'H.lon - ) 

The p>-oitaor* wit4 hoi be accountable f&r any thing 

above 5!. vJwc. wnlef* entered as fuch, an. -I pi'l for ac- 

cortKuglyj neither t*))l they he aecountHhlc for g"od* 

t!<*Brtape(l, anlcffc v/cli *md rufficitntly packed : An.) they 

m(V refpe,3 fully re<(Ueft their f.-icwl* will be attentive' 

in fiiJag parcels to Mr. frtfUSILUA \. Hie 

'N, .a 6rir.ral rniftake* liavc I^ppc':c.l 

>t 'og t> the i'lii Offi e in Waier-Uiei-t, which 

pay Jw* lift itov 'uctJT With. 


Early Liverpool Coaching 17 

altered to 11 o'clock in the evening. On 1 June, 
1789, this hotel was sold up and the royal mail 
transferred to the London Tavern and Talbot 
Inn. The old Talbot Inn had been pulled down 
in 1787, but rebuilt and opened by Messrs. 
Harris and Bates, vintners, from London, on 17 
April, 1788. The royal mail for the north 
started, in October, 1785, from the old Talbot 
Inn at 3-30 every morning. In February, 1786, 
this coach was transferred to the Cross Keys, in 
Dale Street, and immediately after to the Golden 
Lion. Its route was by Preston, where it joined 
up with the London and Carlisle mail coach. 

As traffic developed all over the country, it 
was natural that there should be a linking up 
of the towns on the various lines of traffic. I 
think it was between 1780 and 1790 that this 
feature began to assume importance. In July, 
1779, occurs perhaps the first example of this 
phase of coaching : 

The Liverpool and Lancaster stage coach sets out from 
Mr. Lewis's, the Horse and Rainbow, High Street, Liverpool, 
every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning at 6 o'clock. 
The return journey from Mr. Capstick's, the New Inn, 
Lancaster, Monday, Wednesday and Friday, at 4 o'clock. 
Going from Liverpool, the coach breakfasts at Mr. Abram's, 
Burscough ; dines at Preston about 1 p.m. By which 
means passengers, parcels, etc., from the London coach 
are regularly conveyed to Lancaster the same evening. 

In 1781 a further example may be cited : 

Mr. Cooper, of Preston, sets out from Preston on Friday, 
25 May, at 6 a.m. ; arrives at Mr. Banner's, the Golden 
Fleece, at noon. Returns at 2 p.m. ; arrives Preston same 
evening ; there meets the Lancaster, Kendal, Penrith and 
Carlisle coach ; which leaves at 6 a.m. next morning, 
arrives Carlisle same evening, at 10 p.m. ; thence by 
diligence at 4 a.m. to Dumfries. 

Another feature in the journeys comes out 
about the same period, i.e., publishing the exact 

18 Early Liverpool Coaching 

route of the journey, and in some cases making 
a regular itinerary of each stage, thus : 

12 July, 1781. From the Cross Keys Inn, the London 
New Post Coach in two days, thro' Warrington, Knutsford, 
Macclesfield, Leek, Ashbourne, Derby, Loughboro', 
Leicester, Welford, Northampton. Breakfast, Derby ; 
dine, Leicester ; lie at Angel Inn, Northampton ; leave 
3 a.m. Arrive Blossoms Inn, Laurence Lane, London, 
early in afternoon. 

There is one more main route which deserves 
notice, the great road through the East Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire industrial area, right 
through to the east coast ports of Hull, Newcastle, 
etc. In January, 1787, W. Henshaw, of the 
Black Bull in Lord Street, J. Hoyle of the Angel 
in Dale Street, and Walkers of the Cross Keys, 
Dale Street, advertised a diligence every morning 
from Liverpool to Manchester, where it met the 
diligence which went to Leeds, York, Hull and 
Scarboro', " the only diligence which travels that 

Hitherto, arrangements for traffic had been in 
the hands of innkeepers, each one usually taking 
a particular route. We now come to the era of 
big firms running a large complement of coaches 
every day to all parts of the country. This idea 
grew rapidly, especially towards the end of the 
18th century, and increased more and more in 
the new century. In 1789, Thomas Simpson, 
proprietor of the London Tavern and Talbot Inn, 
Water Street, advertised the following, viz. : 

London Stage Coach. 

London Post Coach. 

The only Birmingham Coach, via Stafford and 

Wol verhampton . 

The only Bath and Bristol Coaches. 
A Daily Coach to Lancaster. And later, 
A Daily Coach to Manchester and Chester. 

Early Liverpool Coaching 19 

In 1793, Thomas Simpson disappeared, and in 
his place came M. Harris, who shortly before had 
signed the contract with the General Post Office 
for a mail coach to York ; and so he advertised, 
from the London Tavern and Talbot Inn, the 
mail coach, leaving at 3 o'clock every morning, 
through Warrington, Manchester, Rochdale, 
Halifax, Bradford, Leeds, Tadcaster, York, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne and Edinburgh. The fares 
were to Warrington, 6s. ; Manchester, 12s. ; 
Rochdale, 17s. ; Halifax, 23s. ; Bradford, 26s. ; 
Leeds, 30s. ; Tadcaster, 35s. ; York, 38s. ; 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 60s. ; Edinburgh, 101s. After 
a very short career, M. Harris dropped out, and 
in the latter part of 1793, the working of the 
coaches was taken over by Anderson, Evans 
and Co., who for many years worked the royal 
mail to London until, in 1799, Thomas Cooper 
and Co., a Preston firm, appear as the pro- 

In 1794, H. Stantton & Co. were running a 
coach from the Black Horse and Rainbow Inn. 
High Street, Liverpool, to Manchester and back. 
In 1796 they were working from the Crown Inn, 
Red Cross Street, with coaches to Birmingham 
and London, evidently making a bid for the fast 
traffic to the metropolis. In April they announced 
the journey to be done in 38 hours, and by June 
they reduced it to 34 hours. In 1797 they 
started coaches to Carlisle and Scotland. They 
stated that they were determined that their 
coaches should be conducted with the greatest 
regularity and expedition ; that every passenger 
would have a card of the distance of each stage 
and the time of arrival at the same. They seem 
to have introduced the idea of naming the coaches, 
such as Telegraph light coach ; Expedition 
coach ; The Traveller ; Camperdown ; Resolution ; 

20 Early Liverpool Coaching 

and many others. This soon became the general 

In 1800 appears a name destined to become the 
most important in the coaching affairs of Liverpool 
and district : the Bretherton family. On 11 
January, 1800, P. Bretherton purchased Mr. 
Stantton's share in the London Expedition Coach 
from Crown Inn, Red Cross Street. (This coach had 
good horses, it was declared, was well lighted, 
and had a guard all the way the same as the 
mail.) Also the Birmingham Expedition Coach; 
the Bath and Bristol Coach ; and the Carlisle 
Coach. A week or two later it was stated that 
the purchase of Stantton's business was made by 
Bartholomew Bretherton & Co., who seem some- 
times to have advertised themselves as B. & F. 
Bretherton. In May of the same year P. 
Bretherton & Co. advertised a coach for Bolton, 
Bury and Rochdale from Peter Bretherton's, the 
Wheat Sheaf in Dale Street ; so that they are 
a somewhat mixed-up family. There was, at 
the beginning of the Brethertons' career, con- 
siderable trouble with the old firm of Thomas 
Cooper & Co., of Liverpool and Preston. Bitter 
words appeared in the newspapers during the 
year 1800, suggesting that Cooper's friends in 
the various towns had been " got at " by the 
Brethertons, or that some influence had been 
brought to bear by which Cooper's connections 
were seriously handicapped. 

The Brethertons appear at first as if they were 
one large firm. In the beginning of December, 
1801, we find the following : 

The cheapest coaches of all others travelling out of 
Liverpool northwards from the Crown Inn, Red Cross 
Street, every morning at 7 o'clock for Preston, Lancaster, 
Ulvei stone, Whitehaven, Kendal, Penrith, Carlisle, and all 
parts of Scotland. The Public is cautioned that there is 

Early Liverpool Coaching 21 

no other coach by which passengers or parcels can be 
forwarded north of Kendal. 

The London Light Coach through Birmingham and 
Oxford, every evening at 6 o'clock ; also to Bristol, Bath, 
Exeter and Plymouth. 

The Northwich, Middlewich, Sandbach, and Newcastle 
Coach, three times a week, at 8 o clock in the morning. 

Passengers finding themselves tired by the length of the 
journey may rest on the load and proceed without additional 


The year 1801 was remarkable for the severity 
of the winter. On the 7th December we read 
" the fall of snow on Friday extended to every 
quarter whence we have received accounts." 
Near Marlboro' the snow was drifted to the depth 
of several feet, additional horses were procured, 
and the coach was drawn through ; but its way 
was again impeded when one of the passengers 
disengaged himself from the carriage and fell into 
a pit 8 feet deep, and it was with extreme difficulty 
his life was saved. In prosecuting their journey 
they were overturned, the guard being very 
severely hurt. The coaches for Liverpool and 
Leeds were buried in the snow on Chalk Hill, and 
an hour and a half was spent in extricating 
them. Near Dunstable the mail again sank in 
snow above the axle-tree, and it was necessary 
to send back for additional horses. At Stoken- 
church Hill all the coaches which left London on 
Friday morning were stopped. The Manchester 
and Shrewsbury heavy coaches, which left at 
the same time, were unable to get beyond Chalk 
Hill. At Hockliffe the Chester coach stuck. 
Many other accounts from all parts of the country 
show what a terrible time passengers, drivers and 
horses must have experienced. 

The commencement of the nineteenth century 
witnessed a very large increase in the Liverpool 

22 Early Liverpool Coaching 

coaching traffic. In addition to the Brethertons 
may be mentioned Peacock, Yates & Linley, 
with coaches from the Coach and Horses Inn at 
the end of Whitechapel, near the bottom of 
Lord Street ; Anderson, Evans & Co., from the 
Talbot Inn ; and many others. From the Talbot 
alone, in 1805, Anderson, Evans & Co. despatched 
the following mail coaches and other carriages : 

The London Royal Mail every night at 9-15. 

Manchester and Leeds Royal Mail every night at 9-15. 

York, Hull and Edinburgh Royal Mail every morning. 

London Coach (the Lord Nelson) every afternoon pre- 
cisely at 5 o'clock, in 38 hours. 

Bristol, Bath, Exeter and Plymouth Expedition Coach 
every day. 

Birmingham and Oxford Coach every afternoon at 
5 o'clock. 

Preston, Lancaster and Carlisle Coach every day at 

In the winter of 1806 the mail for London left 
at 9-30 p.m., at the reduced fares of 4 4s. inside, 
2 2s. out. In August, 1807, Anderson, Evans 
and Co. started a new Royal Mail to Carlisle, 
Glasgow and Edinburgh to reach Glasgow in 
36 hours ; leaving Liverpool every evening at 
5 o'clock. In connection with this the Post- 
master announced that the office would be closed 
at 5 p.m. for the despatch of letters to Ormskirk, 
Preston, Lancaster, all Westmorland, Cumber- 
land, Isle of Man, Northumberland, Scotland, and 
North of Ireland. 

During 1807 and part of 1808 another firm, 
Newby, Varty & Duckworth, were carrying on 
a large trade. There was a series of angry 
advertisements in the newspapers respecting the 
ownership of a coach called the Royal Sailor, 
with the Brethertons. Each firm contradicted 
the statements of the other, and both of them 
kept on asserting that their coach was not 

Early Liverpool Coaching 23 

discontinued as the other company affirmed, but 
was still running as usual, and each got to its 
destination before the other (on paper, at least). 

In 1808 the Postmaster ordered the establish- 
ment of a mail coach between Shrewsbury ahd 
Holyhead, to commence on 6th September, and 
as the packet was to sail for Dublin immediately 
on the arrival of the coach and so four hours 
before the mail from Chester, for which the packet 
was not to wait a daily communication was 
opened between Chester and Chirk to meet the 
Shrewsbury and Holyhead coach, performed by 
an armed express rider from Chester, and the same 
on return. It was expected that in this way the 
Irish mails would arrive in Liverpool a whole day 
earlier. The authorities were first obliged to 
turn their attention to the condition of the 
Shrewsbury and Holyhead road, and that 
effectively prevented the maintenance of a regular 
service. Telford was asked to report on the 
road, and in 1811 sent in a report; but the 
country was just entering on its last desperate 
struggle with Napoleon, so that it was not until 
1815 that he was authorised to proceed with 
his suggested improvements. Even now, a 
hundred years later, one can admire the genius 
which planned and carried into effect such a 
magnificent specimen of road-making. 

These and similar improvements to other main 
routes in due time caused a lowering of the 
records for the various journeys ; and in the 
course of the next ten years several coaches were 
able to run to Liverpool from London in 26 hours, 
from Birmingham in 12 hours, from Bristol in 
24 hours, and from Glasgow in 30 hours. The 
increase of speed brought its natural consequences 
and the racing of coaches became very prevalent. 
No doubt it was difficult to deal with. The 

24 Early Liverpool Coaching 

following curious instance I copy from a con- 
temporary paper : 

22 May, 1814. On Friday se'nnight in the morning the 
True Britain Coach from Leeds to York, in passing the 
other coaches, while delivering a parcel at Tadcaster (the 
last stage before York) came in contact with splinter bar, 
was overturned and the driver, Matthew Irish, was killed. 
The coroner's inquest gave a verdict, " That the said 
Matthew Irish being carelessly wilfully driving the True 
Britain Coach the same was thrown to the ground and the 
coach falling upon his body he received several mortal 
injuries, of which he died about two hours after." The 
coach, horses and harness were declared " deodand," 1 and 
valued at 100. We hope this will be a caution to 
proprietors and their servants. 

In November, 1819, R. Chambers & Co., 
Liverpool, coach proprietors, with reference to 
their coach to Nottingham, state : 

Notwithstanding artful and unprincipled attempts to 
do away with it by their own late middle partners and the 
opposition company, they still continue to run on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday. 

The public are acquainted that by recent and generally 
approved arrangement they agreed to run on separate 
days to prevent all that danger so incident to passengers 
by contested racing, but since most singular attempts upon 
the destruction of the favourite Britannia, the opposition 
party have again shifted their days, most likely to promote 
that continued warfare formerly so long and so desperately 
kept up. All such practices are discountenanced by the 
said proprietors. 

Down to 1808 the Tranmere ferry W. Roberts, 
Ferry House had been enjoying a large and 
increasing business. For instance, in June of 
that year, we find : 

Royal Mail Coach to Chester and Holyhead, every 

morning at 6 o'clock. 
Commercial Coach to Shrewsbury, through Neston, 

Chester, Whitchurch, and Wem. 

1 The unusual word " Deodand," according to the Oxford English 
Dictionary, signifies a thing forfeited to the Crown to be used in 
alms, etc., as having caused a human death. 

Early Liverpool Coaching 25 

Coach to Wrexham and Oswestry, three times a week, 

at 9 a.m. 
Three times a week to Shrewsbury, via Neston, 

Ellesmere, etc., at 9 a.m. ; and 
A boat every morning from Liverpool at 8 o'clock, to 

carry passengers to above. 

However, on 7 November, 1808, appeared the 
following advertisement : 

The Postmaster has been pleased to order that the mail 
coach between Liverpool and Chester shall proceed by direct 
road by Thornton and Sutton, and that the mails should 
in future cross the Mersey to and from Woodside Ferry 
instead of Tranmere. The public are informed that the 
arrangement started yesterday and that the Post Office 
will be kept open for Ireland, North Wales and Shropshire 
till 3 p.m. The mail boat to carry mail coach passengers 

In all my researches in coaching literature I 
have only once found mention of the modern idea 
of coaching as a form of amusement and pleasure, 
and I think it is worth noting. It was in 1805, 
October 9 (a bit late in the year, perhaps) : 

The Commercial Coach leaves Poole (probably Tranmere 
Ferry) every evening at 5 o'clock, through Chester and 
Wrexham, passing near the grand aqueduct across the 
Dee at Pont Cysyllte, to Chirk, where it meets the coaches 
from Shrewsbury to Holyhead by way of Lord Penrhyn 
New Inn at Capel Curig. The peculiar advantage of travel- 
ling this way must be apparent when it is considered that 
besides obviating the inconvenience of several steep and 
almost inaccessible hills, passengers avoid by this convey- 
ance the ferry at Conway and have the advantage of sleeping 
one night on the road at Capel Curig, which for extensive 
and convenient accommodation as an inn and romantic 
and beautiful scenery in the neighbourhood is not to be 
excelled in the Principality. 

In 1805 we see the beginning of the modern 
omnibus or tram traffic. Higginson & Co. adver- 
tised : 

The Cornwallis from the Grapes Inn, Williamson Street, 
through Wavertree, Childwall, Woolton and Hale, to 

26 Early Liverpool Coaching 

Runcorn. Fares : Wavertree, 1/6 in, I/- out ; Childwall, 
2/- in, 1/6 out ; Woolton, 2/- in, 1/6 out ; Hale and Speak, 
3/- in, 2/- out. 

In April, 1817, a strange new portent comes 
across my story, the power behind which was 
eventually to sweep away coaches and all their 
ways. In the local papers appeared the adver- 
tisement, accompanied by an extraordinary illus- 
tration, of the Etna, sailing or "steaming" from 
Tranmere Ferry. There is little more to say, for 
soon after steamers came the locomotive. Though 
at first the coach made a brave fight, it was very 
soon evident that horses had no chance against 
steam. However, to show the enormous develop- 
ment of coaching immediately prior to the 
locomotive, I have written out a list of the coaches 
despatched by the three firms of Bretherton in 
the year 1822. 

Regarding the firms, it is very difficult to under- 
stand the relations between these three brothers 
(if they were brothers), Peter, Bartholomew and 
Francis. The first to appear was Peter, who 
bought the shares of H. Stantton & Co. in 1800. 
At that time he had no address in Liverpool and 
he is not mentioned in the Directory until 1807, 
when he was located at Parr, near St. Helens. It 
is only in 1813 that his coach office is mentioned 
as 180, Dale Street. In 1816 it is 161, Dale 
Street ; in 1818, 176, Dale Street ; in 1823, 184, 
Dale Street. In all these cases his coaches are 
described as from the Golden Lion ; and in 1823 
it is distinctly stated, Golden Lion, 184, Dale 
Street. The other two, Bartholomew and 
Francis, started together in Red Cross Street no 
doubt the Crown Inn. In 1813 they appear to 
have separated, for in that year's Directory 
Bartholomew is described as at 177, Dale Street, 
Francis remaining at the Crown. In 1816 

Jiead and lie A c"mnwdated. 


HI.S Fn.-ktt has romim-nced running t'rntn thr 
New Slip at (lie Wft Side of the Queen's Dork 
.(itamtf Docks, where every coii'Trivrnre will h 
fouufl fur taking nn board and dietMrgt<>g C^in iiK**. 
Cari, H -rses, ami Cattle ofeerv df-htri|.|i'n, U'-iiip 
(i and from C!i?hire, without tlie Iroulilf thru ln- 
! ii unto teen eprrii noni in the C'mnmon Sail lloals, 
:nd which ir i$ the intt-nuon of Ihe Proprietors u> 
much a po'^ihl* toobiiate. Thi \>iH is |cru'iml. 
I'lapted for CnrrifMtet , &c tud<i>f> on hnard, with- 
ml tl'.e trouble of L-NHAUM-SSINC, and wiilhr trtuuil a 
<iio.'t elivihlr mid safe Conveyance for Gentlemen 
jrniug l CHKSI'KR RACKS, a< she rrossf* iVoin Li- 
verpool to TianiiH.-re every half hour, reitiaiuing only 
Cen minute^ on each mrlr. 


A Four-wheelrd Carriii^e, witU t Horfes ? s. <f. 
iind Pt^sen C ers \ 10 


Early Liverpool Coaching 27 

Bartholomew's coach house is described as 
Dale Street. In 1818 it is the Saracen's Head, 
130, Dale Street. Francis in the meanwhile adds 
the White Horse, Dale Street to the Crown in 
Red Cross Street. In 1821 the Saracen's Head 
was numbered 135, Dale Street, while the White 
Horse was No. 8. In 1827 there were further 
changes, for Bartholomew had taken over the 
Talbot Inn, Water Street, together with the 
Saracen's Head ; Francis remaining as before. 
In 1832, Francis had retired to Lydiate, while 
Bartholomew had added the Angel Inn, Dale 
Street. It is worth noting that the family were 
wise in their generation, for in 1825 there was a 
Joseph Bretherton, who was a veterinary surgeon, 
while a Daniel and Thomas were coach-builders. 
With the early thirties coaching days were 
numbered, and now with petrol and steam power, 
and probably electricity, we shall never look upon 
their like again. 




Co., 1800. 
p.m. Miles. 

7 Sets out from Crown Inn, 

Redcross Street. 

10 Warrington Mr. Key's 18 Supper, 

a.m. 10-30. 

4 Sandbach or Mr. Gibbin's 32 

Congleton Red Bull 

8 Stone Mr. Gothard's 17 Breakfast. 
10 30 Colwich Mr. Coleman 11 


3 Birmingham Mr. Evett's 26 

stays 3 hours Saracen's Head 

10 Warwick Mr. Plant's 21 Supper, 

3 Banbury Mr. Wyatt's 18 


Early Liverpool Coaching 


6 30 Buckingham 
10 Ailesbury 

3 Snow Hill, 

44 Hours. 

Mr. Orsbourn 
Mr. Walton's 

17| Breakfast. 

Mr. Mountain's 40^ 
Saracen's Head 




Post Coach, The Prince Regent, every morning for 

Time occupied 
From Liverpool at 8 a.m. for each stage. 

to Warrington 

18 miles ... 
12 ... 

. 2 35 
. 1 40 


14 ... 

. 2 


Talk o' th' Hill .... 


. 1 5 



. 2 


22 ... 

. 3 30 


16 ... 

20 m. 
. 2 40 

Office bus. 

Wells Green 


. 1 


12 ... 
11 ... 

. 1 50 
20 to 
. 1 40 


20 m. 



8 ., ... 
12 ... 

. 1 15 
. 2 

Stony Stratford 

8 ... 
27 ... 

. 1 10 

. 4 5 

30 m. 



28 ... 

. 4 5 


34 45 

(C.) ROSE, HEWITT & Co., LIVERPOOL, May, 1816. 
New Coach to York at 5 o'clock every morning. 

Time Time of 
Miles, allowed, arrival. 
From Liverpool 
to Burscough .... 16 2 15 7 17 

Early Liverpool Coaching 


From Burscough 
to Preston .... 

Whalley .... 
Gisburn .... 

Skipton .... 


Time Time of 
Miles, allowed, arrival, 






2 15 





9 30 
11 20 
1 30 
30 m. 
3 20 
5 25 
7 30 
9 25 


111 15 30 


AND Co., 31 July, 1823. 
Leave Liverpool, 1 p.m. Time of 

Miles. Stage. 



Burscough 7 

Hoole 1\ .... 

Preston 1\ .... 

. Office Duty. .... 

Garstang .... .... 11 

Lancaster .... .... 11 

Burton 11 

Kendal 11 

Supper and Office .... 

Hucks 8 

Shap 8 .... 

Penrith 11 

Hesketh 9' .... 

Carlisle 9 

Office Duty .... .... 

Sark Bridge 9 .... 

Annan 9 

Clarence Fields .... 8 

Dumfries .... .... 8 

(Break for Edinburgh). 

Breakfast Change Coach, etc. 


Chester Hall 

















30 Early Liverpool Coaching 

Dinner and Office 



Time of 
1 20 

237 .... 30 38 


to Thornhill .... 14 .... 1 50 

Dalvene 9 .... 1 10 

Crowford 12 .... 1 30 

Biggar 15 .... 2 

Bridge House .... 12 .... 1 30 

Edinburgh .... 16 .... 2 



Leeds, York and Hull : Royal Mail, every evg. 515 
Do. do. Royal Neptune, every 

morning 6 45 

Scarborough : Mail, True Blue, every morning .... 6 30 

Harrogate : Mail, Tally Ho ....every morning .... 6 45 

Do. do. every evening .... 5 

Huddersfield and Wakefield : every morning .... 5 30 

Do. do. every evening .... 4 

Do. do. every evening .... 5 

Halifax and Bradford : every morning .... .... 7 

Skipton and Grazier : Sun., Mon. and Wed. mng. 7 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Edinboro' : Royal Mail, 

every evening .... .... .... .... .... 5 15 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Edinboro' : Royal Tele- 
graph, every morning 6 30 

Carlisle and Glasgow : every morning and evening 

Shields and Sunderland : Highflier, every morning 6 30 

Bridlington : Royal Mail, Sun. and Wed. evening 5 15 

Selby : Royal Sailor, every morning 6 30 

Do. Mail, every evening .... .... .... 5 

Blackburn : Royal Mail, every evening 5 15 

Bolton : Dreadnought, every day, noon .... 12 30 

Bolton and Blackburn : Mon., Wed. and Fri. mng. 6 

Do. do. Duke of Leeds, every aft. 4 30 

Bury and Rochdale : Neptune, every morning.... 7 

Do. do. Mail, every evening .... 5 

Early Liverpool Coaching 31 

Burnley and Colne : every morning (exc. Thursday) 
Preston, Lancaster and Kendal : every morning, 

noon and night 

Chester and Shrewsbury : Royal Liverpool, every 

morning 7 45 

Chester : Bang up, every afternoon 4 

Manchester : Defiance, morning 5 45 

Do. Royal Mail 12 15 

Do. Balloon 9 45 

Do. Volunteer 1 45 

Do. Retaliator 4 

Do. Regulator 4 30 

St. Helens and Wigan : Defiance, every afternoon 4 

Stockport and Sheffield : every morning 5 30 

Hereford, Worcester and Gloucester : every mng. 8 
Bath : every morning. Buxton : every morning.... 9 30 

London : morning, noon and night 

Birmingham, Bristol, Bath and Exeter : mg. and ev. 
Derby and North : Lord Nelson, every afternoon.... 4 30 

Darlington, Durham, etc. : North Hero, morning 6 30 
Do. do. do. evening .... 5 


Carlisle : every evening .... .... .... .... 7 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Lord Exmouth, every aft. 1 
Glasgow and Edinburgh : North Briton, every aft. 4 15 
Port Patrick : Royal Mail, every evening.... .... 7 15 

Carlisle, Kendal, Shap and Penrith : every mng 6 30 

Do. do. do. every evg 7 

London : Champion, every morning .... .... 10 

Do. The Rocket, every afternoon .... .... 2 45 

Birmingham, Oxford, Worcester, Gloucester, Bath, 

Bristol, etc. : every afternoon 
Dumfries, Sanquhar, Kilmarnock : Sunday, 
Tuesday and Thursday.... 

Whitehaven, Keswick, Cockermouth and Mary- 
port : every morning .... .... .... .... 6 30 

Ulverston (by land) : every morning .... .... 6 45 

(This conveyance by the New road removes 
objectionable and dangerous, etc., crossing 

the Sands.) 

Kendal : morning, afternoon and evening 
Lancaster : 4 a day 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne : 4 a day .... 

Blackburn, Chorley, Bury, etc. : every morning .... 1 

32 Early Liverpool Coaching 

Morpeth, Alnwick, Berwick, Dunbar and Hadding- 

ton : every afternoon .... .... .... 1 

Manchester : daily .... 

Halifax : Mon., Wed., Thurs. and Sat. mornings.... 6 45 


Holyhead : Royal Mail, every afternoon 3 

London : Royal Mail, every evening .... .... 7 45 

Do. Alexander, every morning 8 

Do. Umpire p.m. 1 

Do. Defiance, every evening .... .... 7 

Nottingham : Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday mgs. 7 

Birmingham : Bang up, morning .... .... 6 

Do. Regulator, Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 

a.m. 7 

Bath and Cheltenham : every morning and evg. 6 
Bristol and South Wales : morning and evening.... 

Manchester : Royal Mail, every day 12 

Do. Coaches to and from 14 times every 


Chester and Shrewsbury : every morning 8 

Do. do. every evening .... 3 

Carlisle : Telegraph, every morning 6 45 

Edinburgh and Glasgow : North Britain, every aft. 4 30 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Lord Exmouth, every day 1 30 
Preston and Lancaster : 3 times a day 

Leicester and Derby : every morning .... .... 7 

Do. do. every evening 8 


By Charles R. Hand. 

Read 24th November, 1921. 

WINDMILLS are very prominent in the old 
views of Liverpool, and some are of special 
interest. Unfortunately the statements about 
them have not always been accurate, and it is 
desirable to place certain facts on record. The 
occasion has arisen by the discovery of the 
three drawings which accompany this article. 
These drawings, perhaps not of great artistic 
merit, are, I believe, unique, having never been 
seen in public before and having no duplicates, 
so far as is known. They are the property of 
Mr. Fred. Williams, who discovered them, and he 
has assisted in this paper by consulting and copy- 
ing several maps. I am also indebted to the 
authors of the History of Corn Milling, Brooke's 
Liverpool, and Stonehouse's Recollections of a 
Nonagenarian for interesting and valuable par- 
ticulars concerning the mills. 


Some confusion has existed concerning this 

windmill. In Herdman's Pictorial Relics of 

Ancient Liverpool, vol. ii., plate xliv. is inscribed 

' London Road and the Gallows Mills," and in 

his description of the picture, the author remarks : 

" London Road . . . has been a place of considerable 
historical interest, and the plate is of especial value, as it 
contains a portion of the Pool which .... may be con- 
sidered to have been the origin of the name of the town. 

34 Three Local Windmills 

The stream from the Moss lake having passed across 
Pembroke Place, came by Daulby Street to the present wide 
opening before Monument Place, at which spot it is seen 
in the drawing. At the time the drawing was taken (about 
1825), the Pool was a dank, sluggish stream, approaching 
its end ... It commences at the left-hand, a little west 
of Stafford Street, where one of the old coaches is seen 
going out on its five hours' journey to Manchester. Next 
is seen the old Gallows Mill Public-house, which remained 
until a very recent date. The near ridge of land is occupied 
by the two mills which were known as the Gallows Mills, 
from various executions which had taken place there, 
not only of the rebels in 1715, but other criminal executions 
which have been chronicled in former works. . . . The 
author remembers everything in the plate exactly as it is 
there represented." 

Picton states in his Memorials of Liverpool : 1 

" On the north side of London Road, between Stafford 
Street and Gildart Street, there formerly stood two ancient 
windmills and a large mill-dam. These were known for a 
century as the Gallows Mills, from the fact of four of the 
rebels captured at Preston, after the failure of the insurrec- 
tion of 1715, having been executed here. The Gallows 
Mills were removed about 1820, but one of the miller's 
houses, originally thatched, remained for many years 
standing at the corner of Stafford Street, converted into a 

He says further that : 

" In the early years of the present century, from near 
Camden Street eastward, scarcely a house or building 
existed in London Road with the exception of the Gallows 
Mills, a little above the site of Monument Place."* 

It appears necessary that the inaccuracies in 
the foregoing statements should be corrected. 

In the first place it must be noted that neither 
of the two windmills indicated was the Gallows 
Mill ; nor could they be considered " ancient," 
seeing that neither remained standing for more 
than one hundred years. There is no evidence 
whatever that " one of the miller's houses " was 

Mi., 36, 362. 
ii., 505. 

Three Local Windmills 35 

" originally thatched." The stream which flowed 
past the front of these two mills had its origin at 
Gregson's Well, though it was augmented at this 
point by the flow from the Moss lake. 

What really did take place in this locality ? 

Early in the eighteenth century four gentlemen 
who had been implicated in the Jacobite rebellion 
were publicly hanged close to Norris's mill, by the 
lane leading to Prescot. The Rev. Robert Patten, 
" who was an eye-witness " of the Battle of 
Preston, tells us 1 that these gentlemen were : 

Archibald Burnett, of Carlips, who carried the Pretender's 
standard at Preston. He was " a Gentleman of comely 
Appearance : was afterwards Try'd, found Guilty, and 
Executed in Lancashire, at Liverpool." 

" George Collingwood, of Northumberland, a Papist, of 
a valuable Estate : He was ordered for London, but was 
seiz'd with the Gout at Wigan, and from thence was carried 
to Liverpool, and there found Guilty, and afterwards 
Executed there the 25th of February. He was a very 
pious Gentleman, and well beloved in his Country." 

Alexander Drummond, gentleman, " of Logie Drummond's 
3rd Regiment of Foot." 

" John Hunter, of Northumberland, executed at Liver- 
pool, a Protestant ; he was shot thro' the Leg at Preston." 

Norris's was a water-mill which had been 
erected in this neighbourhood about 1587, or a 
little earlier, and which was still driven by the 
ancient stream. On the 2nd of July, 1715, the 
Corporation of Liverpool conceded to Mr. Gray the 
lease of a plot of land " in the lane leading by 
Mr. Norris's mill, towards the gibbet, to build a 
windmill." This new mill became noted through- 
out the district as the Gallows Mill ; and it was 
here that, shortly before its construction, the 
Jacobites were executed. 

In close proximity to the Gallows Mill, in a 
north-easterly direction, the Corporation ordered, 
on the 8th September, 1719 : 

1 History of the Rebellion in the Year 1715. 

36 Three Local Windmills 

" that Mr. Thos. Tyrer, who proposes to erect a windmill, 
have the lease of a small piece of ground att the south 
corner of Mr. Houston's field on the north side of the high- 
way leading to Prescott, for three lives and twenty-one 
yeares, he building a mill thereon and paying two shillings 
and sixpence per ann. rent from Mich'as. next ; to be sett 
out so as not to prejudice the highway." 1 

In the following year (1720) a scheme of great 
importance to the town had been decided upon. 
As early as 1709 the question of the water supply 
had caused some considerable apprehension to 
the Corporation, for in that year Sir Cleave Moore 
obtained an Act of Parliament empowering the 
Liverpool authorities to make him a grant for 
bringing water to Liverpool from the springs at 
Bootle. But before advantage could be taken of 
this Act, the Moore estates were sold to the Earl 
of Derby ; and as a consequence the Act re- 
mained in abeyance for ninety years. 

In 1720, however, a private company was 
formed, the shares being ten pounds each, and a 
reservoir was constructed on the stream flowing 
between the two windmills then standing. 
Everything went well until, in 1742, after a pro- 
longed period of continuously heavy rains, the 
reservoir burst its banks, and the great rush of 
water did considerable damage, rising to the 
second floor of the dwellings in the low-lying 
parts of the town. The scheme was then 
abandoned and never revived. 2 

The third windmill, a short distance directly 
east of Tyrer's first mill, was built in 1749, and 
was the second mill erected by Alderman Tyrer 
upon these fields. It was purchased by John 
Dobson, a well-known miller and corn merchant, 

1 Picton, Municipal Archives and Records, ii., 62. In 1757 this mill 
had passed to Samuel Jones ; and in 1774 William Farrington was 
the occupier. 

'Municipal Archives and Records, ii., 28. 

Three Local Windmills 37 

in 1755. A little more than twenty years after- 
wards, it was offered for sale by public auction, by 
order of Dobson's assignees, as the following 
advertisement testifies : 

" 1778. May 8. To be sold by auction ... at the 
Golden Lyon, Dale Street, all that parcel of ground and 
the windmill, two houses and other buildings thereon 
erected, and the small garden, situate on the north side 
of the highway or road leading from Liverpool to Low 
Hill : bounded on the south side by a stone delph and the 
said highway, road, or lane ; containing by estimation 
2 roods 12 perches. All the above premises are held by 
lease under the Corporation of Liverpool for three lives and 
twenty-one years, under a yearly ground rent of 10s., and 
were lately let to Mr. Isaac Smith at the yearly rent of 
80. They are now in good repair, and very well adapted 
for a miller on account of their contiguity to the turnpike 
road." 1 

In the year 1800, William Rose, then lessee 
of the once-named Farrington mill, petitioned the 
Corporation to alter the clause contained in his 
lease concerning the lives, but was notified that 
his petition " cannot be granted until the mill 
be taken down to widen the road." Twelve years 
later, Edward Blackstock, gentleman, was, how- 
ever, granted a similar request, on his own behalf, 
and also as executor for Edward Newsham, 
" subject to taking down in a limited time the 
said mill, as well as the public-house called ' the 
Barleymow/ for the widening of the said road." 1 

By the year 1788, the Gallows Mill had passed 
into the tenancy of Joseph Gerard, but the site 
being required by the Corporation for public 
improvements, on the 1st of October, 1788, 
during the mayoralty of Mr. Thomas Earle, it 
was : 

" Ordered . . . that the mill called Gallows Mill be taken 
down, and that the Trustees of the Prescot Turnpike Road 

1 Bennett and Elton, Hist, of Corn Milling, iv., 203. 
1 Ibid. 

38 Three Local Windmills 

be applied to for allowing a proportionable part of the 
expence, as it will be of great benefit to that part of such 

The property was purchased by the Corporation 
for the sum of 700, as appears by the following 
entry in the official Ledger of that year : 

" 1788. September 10. Gallows Mill, N. side Prescot 
Lane. To cash paid purchase thereof, 700." 

' The materials of the mill, known by the 
name of the Gallows Mill, situate on the Prescot 
Road, near Liverpool," were sold by auction at 
the house of Mrs. Murphy, in Whitechapel, on 
Monday, the 23rd of February, 1789 ; everything 
was '" to be taken down and removed at the 
expense of the purchaser." The advertisement 
referred enquirers for further particulars to " the 
Treasurer's office in the Exchange " ; and the 
sale realised seventy-one pounds, as testified on the 
credit side of the ledger : 

1789. February 24. By Cash received on 

account of old materials 20 

July 9. By do. do. do 51 

The origin of W. G. Herdman's picture is stated 
to be "a pencil drawing by Charles Barber in 
1825." This pencil drawing was first copied by 
J. Innes Herdman, and subsequently re-drawn in 
a much improved manner by W. G. Herdman ; 
and included, as before mentioned, in his 
Pictorial Relics. 

It is not out of place to point out that the 

drawing is dated " about 1825 " by Herdman ; 

' 1803 " by Brown, Barnes and Bell ; and 

' 1796 " by Mr. James Touzeau, in his Rise and 

Progress of Liverpool. 

It appears singular that any misconception as to 
the positions and names of these windmills should 
have arisen. Mr. James Stonehouse, a valued 

1 Municipal Archives and Records, ii., 262. 

Three Local Windmills 39 

member of our Society and a careful local 
antiquary, described the mills and their position 
in such detail that it seems strange that Herdman 
and Picton could go astray on the subject. 
Stonehouse stated in his Streets of Liverpool : l 

" There were three mills hereabouts at one period. One 
stood in a field near Audley Street [this was Dobson's], 
with a wheel outside to turn the sails to windward, another 
adjacent to it [Farrington's], and a third on the opening to 
Stafford Street. This latter was called the Gallows Mill. 
This [name] arose from the circumstance that four Jacobites 
were hung in front of it [really, however, on the site occupied 
by it] in 1716, after the defeat at Preston. At the back of 
the Gallows Mill was at one time a large quarry, afterwards 
converted into a mill-dam. It was in shape like a ' Rupert's 
drop/ the thin end extending up London Road." 

The picture reproduced, hitherto unrecorded, 
is an original water-colour drawing, measuring 
21 by 12J inches, and signed " S. Herdman." 
An inscription on the back reads : ' View of 
Gallows Mill and Inn adjoining, at the corner of 
Stafford Street and London Road, 1733." Its 
origin is unknown. On the extreme left is a 
small portion of the stream flowing behind the 
mill, next is the yard or garden with pigeon-cote, 
attached to the miller's house. This building, 
which appears at the time the sketch was made 
to have been converted into an inn or general 
store, has a flagged roof. Then comes the mill, 
on the left of which is a path across the fields 
coming out on to the Prescot Lane. Towards 
the right are the arches of the Fall Well, for a 
great number of years the only water supply to the 
town, and, just showing among the trees above, 
the cupola of the Blue-coat Hospital and the 
tower of St. Peter's. On the high ground is seen 
the spire of St. George's Church, and below it, 
to the right, the dome of the Exchange. In the 

1 3rd Ed., 97 

40 Three Local Windmills 

immediate foreground is the lane leading to the 
mill (later Stafford Street) , which, winding towards 
the right, lower down joins the road to Prescot. 

The maps confirm this picture. Yates and 
Perry's, of 1768, shows the three mills in their 
respective positions, with the miller's house 
belonging to the Gallows Mill. By 1785, a house 
had been built in close proximity to Farrington's 
mill, as shown on the plan by Charles Eyes, 
published this year. On the map issued by John 
Gore in 1817, we still see Farrington's mill, but 
it is now situated in the middle of Finch Street 
(afterwards Blandford Street, now Kempston 
Street), with the house adjoining. Evidently the 
Corporation had cut the street through the 
fields before this mill was demolished. Both 
Dobson's and Farrington's mills stand back a 
good distance from the main road. Stafford 
Street has been laid out, but no building stands 
on the eastern corner. Of the Gallows Mill and 
Inn there is, of course, no trace. On " The Plan 
of Liverpool and the Environs, containing the 
latest improvements, by J. and A. Walker, 33, 
Pool Lane," dated 1823, none of the mills are 
shown, although quite a number of then existing 
windmills are depicted. The London Road had 
been made straight from where the mile or 
boundary stone stood, cutting off the Gallows 
Mill, but leaving the mill-house a little distance 
from the corner of Stafford Street. It is, there- 
fore, a logical deduction that this house, at the 
time of the making of Gore's map, had been taken 
down, and that the public-house incorrectly 
named the Gallows Mill Inn was erected at a 
later date. 

The fact, however, must not be overlooked that 
plans of this description absorbed quite a number 
of years in the making. It is stated, for instance, 

Three Local Windmills 41 

that Yates and Perry's map of 1768 was the work 
of ten years ; so that every map here referred to 
must be ante-dated by a period extending from 
two to ten years. 


The next picture is a small crayon drawing, 
measuring 6| by 4| inches, and signed " L. 
Hay ward." It is one of a collection of about 
fifty similar drawings by the same artist, of views 
of Liverpool and vicinity, bought at a sale by 
auction of the effects of an elderly Liverpool 
lady, residing in Falkner Street, a few months 
ago. It bears the inscription on the back 
' Toxteth Windmill, Warwick Street, Harring- 
ton." The mill is clearly shown on Yates and 
Perry's map of 1768, a short distance south 
from the windmill which stood, when the roads 
were laid out, at the junction of Mill Street and 
Hill Street. The stream from the small pool or 
lake, where the embankment was afterwards 
made, and known as Mather's Dam, flows between 
the two structures, here forming another pool 
and falling eventually into the river. 

This mill is casually referred to by W. G. 
Herdman in his Ancient Liverpool, in the following 
terms : 

" Further up, on the same side, was another mill, with a 
row of cottages, built about 1760, which stood high up 
from the road." 

and is almost beyond a doubt the edifice we are 
now considering. 

A further glimpse of it is obtained in Grifnths's 
History of the Royal and Ancient Park of Toxteth, 
where (after a reference to the Mill Street mill) 
he tells us : 

" the first object then met with was another mill and a 
few cottages standing in a field a few yards back from the 

42 Three Local Windmills 

road at a point just beside where Warwick Street was 
afterwards cut through." 

On Horwood's original large coloured map of 
1803, mill sites are indicated in various ways, and 
at times the draughtsman's inconsistencies are 
confusing. The Mill Street mill is shown by a 
circle and named " Windmill," while the mill by 
Mather's Dam is marked as a large oblong, but 
is also designated " Windmill." In the present 
case, this windmill is denoted by a small square. 
Thus there does not appear to have been in the 
mind of the designer any idea of uniformity. 

Unfortunately the artist has not given us the 
least evidence of surroundings, and we have no 
testimony beyond that of the inscription on the 
back of the drawing itself. But, accompanying, 
and mounted and framed along with this picture, 
is another drawing of similar style and dimensions. 
This is inscribed " Waterfall on the Otterspool 
Stream." This view, which was afterwards re- 
produced by the Nicholsons in their Views of 
Liverpool and Vicinity, in 1821, is known to be 
correct in all its details ; and, judging by this 
fact, we seem justified in assuming that the 
drawing of the mill is as authentic and reliable. 

Of its history I am ignorant, having failed to 
trace anything whatever as to its builder or 
occupiers ; and I would be grateful for any 
particulars regarding it. 


A comprehensive history of this mill, from the 
year 1297 onwards, appears in The King's Mills 
of Ancient Liverpool (Richard Bennett) and The 
History of Corn Milling (Richard Bennett and 
John Elton). 

The view of it which is here given is an 
unsigned water-colour drawing measuring 9J by 
6J inches, and named on the back " Old Mill at 

Three Local Windmills 43 

West Derby." It shows the mill standing by the 
right-hand side of the main thoroughfare from 
Liverpool to West Derby, overlooking the road 
sloping down to the village, the " certain way 
called Milne Gate, juxta the chapel of West 
Derby " (now Mill Lane) ; and, to the left, 
Larkhill Lane. It is depicted on Yates and 
Perry's map of 1768, the miller's dwelling being 
named " Mill-house," and on the accompanying 
" Series of Great Triangles," published in Enfield's, 
the mill is marked " Derby Wd. Mill." 

I have not been able to discover any record 
of its destruction. In the Liverpool Directory 
for 1796 appears a list of charges to be paid by 
persons hiring a hackney coach, " as ordered and 
directed by the magistrates," on 15th December, 
1789. The fare is there set down, from the 
Exchange to " Larkhill and Derby Mill, each 

One writer says, " The date of its disappearance 
does not appear ; from the above it seems to 
have been remaining in 1796 ; but in the next 
directory in which the hackney fares are given, 
that of 1803, ' Larkhill, 5/- ' occurs, without 
mention of the mill, which, presumably, had been 
by then pulled down." Another states that it 
was " taken down about 1805." 

As a matter of fact, the mill appears among the 
list of fares in much later directories, thus : 
1810 and 1811, " Derby Mill, 4/-." 
1813 to 1821, " Lark Hill or Derby Mill, 4/6." 
1823, " Lark Hill or Derby Mill, 3 miles, 3/6." 
1825 and 1827, " Lark Hill or Derby Mill, 3 miles, 4/6." 

In the Directory for 1829, however, the entry 
reads : 

" Lark Hill or Mill Hill, 3J miles, 4/6 " 
so that, accepting the directories as evidence, the 
mill ceased to exist between the years 1827 and 

By F. Charles Larkin, F.R.C.S. 

Read 27 November. 1919 

"""THE ancient fonts at Walton and its chapel 
* of Kirkby are happily still preserved to us, 
though the font at the former place was cast out 
in 1754 and adopted as a mounting-block by a 
neighbouring innkeeper, and at Kirkby the font 
was degraded into a water butt under the school- 
house spouting, the base serving as a plinth for a 
sun-dial in the incumbent's garden. 

I have spent much time in investigating the 
history of this latter font, and in following up many 
collateral lines that might throw light on it and 
help to fix its date. There is a very good paper 
on Kirkby in our Transactions for 1853-4. It is 
by the Rev. Thomas Moore, and much of what 
he says is repeated in the 3rd volume of the 
Victoria County History. 

The name Kirkby 1 appears in Domesday Book, 
suggesting that there was there a church of some 
sort in pre-Norman times, and on the modern 
cross, whose base is in the form of a recumbent 
St. Chad's cross, erected on the site of the ancient 
chapel altar, there is an inscription asserting that 
' the Danes found or built a chapel on this spot 
about A.D. 870." The favourite local tradition 
is that Chad himself founded a chapel here during 
one of his missions. If so, it would be 200 years 
earlier. There is no evidence beyond the name 
of the place, but the dedication is certainly 

1 Pronounced " Kirby." 


The Kirkby Font 45 

ancient and the name of Chad is otherwise con- 
nected with the spot, as the chapel records con- 
tain a terrier of about 1733 which mentions 
" one piece of land called Chad croft on the 
north side of the church yard." The present 
church was built in 1869-71, north of the chapel. 
The latter, of which a picture is given in the 
above-mentioned volume of our Transactions, was 
pulled down in 1872. It was a poor thing, built 
in 1766 to replace the ancient chapel, all we know 
of which is that it had a rood-loft. Some 
slight details of its plate and ornaments in 1552 
are given in Raines' Chantries and in Church 
Goods (both Chetham Society). The Victoria 
County History conjectures that in early times 
Kirkby was a parish and became reduced to a 
chapelry at some unknown but early date. The 
font shows it has been a " baptismal church," at 
any rate, since the 12th century. It is often stated 
that at chapels-of-ease the priests were not 
allowed to baptise and that all children had to 
be taken to the parish church for baptism. No 
such rule can properly be laid down. Chapels-of- 
ease do not seem to have had any definite or 
inherent status. They were merely allowed for 
local convenience at local expense, without in any 
way lessening the obligations, financial or other, 
to the parent church. But they might have 
almost any powers and privileges they were 
strong enough to obtain and keep ; if they had 
power enough behind them they might shake 
off obligations. Mr. Peet tells me that Liverpool 
Chapel had baptismal rights from quite early 

When the Kirkby font was turned out of the 
chapel is not known and there seems to be no 
record of what took its place to help us. Probably 
it was at the time of the rebuilding in 1766. The 

46 The Kirkby Font 

very great thickness of lime-wash that covered it 
certainly suggests a long sojourn under Puritan 
churchwarden guardianship. To this whitewash, 
however, we largely owe its preservation, such as 
it is, for the soft local sandstone of which it is 
made is easily weathered and worn away, and has 
gone wherever it was exposed. But the caked 
lime-wash stood, not only the weather, during all 
the time it acted as a cistern and was consequently 
saturated with water, but also resisted the in- 
dustrious attention of the scholars with slate 
pencils and pocket-knives. For when Mr. Cort, 
the vicar, partially recognised its worth and pro- 
moted it from the office of school-house butt and 
hone to be the receptacle for the ropes and hooks 
in the bier-house, it still had a thick covering 
over all but the most prominent parts. Mr. 
Cort would not re-admit it to the church. This 
was done by his successor, Mr. Gray, in 1850, and 
the base was also returned from the vicarage 
garden to its proper place. The base and bowl 
are therefore old ; the shaft is modern. 

The font has been mentioned by quite a number 
of writers, but their statements are almost with- 
out exception inaccurate and misleading and 
show no real acquaintance with the font. The 
only notice of any real value is Mr. Roberts' 
paper in our Transactions for 1853-4. 

In order to know anything of works of this 
sort, especially if, like this, they are a good deal 
defaced, one must spend abundance of time so 
as to become thoroughly familiar with them. 
One must learn to know all the figures so as to 
recognise each individually as an old friend. 
The subject must be visited again and again, seen 
under all conditions of lighting, illuminated arti- 
ficially from all points and photographed in all 
ways so as to get out all remaining detail. 

The Kirkby Font 47 

Careful study must be made of how to bring out 
by very oblique illumination small shadows that 
reveal almost obliterated markings quite in- 
visible, at any rate at first, under direct illumina- 
tion. It is often astonishing how distinct these 
become when once one has learnt to see them. 
Attempts should be made to photograph all such 
markings. One must not be sparing of plates, 
time, or magnesium ribbon. Small stops are 
essential. The photographs must be carefully 
studied with a lens repeatedly. It is of much 
advantage to make tracings of the negatives, 
showing the markings, and to compare them with 
one another and with the original at the next visit. 
One ought also to try to sketch all the detail. 
This can be done while exposures are being 

The font has now been cleaned of its whitewash 
and stands on a new circular plinth in the western 
bay of the nave of the church. The ancient base 
is a great torse or coil sinistrorsal helix of two 
strands. Save in one spot, on the south side, 
the coil is quite uniform. Here, probably from 
a fault in the stone, one of the strands is split. 
I think the coil is very finely executed. Above 
the coil, worked in the same piece of stone, is a 
simple round. It forms a circle of about the same 
diameter as the font bowl, much smaller than the 
basal coil. The bowl is a cylindrical drum, lead- 
lined and drained. Between the bowl and 
the base is a modern shaft, shaped as a vertical 
spiral of many pieces. The bowl is 25J ins. 
vertical; 26 ins. in external and 19 ins. internal 
diameter ; and 3J ins. thick. The depth of the 
lead lining is now 10 ins., but the vicar Mr. 
Fenn, to whom I am indebted for much 
encouragement and hospitality while making 
this study tells me the bowl is excavated to 

48 The Kirkby Font 

twice that depth. The base is 9 ins. high and 
the shaft 10 J ins. Total height 45 ins. ; without 
the modern shaft, 34J ins. 

Round the lower part of the outer surface 
of the bowl is a coil or moulding of what 
appears to be two, or perhaps in some parts 
three, strands disposed, like the much larger coil 
below, in a left-handed twist. On it there are 
three heads. They have no ears, but are other- 
wise of the wolfish type often seen on snakes and 
dragons in early monuments. The Norse artists 
delighted in representing twisted and coiled 
serpents. They loved the maze of interlacing 
convolutions, in which we either get lost, or 
coming back to the starting-point without 
knowing it, go on and on again. These symbolised 
for them the infinite, eternity, as also did the 
old serpent, the Jormungand or midgarthworm ; 
the dangerous monster that Odin attempted to 
destroy by throwing it into the sea, but which 
instead grew there so fast that it encircled the 
earth and being on the very edge of the world 
could only continue to grow by swallowing its 
own tail, and so had no beginning and no end. 
This monster the Norse sailormen saw on every 
horizon. To them every distant coastline might 
be the orm, and every headland the orm's or 
worm's head. The worm was also the Spirit of 
Evil the enemy of the gods, whom, with the 
other powers of darkness, the gods will have to 
fight in the end " when Ragnarok shall come." 
Though his coils were not so frequently repre- 
sented, yet he still lived on through the middle 
ages as " the old serpent " of the Revelations, and 
his head, with wide-open mouth, was the symbolical 
representation of the entrance to the bottomless 
pit- ' the Hell-mouth " or " Jaws of Hell " we 
see on the Doom pictures that were painted above 

The Kirkby Font 49 

the rood screens a few of which have come down 
to us ; we also meet with it in carving, painted 
glass and MSS. 1 The worm is not quite dead 
even now, for he lingers yet in the sailor's mind 
as the sea serpent. 

Though, as I shall say later, the evidence 
compels me to consider it 12th century Norman, 
I cannot but look on the abundance of snake 
coils on the Kirkby font as evidence of strong 
Norse influence. The sculptor seems to have had 
at the back of his mind and not very far back 
the old Norse mythology, believed in by his 
ancestors till a few generations ago, and likely 
believed in by his own generation, though as 
professing Christians they, no doubt, did not 
think they did. Old ideas and beliefs, like 
dialect, die hard. 

The use of interlacements and zoomorphic forms 
of ornament was, of course, very widely spread 
and not confined to any one stock. They are 
found from Ireland to the Levant and from 
Norway to Afr ca. What their source was, who 
were the originators and who the copyists is a 
subject of investigation and controversy, and in 
this connection it should not be forgotten that 
Lancashire was until 607 part of the Celtic king- 
dom of Strathclyde. In that year yEthelfrith of 
Northumbria by winning the battle near Chester, 
at which the monks of Bangor-is-y-Coed were 
slaughtered, separated it from the rest of 
Wales and initiated its conquest. Here as 
in so much of the rest of the country we do 
not know how many of the inhabitants or how 
much of their culture remained to influence the 
conquerors, nor to what extent the later Danish 

1 That the Hell mouth has Norse associations is supported by its 
frequent association with the Hell cauldron the Norse sacrificial 

50 The Kirkby Font 

and Norman conquests affected it. Nor must we 
forget the possibility of other influences, for many 
of these ideas were almost universal. The 
symbolising of eternity by a circle, or a circular 
coil or torse, or by a serpent swallowing his own 
tail, is very ancient and wide-spread. The latter 
was a favourite symbol with the early Christians 
and is often found on Gnostic gems. 1 But be the 
origin what it may, the idea the Kirkby sculptor 
wished to convey to the mind of the onlooker is 
quite clear. He wished by the great basal coil to 
express symbolically the belief that the principles 
for which the font stood rested on the eternal 
verities, or as more modern people would say, on 
the " Rock of Ages." Next, by the coil above, 
he wished to remind us of the also everlasting 
powers of evil for ever attacking mankind, the 
latter being represented by the human figures 
around the bowl. 

A mere rope moulding is common enough in 
Norman, as well as in Saxon, work. A good 
example is seen on the old Wallasey font, 2 now, 
with no record, in St. Luke's, Poulton. There it 
is accompanied by the very Norman indented 
moulding. The genius of the Kirkby artist, 
revivified the inanimate rope into the circular 
coiled snake of his forefathers. The modern shaft 
is hopelessly incongruous. The Norseman's snakes 
were endless. The shaft is all ends. I believe 
the font should have no shaft, but should be a 
simple cylindrical "tub" or "drum" font, like, 
say, Brighton or Orleton." 

1 See illustration in Twining, Symbols and Emblems ; Rees, Arch. 
Cambrensis, 1898, " Norse Element in Celtic Myth," and Romilly 
Allen, " Interfacings, " ibid., 1899. Browne, " Scandinavian and Danish 
Sculptured Stones," in Arch. Jnl., 1885. Parker's Gosforth Crosses. 

2 Illustrated in vol. liii of our Transactions. 

3 Illustrated in Bond's Fonts. 

The Kirkby Font 


Above the triple-headed serpent is the arcade. 
Such arcades are very common on fonts. They 
are simple and effective, and form a convenient 
series of niches for figure subjects either painted 
or sculptured. This arcade consists of eleven 
round-headed arches, irregular both in height and 
width, separated from one another by engaged 
columns. The columns stand on a plinth, which 
is very irregular, being cut away to a very varying 

A. B. Holes for the lock staples. 

degree beneath the figures, so allowing the feet 
to descend to different levels. The work is badly 
spaced out. Everything is irregular. The bases 
of the columns are stepped with members varying 
from two to six in number. Many of the shafts 
show a slight entasis. The capitals seem mostly 
to have had a necking and a square abacus. 
Between these is what may be a cushion capital, 
but the top corners of all that are not too much 
worn show little rounded tubercles, which are, I 
think, remains of the volutes of Corinthianesque 
early Norman capitals earlier than cushion. The 
stepped bases one would consider, if they occurred 
in architecture, as typically Saxon. This is no 
doubt one of the reasons why so many have 
assigned this font to the Saxon period. But in 
decorative work types remain long after they 
have been discarded in construction. We find 
stepped bases on undoubtedly Norman fonts, as 
e.g., Gillingham (Kent), there accompanied by 

52 The Kirkby Font 

billet moulding above and chevron below. The 
Bayeux Tapestry commonly shows stepped bases. 
I cannot attach much importance to the entasis, 
as it is neither uniform nor symmetrical, and looks 
more as though it had been left to fill in than 
from design. 

The capitals, like the bases, I consider decorative 
relics of earlier structural types. The arches vary 
much in span. The wider are practically semi- 
circular, -the narrower stilted. Some are almost 
of horse-shoe form. The spandrels are filled with 
unplaited bands, usually two-stranded, with 
looped ends. They arise mostly from the top of 
the abacus and spread over the arches, forming 
a sort of palmette or flower ornament. I do not 
think it is a common kind. The pre-Norman 
standing cross at Addingham, near Penrith, has 
spandrels somewhat similarly filled, but the 
strands are single and more branched. The 
Kirkby double strand is more like that intricately 
laced on many Saxon or Celtic crosses, e.g., 
Nevern (Pembrokeshire) Cross. What is most 
characteristic of the earlier work is the plaiting 
of the strand, which may be double, as at Nevern, 
but probably more commonly single, as at Winwick 
(Lancashire), Heysham (Lancashire), Leek (Staf- 
fordshire) and Eyam (Derbyshire). 

There is nothing necessarily Saxon in the Kirkby 
arcade, nor, on the other hand, anything that 
would preclude Saxon date. There is an arcade 
very like it in one of the illustrations in Caedmon's 
Paraphrase, which is certainly Saxon. But, as I 
have already said, Saxon memories long lingered 
in Norman work. Almost the only font that is 
universally admitted to be pre-Norman is the one 
at Deerhurst (Gloucester), and that is almost 
covered by double-stranded spirals an ornament 
West wood designates as characteristically Celtic. 

Till-: FALL. 

The Kirkby Font 53 

As far as I know, no font with an arcade of niches 
has reasonably established its right to be con- 
sidered pre-Conquest. The Curd worth (Warwick- 
shire) font, which will be found well illustrated in 
Bond's Fonts, may be Saxon, and before mutila- 
tion may have had something approaching such 
an arcade, but it is doubtful. 

Above the Kirkby arcade is a plain band or 
fillet. In most of the circumference it touches 
the upper margin of the font, but on what is now 
the south-east side it drops about half an inch. 
Slowly leaving the edge above the figure I speak 
of as P. 7, it descends over Adam and Eve and 
the Cherub and rapidly rises to regain the top 
edge beyond the figure of St. Michael. It may 
have been intended for an inscription, but if it 
ever was a label for such all has now disappeared. 

The font has two pairs of holes for lock-staples 
in accordance with the well-known orders of the 
Church. They are now south-east and north-west. 

I shall commence the description of the niches 
with those that are now east. 

Two, with the intervening column, contain a 
conventional representation of the " Temptation 
of Adam and Eve." The column instead of being 
similar to the rest is made to represent the tree 
trunk with the serpent coiled around it and the 
branches spread over the arches. The tree is 
highly conventionalised with interlacing branches, 
reminding one of those on the Bayeux Tapestry. 
Among the branches are rounded lumps no 
doubt the apples, and perched at the top is a bird. 
Somehow one cannot help being reminded of 
Loke, the Spirit of Evil, in the form of a crow, 
perched on the mistletoe, planning the death of 
the pure and beautiful Baldur. Coiled in a right- 
handed spiral round the tree trunk is the serpent, 
with a wolf-like head. He looks at Eve and has 

54 The Kirkby Font 

an apple in his mouth, lest the one he has already 
given her should fail. On the East Meon (Hants.) 
font one of the Tournai group Eve is seen 
actually taking the apple out of the serpent's 
mouth. In a mural painting at Hardham Church, 
(Sussex), Eve takes a green apple from the jaws 
of a serpent with a wolfish head and a small pair 
of wings just behind his neck. 

The Kirkby serpent has around his neck a 
beaded necklace of what Dr. Nelson says are 
" characteristic 12th century pearls." His tail is 
not pointed. The Mediaevals did not, it would 
seem, consider a pointed tail " finished." It ends 
in a split knob, which may be another head, as 
there is something that may be an eye. Such are 
often seen e.g., on the St. Michael, or St. George 
and the Dragon lintel at St. Bees, illustrated in 
Calverley's Sculptured Crosses, etc., of Diocese of 

On either side are Adam and Eve. Adam has 
a slight moustache and a long, pointed beard. He 
is 15 ins. high. Eve is 14J ins. high. Between 
the tips of the fingers of the left hand she holds 
an apple which she is giving to Adam and he is 
receiving. Eve has a high hair-dress from which 
depends a long thick coil reaching down her left 
side nearly to the ground. The coil is right- 
handed and two-stranded. It is similar to the 
hair coil of the two female figures on the Gosforth 
Cross, only it is very much thicker and longer. 
Eve's face is much worn and her expression is now 
that of an edentulous old woman. 

1 The ancients believed in the existence of a sort of snake, called 
Amphisbena, with a head at each end, which could travel and 
otherwise act indifferently both ways. Mediaeval bestiaries delight 
to moralise on this animal. They used him chiefly as a symbol of 
deceit " Mr. Facing-both-ways." They also carried the idea further 
by putting a head on the tail of other animals to indicate that they 
were acting deceitfully. Vide Druce, Arch. Jnl., 1910. 


The Kirkby Font 55 

The niche next to Adam contains a figure 
14 ins. high, standing on a slight elevation, with 
his left hand upraised, using the same sign 
language as the policeman on point-duty does 
to-day. He holds in his right hand a sword, 
which passes up obliquely over his right shoulder. 
Its blade is broad, with irregular edges. He is 
bare-headed, bearded, and was probably bare- 
footed, but his toes are too worn to allow us to 
be sure of this. He wears a long-sleeved ungirded 
tunic and on each side of him are long flattened 
objects reaching from his shoulders to his ankles. 
They are no doubt intended for folded wings. 
He is always recognised as the cherub with 
flaming sword expelling the erring couple from the 
garden. The sculpture is very crude, especially 
of the left arm. The tip of the sword points to 
one of the pairs of holes for the lock staples now 
broken away. 

The figure under the next canopy is also 14 ins. 
high, but stands at a much lower level : so much 
so that his feet come into contact with the snake 
below, which at this point has a head. The 
figure holds in both hands a spear, which he is 
driving into the serpent's open mouth. He wears 
a long, loose ungirdled coat, or tunic, with very 
wide sleeves, so wide at the wrists that they 
would nearly touch the ground. He is, I think, 
bearded, and has a lot of hair, which seems to be 
confined by a sort of fillet. Behind his head is 
something that sometimes looks like a small 
nimbus, but it is very doubtful. His shape is 
very peculiar, and it is suggested that the idea 
was to give him a round back to indicate the 
force he is using in his spear-thrust. This figure 
is generally believed to be in reference to the 
passage of Genesis iii., 15, translated in the 
A.V. as: "I will put enmity between thee and the 


The Kirkby Font 

woman and between thy seed and her seed. It 
shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his 
heel " ; and Romans xvi., 20 : "And the God of 
Peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly." 1 
But, as the serpent is being speared as well as 
trodden on, it has been suggested to me that this 
figure is meant for St. Michael, who by over- 
coming the Devil reverses the office of the 
adjacent cherub. 

This seems to me to be the better interpretation. 
The subject was certainly a favourite one. In 
either case, the idea is the same, but the view 

St. Michael. Cherub. 

The Fall. 

P. 7. 

here adopted is, I think, more in keeping with 
the mentality of the period. 

This head of the serpent is a good deal worn, but 
suggests that the sculptor tried to make it so as 
not to appear upside down whichever way it is 
looked at. 

The next niche commences a series of seven 
figures which have certain points in common. 
They all wear an outer sleeveless garment with a 
hole for the head and which hangs in a median 

1 At Parwich (Derbyshire) is an early Norman tympanum (illustrated 
in Reliquary, 1880) in which the Agnus Dei (symbolising Christ) and 
a hart (symbolising true believers) are shown treading serpents under 
their feet. 


The Kirkby Font 


point in front of the legs and is doubtless a 
chasuble. As this is a vestment usually indicative 
of the priestly order, I have got into the habit of 

calling these figures " Priest 1," " Priest 2 " to 

7, or shortly " P.I." " P.7." All that are not 

too much worn show toes, so probably all were 
bare-footed. The weathered and worn state of 
the surface has destroyed any tool markings 
indicative of hair that may have existed, but the 
shape of the face, especially as seen from the side, 
can, I think, only mean a short beard. 

P. 6. 

P. 3. 


P. 2. 

P. 1. 

Given that they have beards, it will help us in 
dating the font. There seems to be pretty good 
evidence that in later Anglo-Saxon times priests, 
and people of importance generally, were mostly 
accustomed to shave the face ; but the wearing 
of a beard gradually became more and more 
common during the latter half of the llth century 
and by the 12th shaving, by ecclesiastics at any 
rate, had become exceedingly rare. They did not 
usually wear a long flowing beard, but " a short 
crisp beard and moustache." A good example of 
this type is the beard of St. Nicholas of Myra on 

58 The Kirkby Font 

the Winchester font. On the slightly earlier 
Brighton font he is clean shaven. 1 The mixture 
of habit at the end of the llth century is well 
illustrated by the Bayeux Tapestry where Duke 
William and Archbishop Stigand are shown main- 
taining the old fashion of clean shaving. Edward 
the Confessor is new-fashioned and bearded, 
while Harold adopts a middle course and shaves 
the cheeks and chin, but wears a moustache. In 
the representation of the Last Supper on the 
Brighton font all the figures are moustached, while 
only every alternate one has a beard. On the 
Orleton font 8 all the figures are bearded, as I 
believe they were at Kirkby. If I am right, it 
will suggest that the date of the Kirkby font is 
not earlier than the 12th century. 

Mr. Roberts, judging from the illustrations in 
his paper, considered all the figures, except Adam, 
beardless, and perhaps it was partly on that 
ground that he concluded the font was Saxon. 
In trying to identify these seven figures he 
evidently looked round for things of which there 
were seven and chose " the seven orders of the 
Saxon clergy, according to the Canons of ^Ifric," 
Archbishop of Canterbury (995-1005). Other 
things of which there are seven have been tried, 
e.g., the seven sacraments, common enough on 
later fonts. But whichever set of seven is chosen, 
no one dares to be exact. They point out a few 
possibilities, suggesting that a figure or two may 
represent so-and-so, and then conclude by adopting 
some such expedient as Mr. Roberts does when he 
says that the rest may be seen " each attending 
to the duties of their respective offices with 
folded hands." 

1 Both are illustrated in Bond's Fonts and Font Covers. The beard 
was almost universal among priests till the middle of the 14th century, 
when shaving again became general and so remained for 300 years. 

1 Illustrated in Bond's Fonts. 

The Kirkby Font 59 

Many points must be studied in any endeavour 
to identify such figures, and among these a most 
important one is the clothing. In studying the 
history of clothing we have to deal with two 
entirely different things, that we must be careful 
not to confuse with one another: (1) Actual 
ancient clothing itself, for which the materials 
are relatively scanty often non-existent ; (2) 
Representations of clothing by the various arts 
and crafts. The latter afford us quite a large 
amount of material for systematic study, but it 
does not seem to have been very thoroughly 
worked so far. A good deal of valuable work has 
certainly been done, but unfortunately much has 
been written that is inaccurate and even untrue ; 
so one has to go back to the representations 
themselves or to careful reproductions of them, 
which are numerous. 

In studying such materials of mediaeval times 
we must always bear two things in mind. First, 
that the dress is almost always of the time the 
representation was made and not necessarily at 
all like that of the time of the event it is endeavour- 
ing to portray. Secondly, representation is very 
largely conventional. Very few, if any, local 
masons or others, and indeed probably very few 
of the greater designers, where they existed, ever 
had posed before them carefully dressed living 
models. They constructed their figures, etc., in 
a conventional manner, as they had been taught 
to do. Further, these conventional representa- 
tions were not attempts to depict the real in 
detail, but rather to emphasise some phase or 
aspect. Moreover, the artist always considered 
the design and altered nature to suit it ; e.g., he 
knew well enough in which hand the bishop 
should hold his crosier, but he would not hesitate 
to put it in the other if it so better fitted into the 

60 The Kirkby Font 

composition. We continually see in representa- 
tions in which two bishops appear, one on each 
side of the centre, that the artist puts the crosier 
in the right hand of one and the left of the other 
to make the design balance better. We must 
therefore be careful not to argue back to real life 
from the artistic licence of the sculptor. More- 
over, we must not expect to have detail always 
correct. We have seen much incorrect military 
detail in modern war pictures, and we have 
doubtless missed much more. The eye only sees 
what the mind is trained to see and the hand 
only imperfectly portrays what the eye sees. 
For such reasons some consider all attempts to 
date from detail are necessarily futile. But 
unless we consider the artist as the product of his 
day and location all such archaeological research 
comes to an end. 

The first of the seven priests (P.I) is a little 
man the smallest figure on the font. He is only 
13 ins. high, and like the angel stands on an 
elevated plinth. He is tonsured on the top with 
a circlet of hair all round : in modum corona, as 
it was called the characteristic tonsure of the 
Roman Church. As regards vestments, all that 
show are an alb, from neck to ankle and with 
sleeve to wrist, covered in part by a chasuble 
which ends in a point in front of his knees. This 
should be contrasted with the next figure (P.2), 
the point of whose chasuble is level with the 
lower edge of his alb. The left arm does not 
show. He may have lost it, but more likely it 
is beneath his chasuble. In his right hand he 
holds a book. 

The form of the chasuble gives us some help 
in dating the font. The chasuble is descended 
from the poenula or travelling cloak of the Romans 
popularly or provincially called casula which 

The Kirkby Font 


was very similar to the South American poncho, 
consisting of a single piece of material, with a 
hole in the centre, through which the head was 
put, and the material fell over the shoulders to 
the ground if long enough. (Figs. 2 and 4.) The 
poenula was worn by all lay and cleric. In its 
earliest form as a vestment, as far as we know 
it from the 6th century Ravenna mosaics, etc., 


it was perfectly circular and fell in folds from the 
neck and shoulders to the ankles. It was called 
planeta. There were no holes for the hands, 
which had to catch hold of things through it, 1 or 
pull it up over the wrists. (Fig. 6.) When such 
was done, and a fortiori when the hands were 
raised above the head (Fig. 7), it lay in folds and 
creases over the arms at the sides, while in front 

1 Some of the very archaic figures on the Curdworth font show a 
book being held through a vestment, the folds of which are very 
highly conventionalised. 

62 The Kirkby Font 

and behind it fell to a rounded point. It can be 
easily seen that it must have been heavy and 
inconvenient, and it became the custom for the 
deacon to assist the priest to hold it up. As time 
progressed it became less and less a garment of 
protection and more and more an ornamental 
vestment, and thus, especially after the intro- 
duction of the practice of elevation, it evolved 
into a shape more suitable for that use. While 
remaining much the same length in front and 
behind, the sides were shortened so that the hands 
might emerge more easily and the arms when 
raised would not have to carry so much weight. 
(Fig. 1.) The early form was 4 ft. to 4 ft. 6 ins. 
all round. With the change of shape it got to be 
3 ft., 2 ft., and even less at the sides, and so the 
oval or Gothic chasuble the vesica piscis chasuble 
as it is often called was evolved. It was still 
one flat piece, but when worn fell in a long point 
in front and behind, but had a deep notch at the 
sides between the front and back pieces in which 
the hand or even the arm appeared. Another 
method of lessening the weight of the chasuble 
was tried. Instead of using a full circle of material 
in one flat piece, part of the circle was used and 
folded to form a sort of cone like an extinguisher, 
lamp-shade, or bicycle cape. Usually half the 
circle (Fig. 3) of stuff was taken as in making a 
cope (but shorter), and instead of leaving it open 
in front like that vestment the straight edges of 
the diameter were united up the front from the 
circumference to near the centre where a space 
was left for the head to pass through, its sides 
being shaped to the neck. An ancient chasuble 
of this shape is preserved at Sens and has long 
been said to be the one worn by Thomas Becket 
while in exile there (1166-1170). Dr. Rock says 
that this was the type of chasuble worn by the 

The Kirkby Font 63 

Anglo-Saxon priests. I find it not possible to 
accept this statement entirely even from so 
learned an authority. The lower edge in front of 
Becket's chasuble is pared away to make it two 
inches shorter than the back, while an Anglo- 
Saxon 10th century pontifical quoted by Bloxam 
(Ecclesiastical Vestments, etc.] orders the chasuble 
to extend " half-way down in front of the body, 
but much longer behind." This description 
closely corresponds with the shape of the chasuble 
Stigand is shown, on the Bayeux Tapestry, wearing 
at Harold's coronation. 

Now the point to be observed is that the 
chasubles of the figures on the Kirkby font are 
not old-form circular chasubles, nor are they 
" Anglo-Saxon " chasubles, like Becket's or 
Stigand's, but are vesica piscis chasubles, short 
at the sides and pointed in front and no doubt 
behind also. This is particularly well seen in the 
case of the little P.I figure, for though the left 
arm is not outside his chasuble, the notch remains 
and the front point is present. The diagrams 
show that in a circular or Anglo-Saxon chasuble 
there is no point unless both arms are out. The 
Kirkby font chasubles then have shaped front 
points, not merely adventitious ones. The new 
shape of chasuble did not come in till, at the 
earliest, late in the llth century, and probably 
not till the 12th, and the old form remained in 
use for some time after, as we still find it on later 
monuments, e.g., on the figures of the Orleton 
font, which in other respects is later than the 
Kirkby one. No doubt many beautiful vestments 
bequeathed to churches were prized and carefully 
kept even for centuries ; though I regret to say 
that most that have come down to us are dread- 
fully hacked and mutilated to make them into 
more fashionable shapes without the least regard 

64 The Kirkby Font 

to their design and ornament. As the 12th century 
progressed the front of the chasuble is said to 
have got shorter and shorter. This seems, gener- 
ally speaking, to be correct ; but as far as Kirkby 
is concerned it is no help, as the length varies a 
good deal on the different figures. (Compare P.I 
and P.2.) From the shape of the chasubles on the 
Kirkby font I think we are certainly entitled to 
say that it is not earlier than very late in the 
llth century, and probably later. The chasubles 
and beards confirm one another in saying it is 
not Anglo-Saxon. 

One other word before leaving the chasuble. It 
has been said that Mr. Roberts was necessarily 
wrong in supposing the figures could represent 
" the seven orders of the Anglo-Saxon Church," 
for inasmuch as they all wear chasubles none 
could be in lower than priests' orders. It is true 
that the chasuble is the eucharistic vestment of 
the priest, but it has only gradually become so 
restricted in its use. Pugin in his Ecclesiastical 
Ornaments quotes the Sacrament ary of St. 
Gregory to show that all orders of churchmen in 
those days wore the planeta. He also transcribes 
Ordo viii. of the most ancient Roman ordines, 
which, dealing with the acolyte, says " induunt 
clericum ilium planetam." It is also laid down 
that the subdeacon should hold the maniple of 
the bishop in his left hand on his chasuble doubled 
back " super planetam revolutam." " As late 
as the 9th century Amalarius tells us that the 
chasuble was worn by all clerics." The Oxford 
Dictionary says ' by the Council of Ratisbon 
(742 A.D.) it was decreed as the proper dress for 
the clergy out of doors." Also that " as the most 
ordinary of garments, it was worn by monks." 
Dominicus Georgius (Giorgi) the Italian eccle- 
siastic and antiquary (born 1690, died 1747), 

The Kirkby Font 65 

says that the habit of both acolytes and lectors 
" during the first 12 centuries " was a girded alb 
and plain chasuble, but that the chasuble was 
put off in the presbytery when they performed 
their normal duties. On the other hand, Honorius 
of Autun is quoted as saying that before the 12th 
century the four minor orders of the clergy wore 
a superhumeral, alb and girdle only. If so, he 
must have been referring to what they wore when 
actually officiating, and even then he forgot the 
stole and maniple worn by deacons. I read that 
even to-day some of the lower orders of the 
clergy sometimes officiate with a folded chasuble 
over the shoulder instead of a stole. It would 
seem, therefore, that the mere fact of wearing a 
chasuble does not prove an early figure to be a 
priest. So vested he may still be intended for 
one of the minor clergy. 

There is on no figure any sign of amice or 
maniple, and probably none of stole either. The 
amice, though introduced as a vestment in the 
9th century, was long only wrapped round the 
shoulders under the alb and did not show. Later 
it had a parure or apparel which was very con- 
spicuously turned down over the alb to meet the 
chasuble. But I do not think it ever shows in 
monuments till well in the llth century, and by 
no means usually then. It does not show even 
in the 12th century sepulchral effigy in Salisbury 
Cathedral usually assigned to Bishop Roger (ob. 
1139) but which Bloxam thinks is Bishop Jocelin's 
(ob. 1184). So it may well be absent in an out- 
of-the-way corner like Kirkby about the same 
time. The stole and maniple are very early 
vestments 8th century or before. It might 
quite fairly be argued from their absence that the 
figures are not vested for any service but are 
wearing the chasuble as an ordinary garment, 

66 The Kirkby Font 

like Abbot Elfnoth, in the well-known picture 1 
wears it without stole or maniple when pre- 
senting his book to St. Augustine (representing 
the monastery), who has a stole but no maniple. 
One must not, however, rely too much on the 
sculpture alone, as these works were afterwards 
coloured and further detail was added by the 
painter. It would be interesting to know whether 
when the whitewash was removed from the 
Kirkby font any traces were found of gold or 
colouring. As far as I can learn, no record was 

The next priest (P. 2) is 15| ins. high. His feet 
reach down nearly to the lower edge of the plinth, 
and his chasuble nearly to the lower edge of his alb. 
On the latter are some slight vertical markings, 
plainer on the left side. They are probably 
pleats, but may indicate a stole. The left arm 
is seen very clearly to come out of the gap or 
notch between the front and back portions of 
the chasuble. He has a book in his left hand, 
which he holds with his thumb on the open page 
and his fingers on the back. With his right hand 
he grasps, a little above the middle, a long staff, 
which reaches from his shoulder to his ankle. It 
is rounded at the upper end and gradually tapers 
downwards. The lower end is sharply pointed 
and separated from the rest by a sort of neck or 
ferrule. I consider him pretty clearly bearded. 
His forehead is smooth and rounded, and appears 
to have no hair. It certainly does not show the 
corona of hair and bare top like his little 
neighbour. 1 This may have no meaning. Bald- 
headed men lived then as now, But it is possible, 
though perhaps not probable, that it may have a 

I Harleian MS. 2908 (probably llth century). 

* Low down on his forehead there is a sort of inverted V. This 
is due to wear and weathering of the part below, which I expect was 
denuded of whitewash and so became exposed. 

The Kirkby Font 67 

meaning, especially if (as I suspect) the figures 
are connected with St. Chad's history. It is 
possible that this bare forehead may be tonsured 
in front, as was the habit of the ancient British 
and Irish priests what was called the Scots' 

It will be remembered that from the time of 
St. Augustine to that of St. Chad a great con- 
troversy existed between the British and Roman 
churches concerning inter alia the time of keeping 
Easter and the shape of the tonsure. The Latin 
ecclesiastics prevailed at the Synod of Whitby, 
so graphically described by Bede, and most of 
the English clergy, including Chad, accepted the 
decision and conformed. 

The figure, P.2, might have been intended 
to represent Chad as a monk of Lastingham, 
wearing the Scots' tonsure of his youth. On the 
top of his head is a sort of cap. The Anglo-Saxon 
and Norman monks wore hooded cowls and 
chasubles with hoods were also worn ; e.g., the 
chasuble of Abbot Elfnoth in the above-mentioned 
illustration. Such hoods usually cover the ears, 
as in the representation of the Last Supper on 
Brighton font, 1 but some did not, as in Chaucer's 
picture in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations. This 
P.2 cap reminds one more of Archbishop 
Wulfstan's (ob. 1023) in a contemporary drawing 
reproduced by Strutt. 2 In some photographs 
there is a suspicion of a similar knob on the top. 

The next figure (P.3) is very definitely bare- 
footed, all his toes showing clearly. His right 
hand is raised in the act of giving the benediction 
in the Latin manner, while in his left he holds 
something, the nature of which I shall have to 
discuss at some length. The sleeves of the alb 

1 Bond's Fonts, 162. 

2 Dresses and Habits of England. 

68 The Kirkby Font 

show well at the wrist, and the point of the 
chasuble reaches its lower edge. On the right 
side of the front lamella of the chasuble are two 
marks the upper crescentic, the lower a full 
circle. These may not be original. Over the 
upper edge of the chasuble two other garments 
show very clearly, but only one shows below, and 
on this there are wavy markings, as if it was 
made of hair. The Anglo-Saxon and Norman 
priests did wear a skin and hair garment the 
pelisse, but normally it would not show, as it was 
worn under the alb or surplice. The latter was 
indeed an alb made sufficiently roomy to cover 
the pelisse and was called the superpellicium. He 
is 15 ins. high, and wears a mitre. The elevated 
arm, like the angel's, is crudely done. It is more 
like the joint of a crab than an arm. But the 
chasuble is managed quite well. The blessing 
hand is enormous. This was the conventional 
way of drawing attention to a part. Compare it 
with the still more enormous bound hands of St. 
Peter on the above-mentioned Curd worth font. 
The Norman sculptor never worked to scale, but 
enlarged and brought out prominently what he 
wanted seen. In this case he wished to 
emphasise the fact that this figure was giving the 

The next in order (P. 4) is the same height as 
P.3, and like him is bearded, mitred and bare- 
footed. He also shows two vestments above the 
chasuble head-opening. This is not so clear as 
in P.3, but the top of the second shows clearly 
as a definite notch on the right side of the neck. 
All the figures but P.3 and P.4 show only one 
vestment about the neck above the chasuble 
opening. The front of the chasuble does not 
reach quite to the lower edge of the alb and the 
latter has the same sort of woolly markings as that 


The Kirkby Font 69 

of P. 3. In his left hand he holds a book and in 
his right is a long object which ends below in a 
volute. This has usually been considered to be 
a crosier and I took it to be such, but was surprised 
to find it being carried upside down. I could find 
no example of a crosier so carried, though I found 
several ancient representations of weapons being 
inverted at funerals as to-day. 1 Looking carefully 
one day at the Kirkby font, I noticed that while 
the edge of the so-called crosier that is furthest 
from the figure can be traced clearly right up 
almost to the upper margin of the font over- 
lapping the fillet, the nearer edge is only clear to 
the arch of the niche. Above that it has attached 
to it three strips, separated by two hollows, which 
pass over the top of the arch and cover the fillet 
or label. I came to the conclusion it was 
not a crosier, but a key, and made tracings of it 
and diagrams of what I thought its wards had 
been before being altered by wear and weathering. 
Some with whom I discussed the matter said 
it was too big for a key ; others that a key would 
never have such a crook-like handle. There is, 
however, the centre panel of a 13th century ivory 
triptych in the Mayer Museum, Liverpool, which 
has in the lower division, in the centre, a carving 
of the Virgin and Child with, on her left St. Paul 
with a huge sword, and on her right St. Peter with 
a key quite as large in proportion as the object 
on the Kirkby font. So size does not rule a key 
out. It only emphasises it. As regards the 
handle, I believe I have seen similar handles in 
museums, but cannot recollect where. There 
appears to be little literature of key history. 
Primitive Locks and Keys, by Pitt Rivers, gives 

1 The right-hand figure in the view of the Orleton font in Bond's 
Fonts and Font Covers, appears to hold a short staff with a volute at 
the lower end, but what looks like a volute is really the folds of a 
chasuble of the old form. 

70 The Kirkby Font 

little help as regards handles. I have wandered 
in all directions which might prove fruitful, as far 
as time and opportunity allowed, and have 
sketched all the interesting keys noticed. Keys 
have varied a good deal in shape, but perhaps less 
than one would have thought. Keys were not 
always turned in locks, and probably the usual 
Anglo-Saxon key with wards on both sides was 
not. But Anglo-Saxon keys were not all of this 
shape. We meet with keys much like those of 
to-day in Anglo-Saxon and Roman times. The 
handles are usually very much like modern ones, 
but may be quite straight with or without a hole 
through them, or they may end in a ring, loop 
or knob or some highly decorative termination. 
They were very commonly carried attached to a 
sort of chatelaine called clavandier, 1 suspended 
from the girdle. The ring of attachment assisted 
in making the turn and some large keys had a 
hinged lever attached for the same purpose. 2 
But after all the actual form of the key itself is 
one thing and its representation in art another. 
It is certainly quite common to see in illustrations, 
e.g., in the hand of St. Peter, keys one could 
hardly consider to be any use in real life. Stowe 
MS. 944, British Museum, is a register of 
Martyrology written about 1016-20. It shows 
St. Peter letting the blessed into heaven, and St. 
Michael keeping the door of hell. Peter's keys 
are a pair suspended from a ring. Michael's have 
perfectly straight handles with no ring, loop, or 
knob to help in the turn ; with one of these he 
is locking the door. In St. Ethelwold's Bene- 
dictional several keys are shown. Most have 
straight handles. One, a very large one, has a 
ring suspended from the end of the stem and the 

1 The person who carried the keys was called Claver. For illustra- 
tion see Arch. Jnl.. 1876. 

2 Coptic type ; Archceologia, vol. 48. 

The Kirkby Font 71 

wards are bi-lateral with the addition of a large 
cross pate at the end. The wards of St. Peter's 
keys are very commonly in the form of a cross 
the symbolism being : The Cross, the Key of 
Heaven. There is a very good example of this 
in 15th century painted glass at Wodmansterne, 
in Surrey. Both the handle and wards are in 
cross form. 1 At the Church of St. Peter ad 
Vincula, Rome, are kept some iron chains said to 
have been brought from Jerusalem by the 
Empress Eudocia 2 and to be those with which St. 
Peter was bound. Small fragments or filings of 
these were considered most holy relics, and the 
reliquary containing them was usually in the 
form of a golden key, called a St. Peter's key. 
Photographs of some of these then surviving are 
reproduced in the Archaeological Journal for 1890. 
They show the wards always in the form of a 
cross. Westwood, Anglo-Saxon MSS., illustrates 
a key with a round ball at the end of the shank. 
Pitt-Rivers gives an Anglo-Saxon key with the 
shank ending in a simple three-quarter circle loop 
and keys with similar loops found at Sleaford are 
illustrated in Archaologia, vol. 50. In a Cotton 
MS. of the time of Henry I. (1135), illustrated 
and described in Archczologia, is a key with the 
handle ending in a twist towards the ward side 
and a curve in the opposite direction is to be 
seen on a sculptured Norman capital from Lewes 
Priory (Archceologia, vol. 31). In Ferret's 
Catacombes St. Peter is shown with keys having 
somewhat similar handles. 3 

On the reliquary of St. Moedoc an Irish shrine 
to be mentioned later there is a series of figures 
which probably represent the Apostles. Three 

1 Illustrated in Archaol. Jnl.. 1847. 

2 Or Eudoxia, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius II, A.D. 440. 

3 See also Fox-Da vies, Art of Heraldry ; keys on " arms " of Emir 

72 The Kirkby Font 

on one plate I take to be : in the centre St. John 
with his cup or flask, on his right St. Paul with 
his sword, and on his left St. Peter with his key. 
Everything is very decoratively treated and the 
emblem which seems to be a key has its handle 
ending in a volute exactly like that on the Kirkby 
font. The other end is partly covered by the 
Apostle's flowing hair. It ends in a cross pomme. 
If there were wards where the hair covers it, it 
would be quite similar to the big key in St. 
Ethelwold's Benedictional, but with a cross 
pomme at the ward-end instead of a cross pate, 
and a volute instead of a ring at the end of the 
handle. I most certainly think it is meant 
to be a St. Peter's key with the cross-the- 
key-of-heaven symbol. In very early representa- 
tions of St. Peter he is said to carry a cross and 
not a key. 

I have not been able to find an unequivocal 
example of a key with a handle exactly like 
that on the Kirkby font, but, I submit, I 
have come very near to it. In the absence of 
actual proof, appeal to authority is not unjustifi- 
able, and I wrote to ask the opinion of the British 
Museum authorities. Sir Hercules Read very 
kindly replied as follows : ". . . . There can be 
no doubt that the figure you give represents a 
key and it is by no means unknown for the 
handle to be a mere curl of iron as seen there." 

Mr. Roberts considered the head covering of 
P.3 and P.4 to be the amice drawn over the head 
in the way it was worn in early times 1 and still is 
by certain orders ; but I do not think it is so 
intended. If it were so, the lower edge would not 
be horizontal and the ears would not show. It 
is very commonly stated, but I cannot find on 
what authority, that before the 10th century 

1 See illustrations in Smith's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. 

The Kirkby Font 73 

bishops wore ' ' head-linen " fine flaxen cloth bound 
flat to the head and confined by a strip of the 
same material encircling the head and fastened 
at the back with long ends hanging down, and 
that out of this the mitre was developed. It is 
further stated that over this they wore gold and 
jewelled crowns like the confessors and others 
in St. Ethelwold's Benedictional (10th century), 
or a circlet of gold like that shown on the figure 
of the Trinity and on St. Benedict in the same 
work. For my part I do not think that these 
illustrations are meant to represent terrestrial 
life, but celestial crowns. Moreover, they are 
not shown worn over head linen, but on the scalp 
direct. The Rev. Percy Dearmer, in his Orna- 
ments of the Ministers, states that the earliest 
known representation of a mitre of any kind is 
on a coin of Bede's friend Egbert, Archbishop of 
York, 734-766. He says it was a white linen cap 
very similar to the Phrygian cap or Frigium worn 
by the Roman freedmen when they shaved their 
head. Neither the head-linen nor cap seems to 
have been an official dress. They may have been 
worn as a protection, especially out of doors. 
For St. Augustine, quoting St. Paul as his 
authority, forbade the clergy, as well as the laity, 
to wear any head covering during divine service 
(Planche). Bishops in Anglo-Saxon times are 
certainly usually represented bare-headed, like 
St. Sextus on the early 10th century maniple of 
St. Cuthbert found at Durham 1 or Archbishop 
Stigand 2 already mentioned. 

There are no early orders or regulations con- 
cerning the mitre. Dr. Rock says : "No writers 
on ecclesiastical dress before the llth century 
mention it." Ivo of Chartres, who died in 1115, 

1 Illustrated in Raine's St. Cuthbert, p. 33. 
a Bayeux Tapestry. 

74 The Kirkby Font 

writing on Jewish and Christian priestly dress, 
mentions no Christian equivalent of the Jewish 
mitre. The mitre seems at first to have been a 
special and personal distinction conferred by the 
Roman Pontiff and was not confined to the 
clergy. Pope Alexander II. in 1163 conferred 
the mitre as well as the pallium on Burchard, 
Bishop of Halberstadt, 1 as a special honour on 
account of his great services to the Holy See, and 
he also, as a special mark of esteem gave 
Wratislas, Duke of Bohemia, permission to wear 
the mitre. Pope Innocent II. gave the same 
honour to Roger, Count of Sicily. 2 Early in the 
llth century we begin to come across episcopal 
head covering worn apparently as official dress. 
It was then in the form of a skull cap, and some- 
times had a sort of bob on the top of it, as in 
the picture of Archbishop Wulfstan, already 
mentioned. 3 Generally it had streamers, infulae 
or vittae fringed at the ends, and sometimes so 
broad as to make it almost a hood. The earliest 
representation of the skull cap with vittae that I 
have seen is on two figures on the well-known 
British Museum MS., Claudius, A.3 the centre 
figure, usually called St. Dunstan, and one of the 
kneeling figures. 4 A 12th century Roman Pontiff 
is shown in a similar round-topped mitre in an 
early MS. reproduced in the supplement to 
Jaquemin's Iconographie du Costume. This form 
by gradual increase in height developed into the 
recognised mitre of the Russian bishops. In 
Western Europe the round top soon received a 
front to back indentation, exactly like that of 
the soft felt hat of to-day. A mitre of this form, 

1 Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel. 

2 See Planch^, Cyc. of Costume. 

3 Vide description of P. 3. 

4 Dearmer points out that the centre figure is shown by the emblem 
of the whispering dove to be St. Gregory the Great. The kneeling 
figure is St. Dunstan. 

The Kirkby Font 


dated about 1180, is illustrated in Hefner- 
Alteneck's Trachten Kunstwerke. In the middle 
of the llth century we often find the side 
elevations as high points. There is a good 

example of this shape in the early Norman 
sculptured tympanum of the south door of 
Tetsworth Church, near Oxford. The early coffin 
lid of Bishop Ralph (ob. 1123) in Chichester 
Cathedral has on it a mitre of this form along 


The Kirkby Font 

with an early type of crosier. 1 A very similar 
head-dress is illustrated in Ferret's Catacombes de 
Rome. Its date I will not guess. In some places 
these side peaks developed into rounded horns 
or volutes, as is well seen in the beautiful repro- 
duction of the effigy of Ulger, Bishop of Angers, 
1149, in Planche's Cyclopaedia of Costume. But 
they seem usually to have tended to get smaller 
and at the same time an elevation began to 
appear in the centre of the hollow on the top of 
the head. This is well seen in the illustration 
from the Vision of Henry I. (ob. 1135) reproduced 
in Knight's Old England. This central elevation 
grew into a front to back ridge, and this is the 
shape worn by the two mitred figures (P.3 and 
P.4) on the Kirkby font. The next stage in 
development was the growth of the front and 
back ends of this fore and aft ridge into elevated 
points. This type is well seen on the font at St. 
Nicholas' Church, Brighton {Sussex), and if we 
ornament each point of this mitre with a ball we 
get the mitre of St. Nicholas on the Winchester 
font. The next change was for the side eleva- 
tions to disappear altogether, and so is produced 
the early form of the present type of mitre. It 
is well illustrated with ornamental band and 
titulus by the bishop of the Lewis chessmen in 
the British Museum. The chief subsequent change 
was the gradual growth in the height of the front 
and back elevations. In the 13th century they 
were 6 ins. high. The beautiful Limerick mitre of 
the early 15th century is 13 ins. Ultimately, in 
the 16th century and later, they got grotesquely 
elevated and ogeed. 

The mitre that is kept as Becket's at Sens, if 
the one he really wore, would show that Sens was 
nearly half a century ahead of the rest of the 

1 See illustration under Coffin, Parker's Glossary of Architecture. 

The Kirkby Font 77 

world in this matter. Shaw, who carefully illus- 
trated it in his Dresses and Decorations, evidently 
had his doubts. It is 7J ins. high, and therefore 
higher than 13th century mitres usually are. The 
point is exactly a right-angle. Harley Roll, 
Y.6, Brit. Mus., is a late 12th century vellum 
roll, giving the life of St. Guthlac, the hermit of 
Crowland. In one of the illustrations he is 
shown being ordained priest by Bishop Hedda, 
of Winchester, 1 who wears a mitre like the one 
at Sens, with a right-angle point, but not quite 
so high. This strongly confirms the view that 
the Sens mitre is at least 13th century, and the 
change from side to front and back elevations 
took place shortly before the end of the 12th 
century. 2 

The Winchester font is fairly accurately datable. 
It is one of the Tournai fonts, " shop-made " and 
imported into England, it is believed, by Bishop 
Henry of Blois (bishop 1129-1171) and given to 
the cathedral. It has cushion capitals on the 
" cathedral," which shows it is later than the 
Kirkby font with its Corinthianesque capitals. 
It has plantain leaf capitals on the corner shafts 
of the support and these are later still. We shall 
not be far wrong in dating the Winchester font 
about or soon after the martyrdom of Becket 

1 The words on the roll are : " Guthl' Sac'dotiu' [sacerdotium] 
suscipit a Hedda ep'o [episcopo] Wintoniensi." 

At the time of Guthlac (663-714) there were two bishops with similar 
and variously spelt names. They have been much confused with each 
other. One usually called Hedda was Bishop of Winchester from 676 
to 705. The other, usually spelt Headda, was Bishop of Lichfield, 
691-720. (See Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, etc., 1899, pp. 64 and 128.) 
As has been seen, the Harley Roll ascribes Guthlac's ordination to the 
former. The A eta Sanctorum, April 11, prints the Felix Life of 
Guthlac, in which, while the name of the ordaining bishop is given 
as Hedda, his diocese is not mentioned. The Editors, however, agree 
with the roll in identifying him with the Winchester prelate. On the 
other hand, the D.N.B. suggests he was the Bishop of Lichfield. 

2 The bishops on the stone with Ogham inscription at Bressay, 
Shetlands, usually attributed to a much earlier date, have low mitres, 
pointed in front and behind. Vide Reliquary, 1884-5. 


The Kirkby Font 

(1170). The detail of the Brighton font is 
distinctly a little earlier and Kirkby in develop- 
ment is earlier still. In actual date, however, it 
is highly probable that it would be a little later, 
for when dates can be actually fixed by written 
records or otherwise it is usually found that local 
work in out-of-the-way places is a good deal 
behind in development. It is, of course, impossible 
to be exact, but taking all the evidence into 
consideration I do not think we can reasonably 
fix the date of Kirkby font earlier than the last 
quarter of the 12th century, and to that time I 
attribute it. 

I am now going to claim that I have reasonably 
established that the two figures P.3 and P.4 are 
mitred, and therefore intended for bishops ; that 
P.4 has a key in his hand, and is therefore in- 
tended for St. Peter. Who is the other bishop 
meant to be ? The only distinctive thing about 
him is the object he carries in his left hand. 
The carrying of some sort of staff was very 
usual in ancient times. The traveller or pilgrim 
used one to help him along, to sling his pack or 
wallet, and, if needs be, for defence. Before seats 
were so frequent people rested a good deal on 
sticks and staves. In the middle ages there 
were no seats in churches, and people, especially 
the aged, leaned on staves or sat on crutch sticks 
during long services. St. Aldhelm leaned on his 
staff through so long a sermon that it took root 
in the ground where it rested, and actually 
blossomed in his hand before the preacher had 
finished his discourse, and ever since the blossom- 
ing staff has been St. Aldhelm 's emblem. The 
staff was naturally the sign of the elderly more 
than of the young, and in the Church quite early 
got to be a recognised characteristic of a bishop. 
Further, the carrying of a staff as an emblem of 

The Kirkby Font 79 

authority is a very widespread custom from the 
sceptre of the sovereign to the wand of the 
conjurer. By the 6th century the staff had 
become a recognised episcopal ornament, being 
mentioned as such in the Sacramentary of St. 
Gregory, but it had no definite form fixed by 
custom or authority. The Rev. F. G. Lee, in 
Archaologia, vol. 51, says : " The earliest repre- 
sentations of an official staff in the hands of an 
apostle, pope, patriarch, or prelate appear to be 
quite plain ; sometimes without knob or ball on 
the top or any kind of addition or ornament." 
He gives no illustrations, but says that such 
staves are represented in mosaics, paintings or 
sculpture at Rome, Venice, Torcello, Padua, 
Milan, Pavia, Perugia, Zara and Pola. It was 
customary to represent the Deity in papal or 
episcopal robes, and in Caedmon's Paraphrase the 
Creator is always so robed and carries a short 
straight baculum. The ancient wooden staff at 
Treves, reputed to be that of St. Peter, is also 
quite straight. It is now cased in silver with 
peep-holes of crystal. 

The staff was often ornamented. An early 
form was a globe at the end, or two globes, or a 
globe surmounted by a cross. The latter became 
the official form of the Maronite bishops, and we 
still meet with it on official staffs in this country, 
as on the royal sceptre and on many maces and 
wands of office. Another much used form was 
the Tau-staff or crutch stick. It seems to have 
been official at one time, and appears on the well- 
known seal of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and in 
vol. 21 of Archczologia a seal of Geoffrey, 1 Bishop 
of Lincoln, dated 1174, is illustrated, showing 
him carrying over his right shoulder a pastoral 
crutch. The " crutch stick of St. Thomas of 

1 Son of Henry II. and Fair Rosamond. 

80 The Kirkby Font 

Canterbury " was one of the most prized relics 
of old St. Paul's, London. Many such Tau-staves 
some beautifully carved are to be seen in the 
museums of this country and the Continent. It 
was adopted as the official form by the Oriental 

The short curved divining rod, Lituus, 1 of the 
Roman augurs is said never to have disappeared 
as an emblem of office and out of it grew the 
crook of the western bishops, influenced probably 
by the frequent representation in the catacombs 
and elsewhere of the Good Shepherd, crook in 
hand, surrounded by His sheep. In early times 
the crooked staff was usually much shorter than 
it was later. St. Nicholas' crosier on the Brighton 
font is quite short. Not infrequently they were 
as short as an ordinary walking stick (about a 
yard). 2 The favourite wood seems to have been 
yew. The crosier of St. Melis (Irish, 12th cen- 
tury) is 3 ft. OJ in. The beautiful Clonmacnoise 
crosier (9th or llth century) is 3ft. 2 ins. The 
quigrich of St. Fillan of Aberdeenshire was the 
old saint's plain straight staff. All that now 
remains is the beautiful metal crook that was 
fitted to it. The opposite is the case with the 
Bachul of Moloc. All its ornaments have been 
stolen off it and the staff would also have probably 
disappeared only for the fact that its possessor, 
through it, holds certain property (Arch. JnL, 
1859). Giraldus Cambrensis (1185) tells us 
how highly venerated were the staves of the 
old missionary fathers and many of the gilt and 
jewelled crosiers of mediaeval times were really 
but the cases in which these venerable, perhaps 

1 Vide Smith's Diet. G. & R. Antiqs. 

2 Early sculptured representations of bishops with such short 
crosiers may be seen on St. Gobnet's Stone, Ballyvourney, Co. Cork 
(Archaol. Jnl., 1855) and Bressay (Shetlands) Ogham Stone, Reliq., 

The Kirkby Font 81 

miracle-working, relics were enshrined. West- 
wood 1 says that the worn parts of these short 
staves show that they were carried crook up over 
the shoulder. But that they were sometimes 
carried like a walking stick is shown by the 
picture of St. Luke in the Gospels of MacDurnan, 
an early 9th century MS. in the Archiepiscopal 
Library at Lambeth Palace. St. Matthew's 
picture in the same work tells us that the long 
crosier was also in use at the same time. It was 
this latter that developed into the beautiful 
carved, tabernacled and enamelled crosier of later 
date. It gradually replaced all others in the 
Western church, from the llth century onwards, 
but apparently had not entirely superseded the 
straight baculum even in the 14th century, if we 
may judge from the slab, of that date, on the 
tomb of the founder, St. Yestin, in Llaniestin 
church, Anglesey. 2 

Among all these varied forms of episcopal 
crosier, baculum, or cambutta, there is nothing at 
all like the object P. 3 carries in his hand. It is 
flat, with squared edges. It is just short of 7 ins. 
long. Its upper end is rounded. Half an inch 
from the very top it is f in. wide, and gradually 
broadens to the lower end, which is 1J ins. across. 
The lower border is nearly straight and squared. 
These dimensions mean that proportionately to 
life-size it would be a flat wedge-shaped object 
nearly a yard long, with a base 6 ins. across and 
gradually narrowing to between 3 or 4 ins. before 
it was rounded off at the top. Some of the photo- 
graphs of this object show slight notching on each 
side, near the lower end. This made me think it 
might be an asperge, but careful examination 
convinces me that the notches are due to injury. 

1 Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS. 

2 Illustrated in Arch. Cambrensis (1847). 

82 The Kirkby Font 

A club or mace has been suggested, as an object 
that widens from the handle to the other end, and 
a club is the symbol of two Apostles, St. Simon 
and St. James, and of at least eleven other 
saints, but a club would not be represented flat, 
with square edges and would not be carried in 
this manner. 1 Mr. Roberts has suggested that 
some of the figures, he does not say which, carry 
candles. I cannot agree. The characteristic part 
of a candle is its flame, and there is nothing to 
suggest it, and candles are always circular in 
section, not flat. They are frequently represented 
as gradually narrowing tapering to the burning 
end. A good example is seen in the 14th century 
representation of the Mass in plate 32, vol. I. of 
Mercuri and Bonnard's Costumes Historiques. 
The only thing I can think of that is the shape 
of the object under discussion is the opening of 
some Saxon or Early Norman windows, e.g., 
those of Hardham Church, Sussex. 

Finding no explanation in real life, I turned 
my thoughts to symbolism and sought for some- 
thing as being symbolised of this shape. In 
representations of the Baptism of Christ, diverging 
lines are often shown passing from the beak of 
a dove towards the head of the Baptised and are 
intended to signify radiations of Divine influence 
passing from the Holy Spirit to the Saviour. 2 
Such radiations are shown in other baptisms, as 
for example, the " Baptism of a Goth" in 

1 For a man carrying a club see Kirkburn font in Bond's Fonts, 
p. 161. 

2 Bond, in Fonts and Font Covers, gives several excellent illustra- 
tions, but considers these lines to represent streams of water (vide 
p. 14 passim). The incorrectness of such an explanation will at 
once be seen on applying it to examples other than baptisms. That 
the ancients had the idea of radiations is shown, for example, by the 
following: "... the mutual gaze of persons, and that which emanates 
from their eyes, whether we call it light or something else ..." and 
'' there is so great a penetration into the inward parts by a look . . ." 
Plutarch's Symposium, Book v., prob. 7. 

The Kirkby Font 83 

Hunter's Sinnbilder, or the tombstone at 
Aquileia, in Bond. 1 They also occur in representa- 
tions of the Annunciation 2 and in blessings gener- 
ally. Moreover, the radiations do not always 
come from the Dove. They often proceed from 
the Divine hand (Dexter a Dei) or from a cloud 
or crescent or other symbolic representation of 
heaven. 3 

The beautiful enamelled 14th century Sienese 
morse in the British Museum has on it a representa- 
tion of the birth of John the Baptist. Here a 
single gradually diverging ray descends from 
Heaven on to the infant. The 6th century 
Italian ivory in the same museum, illustration of 
which forms plate iii. of the Guide to Early 
Christian Antiquities, shows excellent carved 
examples of wedge-shaped rays proceeding from 
a cloud. 

But it was not only spiritual influences that 
were so represented. The symbolists indicated 
all emanations, radiations or influences in this 
way. As for instance, light from a star. 4 Sun- 
beams are figured in the same way. Indeed, 
there can be little doubt that from them, as seen 
when the sun is behind a cloud or his light comes 
through a chink into a dark room, the idea 
originated of representing beams of radiation by 
long, slightly widening wedges. Radiations were 
not always shown diverging from their source. 
They were frequently represented as converging 
to their recipient. This method is very ancient, 
and is found in hieroglyphics. 5 It was commonly 

1 Op. cit., p. 8. 

* Bock, Geschichte der liturgischen Gewaender des Mittelalters. Plate 

3 See Twining, Symbols and Emblems. Blessing of Isaiah from 10th 
century German MS. and Blessing of Charles the Bald from his 9th 
century illustrated Bible. 

* Illustration from painted glass in Lyons Cathedral. Twining op. cit. 
8 See Clodd, History of Alphabet, p. 170. 

84 The Kirkby Font 

used in classical times as, for example, in the 
rays of the corona radiata. 1 It was the method 
usually adopted by the heralds and in decorative 
designs and fabrics to which it better lent itself. 2 

The Dove in the baptism of Christ on the font 
in Shorne church (Kent) has such rays, and they 
are usual in representations of the Holy 
Eucharist. In the heraldic badge of the " Rising 
Sun " they come from behind a cloud. In " the 
Sun-in-splendour " they are still more decoratively 
treated, each alternate ray being given the wavy 
outline of a flame. The heralds did not, however, 
always use this method. Occasionally they used 
the more naturalistic diverging beam, as, for 
example, in the Yorkist sun 3 and around the star 
of the garter and other orders. 4 

To summarise : The ancients and mediaevals, 
the heralds, decorative artists and symbolists 
generally, though differing slightly in detail, all 
agree in representing rays of light or of spiritual 
influence by long narrow wedges. Such, then, 
was the single symbolic ray, and such is the shape 
of the object P.3 carries in his left hand. 

There is a story of St. Chad, which, though it 
does not appear in any extant life of the saint, is 
said to have been very popular in the middle 
ages. 5 It made him the chief instrument in 

1 See coin of Ptolemy V., illustrated in Arch. Jnl., 1897. 
* For good reproductions of such fabrics, see Bock op. cit. 

3 Illustrated in Planch6, Cycl. of Costume. 

4 Similar to, but immensely older than the examples I have cited is 
the obelisk, with its gradually diverging sides. Obelisks were dedicated 
to the sun-god the fertiliser of the earth. Pliny tells us that each 
was a sun's-ray in stone " effigies radiorum solis." The pyramids 
are but very obtuse obelisks, and the word is said to mean " sun's 
ray " (vide Dodd's paper on the Rudsione in Reliquary, vol. 14). 

5 The story occurs in the life of SS Wulfad and Ruffin, which was 
printed in Dugdale's Monasticon (1846 ed., vol. vi., pp. 226-30) and 
subsequently in the ActaSS .(July, vol. v., pp. 575-81). For the MSS. 
see Hardy, Descrpt. Catal. (Rolls Ser.), I., pp. 269-72. 

Bpm. of Christ : 7th c. Catacombs. 

Annunc'n. : Bock's Geschichte. 
Bpm. of Christ : Bamberg Ivory. 

Blessing of Isaiah : 10th c. Gr. MS. Ifg; 

(Twining, S. & E.). ~ 

Star's Rays. Painted Glass. 
Lyons Cath. (Twining, S. & E.) =g 

Birth John the B. Sienese Morse : 
14th c. Brit. Mus. 

Bpm. of Christ : Ivory. 6th c. 
Brit. Mus. 

Ray of Sun, Stars, &c. 

Ray of " Rising Sun " : 
Royal Badge. 

Ray of " Yorkist Sun " : 
Planche, Cyc. of Costume. 

Ray of Garter Star, &c. 

St. Chad's Emblem : 
Clog Almanacks. 

Kirkby Font Emblem. 


86 The Kirkby Font 

the conversion of Mercia. It is told with the 
usual abundance of picturesque and contradictory 
detail. The King of Mercia, Wulphere, who, by 
the way was father of St. Werburgh of Chester, 
had been christened in his youth, but had reverted 
to heathenism, and had murdered two of his 
sons, Wulfad and Ruffin, 1 on learning they had 
become Christians. But becoming dangerously 
ill, and fearing death, he was smitten with 
remorse, and repaired to Chad for conso- 
lation. When the king arrived Chad was 
saying mass in his little oratory, and as soon 
as the office was ended, he hurriedly removed his 
vestments to go and meet the king, and in his 
haste inadvertently hung them on a sunbeam 
that was crossing the room instead of hanging 
them in the proper place. The king, entering the 
small dark oratory, for in those days windows 
were small, as there was no glass to keep out the 
weather, saw the sun streaming through the little 
window and hanging on the bright beam were 
Chad's vestments. He could not believe his eyes, 
so drawing near he placed his gloves and baldrick 
on the sunbeam, but they fell straight through it 
to the ground. The king at once understood that 
Chad was a holy man, whom the sun obeyed, and 
whose beams were subservient to his commands. 
So the king was converted and all Mercia with 
him, and in the 12th century, at the time the 
font was made, the people of Kirkby would 
associate St. Chad and his sunbeam with the 
conversion of their district to Christianity. 

Chad is one of those saints who are said to have 
no emblem ; but I suggest that he had, and that 
here on the Kirkby font is St. Chad carrying his 

1 Both afterwards canonised. 

The Kirkby Font 87 

A beam of light is the symbol of several other 
saints. In the cases of the Venerable Bede and 
of St. Ewald it shines on them from heaven. 
St. Odo of Ghent is very similar. St. Posidonius's 
shines on him while praying in a dark cave. 
Our pagan ancestors materialised the rainbow 
Bifrost, and made it a bridge from earth to heaven, 
guarded by Heimdall. The mediae vals adopted 
the idea, but changed Heimdall into Christ, so 
that none could pass from earth to heaven except 
through Him. Thus we see it on the " Dooms," 
as at Wenhaston (Suffolk) and elsewhere. 1 In 
the same way the sunbeam was materialised in 
connection with St. Chad, who had used it 
as a clothes-peg. Baring-Gould and other 
modern writers tell us that St. Chad's emblem 
in the clog almanacks is " a branch." 2 I believe 
they all get this from that curious and interesting 
mass of obiter dicta, Plot's Natural History of 
Staffordshire (Oxford, 1686). Plot gives a very 
full description of the Staffordshire clogs. These 
are staves carved as perpetual calendars with 
hieroglyphic-like signs for important events. 
In giving the meaning of the different signs, he 
says : "a bough against 2 of March for St. 
Ceadda, who lived a hermit's life in the woods 
near Lichfield." " The bough " is a straight line 
with other lines diverging from it on either side, 
always in opposite pairs like the mid-rib and 
opposite secondary ribs of a pennate leaf. What 
the origin of this sign is is not known, but it is 
significant that it consists so largely of divergent 

In relation to the two mitred figures the 
snake coil has two heads. The head beneath the 
giver of the benediction is looking upwards and 

1 Illustrated in Clinch, Old English Churches, Fig. 93. 

2 Bond calls St. Chad's emblem a " vine branch." 

88 The Kirkby Font 

with open mouth biting furiously at him. While 
the head beneath the key-bearer is directed 
downwards, with closed mouth, in obvious defeat. 
Mr. Roberts expresses this as follows : ' The 
snake heads are symbolical of the power given to 
the Church to contend with and overcpme the 
Spirit of Evil." It may possibly refer also to the 
above-mentioned contention between the Celtic 
churches of the British Isles and the Church of 
Rome and the victory of the latter as symbolised 
by St. Peter. 

Figure P. 5, one of the tallest of the series, 
16 \ ins., gives us another of the many puzzles of 
the font. It is a good deal worn and the stone 
has several faults soft patches which have 
yielded holes. He is bare-headed, and, I think, 
tonsured and bearded. He has on a chasuble, 
and one other vestment is visible beneath it. 
The point of the front lamina of the chasuble falls 
well short of the edge of the alb. He carries in 
his right hand a staff, which is very similar to 
the one carried by P. 2, only there is no sign of 
ferrule near the lower end. The end of the 
thumb shows as a lump just above his fingers 
which grasp the staff, and opposite it on the 
outer side of the staff is something that may be 
the hook of a palmer's staff. Some have con- 
sidered this and what I think is his thumb to be 
the cross guard of a sword. 

In front of his body is a rectangular oblong 
object, suspended from his shoulders by two 
straps, and under this his left hand rests flat on 
his breast, palm down. The two straps may be 
intended to be continuous with one another 
behind his neck and so form a single handle or 
suspender. On the right side the strap is attached 
to the extreme right of the upper margin, but on 
the left it appears to be split into three pieces, 

THE FIGURES P 6 and 5. 

The Kirkby Font 89 

which are attached to the corner and upper part 
of the left lateral edge. The front surface of the 
quadrilateral has clearly an upper and a lower 
part, separated by a depression, the upper part 
overhanging. When viewed from the left side 
this object gives an appearance very strongly 
suggestive o a chalice in a bag, but careful 
examination has convinced me that the appear- 
ance is fictitious and due to the large hole in 
the stone. Mr. Roberts evidently thought the 
quadrilateral was a satchel for the sacred vessels 
or something of the sort as he vaguely speaks of 
the subdeacon with the sacred vessels, and of 
course one of the duties of that official is to carry 
them in the offertory veil. Mr. Roberts may have 
thought this an early representation of that 
vestment. But if such were the case he would 
hardly have a stick in one hand and the other 
hand flat on his breast ; he would be holding the 
vessels wrapped in the veil. He is not holding 
it. It hangs from his neck, and his hands are 
free. 1 I do not deny the possibility of this being 
some sort of case for chalice and paten, for Bede, 
speaking of missionary times, says : ". . Oratories 
. . . could not be made in the early infancy of 
the Church." And in the life of St. Willibald 
(c. 700) we are told that in the 7th century it was 
customary to erect crosses at which the services 
of the Church were held. So the itinerant clergy 
must have carried the sacred vessels with them, 
which almost necessitates a bag of some kind. 
Cuir bouilli cases of much later date for sacra- 
mental plate may be seen in the British Museum 
and elsewhere. 2 If his staff is a palmer's bourdon 

1 The suggestion that it is a burse may, I think, be similarly dis- 
missed. Large rationals were sometimes worn, but would not be 
suspended from the neck. 

2 e.g., from Little Weltham Church (Suffolk), illustrated in British 
Museum Guide to Medieval Room, fig. 28. 

90 The Kirkby Font 

the oblong object would be his scrip, and such it 
may be, for it was often suspended from the 
shoulders and carried either in front, behind, or 
at the side. 1 Another suggestion is that it is a 
breast-plate. And he may be intended for a 
Jewish high priest representing " the old order." 
If such were the intention, the dress would 
obviously be unsuitable, but suitability of vest- 
ment did not always trouble the mediaeval artist, 
as it has not troubled many since. But breast- 
plates were sometimes worn by Christian priests, 
for in Marriott's Vestiarium Christianum there is 
a drawing of a breast-plate found on a skeleton 
in a stone coffin in the Church of the Passion, 
Moscow. It was of leather, and hung by a 
thong round the neck, and was also fastened 
round the waist by a girdle. The breast-plate 
and girdle both had affixed to them numerous 
metal plates, arranged in bands, and having on 
them Greek texts and icons, the crucifixion 
appearing twice. 

Many years ago in Dublin I saw some interesting 
relics of early Irish art, and learnt that the early 
missionary bishops were believed always to have 
carried about with them a bell, a book, and a 
reliquary, as well as then- staff. For these things 
beautiful cases were made, a few of which are 
preserved. Among these is the Menistir or 
travelling reliquary of St. Moedoc of Ferns, in its 
cuir bouilli case. It is called the Breac Moedog 
(pr. Brack Mogue). They are described and illus- 
trated in Archceologia, vol. 43. 2 These reliquaries 
were usually house-shaped with vertical walls and 

1 For an excellent contemporary picture of a pilgrim with a branch 
of holy palm tied to his staff and scrip suspended from his shoulders, 
see illustration in Clinch's Old English Churches of a mural painting 
in Faversham Church. 

* They, however, must be renewals, as they cannot be anything 
like as old as the 6th century. 

The Kirkby Font 91 

pointed roofs, like oratories. There is a late 
(Limoges, enamelled) metal example in the Mayer 
Collection, Liverpool Museum. The shrine of 
St. Boniface in Brixworth Church is similarly 
shaped in stone. And other examples will come 
to mind, as, for instance, the one on the Bayeux 
Tapestry on which Harold takes the oath to 

That reliquaries were carried about is shown 
by a passage in Bede. He tells us that the 
Gaulish Bishops, Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus 
of Troyes 1 , came to Britain 2 to refute the Pelagian 
heresy, and after meeting and confounding 
Pelagius himself, Germanus performed a miracle 
in making a blind girl see. He says : " Germanus 
full of the Holy Ghost, invoking the Trinity, took 
into his hands a casket, containing the relics of 
the saints, which hung about his neck, and applied 
it, in the sight of all, to the girl's eyes, which 
were immediately delivered from the darkness 
. . . ' The portable reliquary of St. Moedoc is 
8J by 3| by 1\ ins. high, and contained relics 
brought from Rome by St. Molaise of Devenish 
and presented to St. Moedoc. The case of beauti- 
fully figured cuir bouilli 8 has a strap handle 
forming a loop and attached to each side. 

My suggestion is that P. 5 has, suspended by 
its strap handle from his neck, a satchel contain- 
ing a house-shaped travelling reliquary ; that 
the upper part corresponds to the roof, with over- 
hanging eaves, and the lower part is vertical, 
covering the upright walls. The measurements 
confirm this view. The ratio of width to height 
is as 10 : 8 and of the Breac Moedog is as 8J : 7J 

1 Both afterwards canonised. Germanus is Saint Germain 
1'Auxerrois of Paris, St. German of Peel, and St. Garmon of Capel 
Garmon and Llanarmon. 

2 A.D. 429. 

* Chaucer's " coorbuly." 

92 The Kirkby Font 

(10 : 8=8f : 7J). I tried also comparisons with 
the dimensions of the figure, but they could not 
be made, as the proportions are all wrong. His 
head, for instance, is 25 per cent, of his height, 
instead of 15 per cent., as in nature. The width 
of his chest is nearly twice what it should be for 
his height. As I have said, mediaeval artists did 
not trouble about exact proportions. They made 
large the parts to which they wished to draw 
attention, and here they have somewhat 
emphasised the reliquary. The large hole in the 
side of the reliquary I have attributed to a fault 
in the stone, made larger probably by the school 
children. It is very tempting, though, to suggest 
that the hole was first made by the sculptor in 
imitation of St. Chad's original shrine as described 
by Bede : ' The place of the sepulchre is ... 
made like a little house .... having a hole 1 in 
the wall, through which those that go thither for 
devotion usually put their hand and take out 
some dust, which they put into water and give 
to sick cattle or men to drink, upon which they 
are presently eased of their infirmity and restored 
to health." 

P. 6 is bearded and, I think, tonsured, but a 
large part of the top of his head has gone, either 
broken off when the lock staples were wrenched 
out or split off by natural processes. He has a 
short chasuble, very like the little P.I figure, 
but he is as tall as P. 5, i.e., 16 J ins. Only one 
vestment is visible worn beneath his chasuble, 
but there is a suspicion of something pointed 
hanging over his left leg. It might indicate the 
hanging pocket we are told Anglo-Saxon and 
early Norman priests wore. It was later 
restricted to bishops as the subcingulum, and is 

1 Such holes in shrine walls may still be seen at St. Davids 
(Pembrokeshire) . 

THE FIGURES P 7 and 6. 


The Kirkby Font 93 

now, I understand, only worn by the Pope on 
certain solemn occasions. P. 6 has his fingers 
interlocked, and he presses a book against his 
breast. The fingers are not placed alternately, 
as is usual, but the middle and ring fingers of 
the left hand appear between the index and little 
fingers of the right. 

The next to him is P.7. I think he also is 
bearded and tonsured, but his face is much worn. 
He has a chasuble over his alb and the point of 
the former nearly touches the lower edge of the 
latter. A line of fissure in the stone runs obliquely 
from the arch near the right side of his head down 
through his right shoulder to his left knee. He 
is 16 ins. high. His left arm is bent at the elbow 
and the hand is brought to his side in front, with 
the palm turned up, the fingers bent sharply 
upwards, and the thumb widely separated from 
them. On the hand rests an oval lump, and on 
the top of it the right hand lies, palm downwards, 
with the tips of the fingers only slightly bent. 
The left end of the oval lump which he carries is 
rounded and divided off from the rest by a con- 
striction. The right end is irregular and ter- 
minates in two small oval pieces, while in front 
of the middle a V-shaped piece, pointing to the 
right, is to be distinguished, and the priest's 
right hand seems to catch hold of its upper end. 
A tracing of the parts gives the outline seen in 
the diagram, and I have not the least doubt that 
what P. 7 holds in his hands is an infant. Mr. 
Roberts takes the " lump " to be the priest's left 
hand crossed over his right, and what are clearly 
fingers of the left hand he takes to be the right 
hand, and so speaks of " folded arms." 

Attention may be called to the excessive 
breadth of this figure in proportion to its height. 
Indeed, all the figures are disproportionately 

94 The Kirkby Font 

broad, but P. 7 most of all. It is most likely due 
to bad spacing, which left the niche too wide, and 
it had to be filled. Still we must remember, when 
considering breadth, that in those days there 
were no fireplaces and no warming of buildings 
and it is on record that sometimes enormous 
quantities of clothes were worn. It was said 
that in life Becket looked stout, but when un- 
dressed 1 for burial he was found to be very 

We have now completed the circuit of the font 
and have come back to Adam and Eve. If we 
count the serpent round the tree as one, the font 
has twelve figures. I divide these into two 
groups of six. One group, now east, but I should 
think originally south, facing the south door, 
has in the centre the Fall and Expulsion from 
Eden, represented by four figures Eve, the 
Serpent, Adam, and the Angel. This group is 
flanked by a figure on the one side representing 
the promise of redemption and defeat of Satan, 
and on the other the way to redemption, 
through baptism. 

While Christianity was gradually replacing 
paganism, adult baptism was much more usual 
than that of infants. Children were mostly 
allowed to grow old enough to answer for them- 
selves. In those early times, too, baptism was 
performed by the bishop ; and except in times of 
great conversions baptisms were normally done 
only at fixed times on Easter Eve and Whitsun 
Eve. Baptism by parish priests (or their equiva- 
lent) in parish churches was legalised only in the 
middle of the 8th century. Cuthbert arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in the year 747 ordered all 
priests to baptise. But churches and priests were 

1 He had on eight garments, one over the other : vide Spence's 
History of the Church of England, ii., 204. 

The Kirkby Font 95 

still few and far between, and it was not till the 
time of Bishop ^Ethelwald (818-828) that the 
itinerant clergy, working the diocese from the 
cathedral of the see, were abolished in Mercia 
and local arrangements made for the cure of 
souls. Charlemagne (768) ordered fonts to be 
set up in all churches having the cure of souls, 
and all children to be baptised before they were 
a year old. The English King Edgar, in 960, 
decreed that baptism must not be delayed beyond 
37 days from birth. From the llth century 
onwards children were expected to be baptised 
within a few days of their birth. But it often 
meant a serious journey. The parish church 
might be a long way off. The Kirkby baby 
would have to be carried 6 to 12 miles or more, 
first by difficult paths through bog and moss, 
then over the low swampland of the River Alt, 
often flooded and impassable for weeks together, 
Next came the bleak and exposed Longmoor, then 
more clay and mud beside the Tue brook, till 
finally they climbed the steep hill to Walton. 
And the ceremony over, all the steps had to be 
retraced. One can quite understand that parents 
often did not get their children baptised quite as 
soon as the priest thought they ought. To 
relieve the people from this trouble, and even 
danger, the Kirkby font was made, and one 
half of the bowl was carved with sculpture setting 
forth the doctrine of infant baptism, the possi- 
bility of which it now brought almost to their 

It may be argued that baptism cannot be 
intended as the priest wears a chasuble. Indeed, 
in all the representations of baptism I can recall 
the priest is vested in alb or surplice and stole 
only, but they are all late examples, and I have 

96 The Kirkby Font 

already pointed out that the restricted use of 
the chasuble was comparatively late. 

If we accept this interpretation of this half, the 
other half becomes, at any rate, symmetrical, 
consisting of six figures, as follows : At each 
wing is a tonsured priest with short chasuble and 
book in hand (P.I and P.6). Next to these, on 
either side, is a figure carrying a long staff, while 
in the centre stand the two mitred saints with 
their emblems and the serpents' heads beneath 
their feet. 

The imagery on the walls, windows, screens and 
elsewhere in the churches were the lantern slides 
and picture palaces, and more, the very books of 
the middle ages. By them the doctrines of the 
Church and the lives of the saints and moral 
homilies were taught. The people could not read 
books, but they read into all these symbols what 
they had been taught from infancy. Winchester 
font illustrates symbolically the Eucharist and 
scenes from the life of St. Nicholas of Myra. 
The Brighton font tells of baptism and the Last 
Supper, with scenes from the life of the patron 
saint of the church. The Curdworth font, too, 
has incidents connected with the dedication. 
Kirkby font illustrates a subject of Christian 
doctrine the reason for and necessity of infant 
baptism, and, if I am right, the other side is 
connected with the life of the saint whose name 
was given to the chapel in which it was placed 
St. Chad, the patron also of the diocese in 
which Kirkby was until 1541. St. Chad, or more 
correctly Ceadda, was a very popular saint, 
especially in Mercia. To him its conversion to 
Christianity was attributed. His life of simple 
piety and humility seems to have appealed to 
all. Over 30 churches are dedicated to him, chiefly 

The Kirkby Font 97 

in Mercia. 1 The cathedral of the then great 
Mercian diocese, at Lichfield, contained his shrine, 
and was dedicated to him, and what is more 
" the glorious Prince of the Apostles," Peter, had 
been replaced in the dedication by the simple, 
meek and lowly Chad, who, when removed from 
being bishop of York by that masterful Greek, 
Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury, 
simply replied that he gladly relinquished it, as 
he had never felt himself worthy of so high an 
office, and had only accepted it from obedience. 
Another evidence of the respect in which Chad 
was held is that his cross is the chief charge on 
the arms of the see. 

Travellers on the London and North-Western 
Railway all know that a view of the cathedral of 
Lichfield, with its three spires, a mile away to the 
west, is obtained both before and after passing 
through the cutting in which the Trent Valley 
station lies. But perhaps some are not aware that 
just half-way between them and the cathedral is 
the square tower with corner turret of Stowe 
church, and beside it in a garden is St. Chad's 
Well, the water of which flows into one of the 
pools which add so much to the picturesqueness 
of the cathedral and its surroundings. St. Chad's 
Pool (or Stowe Pool), in which, before there was 
any church or font, he was wont to baptise, has 
now been enlarged into a reservoir, and the 
sacred water that used to work miracles is now, 
I am told, conveyed in pipes to Burton-on-Trent 
for beer-making. 

By the church was Chad's cell, where he hung 
his clothes on the sunbeam. There he meditated 
and prayed, there the angels visited him, 

1 When Offa conquered Powys (Shropshire) and took its capital, 
Pengwern (now Shrewsbury), he gave the site of the palace of the 
Princes of Powys for a new church to be built in honour of St. Chad. 

98 The Kirkby Font 

and the plague seized him, and he died 
in 672, and beside it he was buried. Bede 
says : " Chad died on March 2nd, and was 
first buried by St. Mary's church, but afterwards 
when the church of the most holy Prince of the 
Apostles, Peter, was built, his bones were trans- 
lated to it." This St. Peter's church is supposed 
to have been the first on the site of the present 
cathedral, and to have been built by Bishop 
Headda (691-720), but really nothing is known of 
it. History is quite a blank for hundreds of 
years. We do know from recent excavations 
that whatever it was, it was succeeded by a 
Norman church, around the foundations of which 
the present Early English and Decorated cathedral 
is built. Who built the Norman church is not 
known, but there is a tradition, or little 
more, that it was Roger de Clinton (bishop 1129- 
1148) who " ' built it new ' in honour of St. Mary 
and St. Chad." So, as I have already said, St. 
Chad replaced St. Peter as patron saint of the 
diocese in the 12th century, apparently a few 
years before the Kirkby font was made. It may 
be that among other things the sculpture was 
intended to record this fact, showing as it does 
St. Peter standing aside (may I say, approvingly ?) 
while St. Chad gives the blessing. Another 
possibility has been suggested. It might have 
reference to the fact that Chad was twice a 
bishop, once of St. Peter's see of York, and 
secondly of Lichfield. 

I think, however, it is more likely that it refers 
to the great controversy of Chad's time the 
struggle for uniformity in the Christian Church 
the throwing over of the rule of St. Columba 
and the acknowledgment of St. Peter as prince 
of the Apostles, as Wilfrid put it, or as King 
Oswy said in a cruder, personal and more interested 

The Kirkby Font 99 

way, when as chairman at Whitby he summed 
up the proceedings of the council: ". . . he is the 
door-keeper, whom I will not contradict, but will 
as far as I know and am able, in all ways obey 
his decrees, lest, when I come to the gates of the 
Kingdom of Heaven, there should be none to 
open them, he being my adversary who is proved 
to have the keys." 

When our font was in the making the great 
struggle between Henry II. and Becket had not 
long resulted in the archbishop's murder. 
Possibly the mason's hand was actually applying 
his tool to the font while Henry Plantagenet was 
kneeling in penance at Becket's tomb (1173). 
When looking at these figures, I fancy I hear the 
priest discoursing to his flock on the life and 
example of St. Chad ; of what he had done for 
them in his life and how willing he was always 
to submit to the authority of mother Church as 
typified by St. Peter. The figures on either side 
may have been used to illustrate his missionary 
tours and monastic life, as attendants with book 
and reliquary and the staff to indicate they were 
travellers. At each wing is a shorn priest, shorn 
as all have been since Bishop Colman and the 
discomfited Scots retired from the field as what 
Bede calls a despised sect. These suggestions as 
to the interpretation I make with much diffidence. 
They rest on evidence of varied value Some, I 
hope, will be considered strong ; some is slight. 
I trust, however, that the paper may call atten- 
tion to this valuable and interesting relic, and 
that others better versed in mediaeval archaeology 
will be induced to study it and help to solve its 
many problems and interpret its meaning. 




By Rev. H. A. Hudson, M.A., F.S.A. 

Read 10th March, 1921. 

/CONSPICUOUS among the many interesting 
^ features of the nave roof of Manchester 
Cathedral is the noteworthy assemblage of 
minstrel angels forming the ornamental supporters 
of the wall-posts beneath the beams. These 
carvings, both on account of their number and by 
reason of their artistic merit, are of such import- 
ance that we might even go so far as to say that 
were the cathedral devoid of any other excellences 
of mediaeval woodcraft this feature alone would 
suffice to give it distinction in this particular 
department of sculpture. An integral part of a 
roof which in general design and ornamental 
detail is no whit inferior to the best work of the 
northern craftsmen of the late fifteenth century, 
these musical angels are valuable also for other 
reasons. In the first place the series is one of the 
most complete of its kind in existence, and may 
be said to mark an epoch. In point of numbers 
also, and in the variety of the instruments 
represented, it exceeds most others that have 
come down to us ; and, by no means least 

Carvings of Medieval Musical Instruments 101 

important, the condition of the carvings (with the 
exception of the angels' wings, which have been 
renewed) may be regarded as being practically 

It should be observed in passing that a special 
value attaches to such sculptures in general, on 
account of the light which they throw upon the 
actual forms of early instruments, many of which 
are now obsolete, as well as upon the mode in 
which they were played. From the nature of the 
case this light is fuller and often more reliable 
than that derived from other sources of informa- 
tion, among which may be mentioned the repre- 
sentations found in stained glass, illuminated 
manuscripts and monumental brasses. 

The carvings under review are fourteen in 
number, each portraying a half-length figure of 
an angel clad in alb and amice and engaged in 
playing a musical instrument. The figures 
average 2 ft. 10 in. in length, the total measure- 
ment, including wings and instruments, ranging 
from 4 ft. to 5 ft. 1 in. The conventional clouds 
from which the demi-angel usually issues in such 
situations are absent, the figures being set directly 
upon the capitals of the bay shafts with an out- 
ward tilt of 55 degrees. All the instruments are 
different, no two being exactly alike, although in 
one case, namely the bagpipe, two varieties of 
the same instrument are shown. 

It need scarcely be pointed out that musical 
instruments of all ages, whether ancient or modern, 
are essentially of three kinds only, namely : those 
of percussion, those for wind, and those for 
strings. All three categories are represented here 
as may be seen from the following table, which 
gives the Manchester instruments as they now 
appear : 

102 Carvings of Medieval Musical 


(from West to East). (from East to West). 

1. Tabor, or Drum. 8. Portative Organ. 

2. Recorder. 9. Harp. 

3. Irish Bagpipe. 10. Psaltery. 

4. Scottish Bagpipe. 11. Dulcimer. 

5. Shawm, or Oboe. 12. Lute. 

6. Trumpet, or Clarion. 13. Fithele. 

7. Clavicymbal. 14. Symphony, or 


In describing the instruments it will be con- 
venient to take them in the above order, which, 
however, differs slightly from the order given in 
plate xxii. of Mr. Crowther's Architectural History 
of the Cathedral, where numbers 2 and 5 are 
transposed. It differs also in another respect from 
the order in which they stood prior to the last 
restoration of the roof. As now arranged, the 
clavicymbal is the only stringed-instrument on 
the north side, and the portative organ the only 
wind-instrument on the south. An early photo- 
graph of the nave, dating from about 1870 or 
earlier, in the writer's possession, shows that 
these also have been transposed. It may thus 
be inferred that originally the series on the south 
side consisted entirely of stringed-instruments, 
the wind series being all together on the north 

It is a matter of regret that we are unable to 
give photographic illustrations of all these 
subjects, and it is therefore well to make two 
observations of a general nature by way of 
preface to the detailed description that follows. 
In the first place, with regard to the players : 
there is a good deal more variety of expression 
and grace of form, pose, and dress in the carving 
of the angels themselves than is apparent in the 
outline drawings which we are enabled to 
reproduce. This we can vouch for from personal 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 103 

examination at close quarters in one instance, 
whilst confirmatory testimony is provided by 
one or two photographs which have been secured. 
Excellent as these drawings are so far as they go, 
they necessarily fall short in certain matters of 
detail which, were it possible to employ it in 
each case, a camera might elucidate. Unfor- 
tunately the great height of the subjects, and 
their peculiar situation, as well as the bad 
lighting, especially of those on the south side, 
seem to preclude the taking of successful photo- 

Then, secondly, as regards the instruments : 
it should be remembered, as the late Dr. Henry 
Watson once pointed out, 1 that the sculptor's 
limitations in carving musical instruments in 
relief, with the performers engaged in playing 
them, are very severe, especially considering the 
particular purpose and position for which they 
were destined here, as in many other places ; 
and this being the case, neither the shape and 
proportions of some of the instruments, nor the 

1 The observation was made in a discourse on these instruments 
at a meeting of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 
on March llth, 1910. 

It was Dr. Watson's expressed intention on this occasion to amplify 
his remarks in a future address, and afterwards to commit them to 
writing with a view to publication. Among local musicians few 
were better qualified to deal with the subject than Dr. Watson, and 
his lamented death at the beginning of 1911 deprived both the 
members and the public of a contribution to musical archaeology 
which would have been greatly prized. Through the kindness of 
a friend, we have had an opportunity of examining Dr. Watson's 
notes, and it is mainly with their help and that of the splendid 
collections comprised in the "Henry Watson Library" belonging to 
the city, and the " Henry Watson Collection of Musical Instruments " 
belonging to the Royal Manchester College of Music, that we have 
been enabled to offer the description of the instruments which is here 

The general subject may be pursued in the delightful and informing 
volume on Old English Instruments of Music by the Rev. F. W. 
Galpin, F.S.A., to which we have freely made reference ; and for the 
carved treatment the excellent publications on the sculptures at 
Exeter Cathedral by Miss E. K. Prideaux may be consulted profitably. 


Carvings of Mediaeval Musical 

method in which they were held and played, are 
strictly to be determined by such representations 
alone as are supplied by series of carvings like 
that under consideration. 

1 . TABOR. 

Our first instrument is a Tabor, which was a 
little drum slung by a short string from the 
waist, shoulder, or left arm, and tapped with a 
small stick or pair of sticks. 
The tabor is the sole represen- 
tative here of the instruments 
of percussion, which in early 
times formed a numerous class, 
and included the cymbals, 
crotula or castanets, triangulum, 
sistrum, tintinnabula, and 

The members of the old 
drum family may be grouped 
under three headings : first, 
the Timbrel, or tambourine ; 
secondly, the Nakers, or kettle- 
drums ; and thirdly the Tabor, or drum proper. 

The timbrel is of very ancient lineage and was 
used in processions and on occasions of solemn 
rejoicing, the performers frequently being females. 
Thus, after the Egyptian overthrow, Miriam 
" took a timbrel in her hand and all the women 
went out after her with timbrels and with dances." 1 
So Jephthah's daughter went forth to meet her 
father " with timbrels and with dances."' In his 
poem David and Goliath the victor's return is thus 
described by Drayton : 

" Field, town and city with his fame do ring, 
The tender Virgins on their timbrels sing 
Ditties of him."* 

1 Ex., xv.. 20. Judg.. xi.. 34. 

* Galpin, Old English Instruments of Music, p. 241. 


1 . Pipe and Tabor on a misericord at Exeter Cathedral 
(XIII. Cent.). 

2. Nakers and Clarion on a misericord at Worcester Cathedral 
(XIV. Cent.). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 105 

And it may be remembered that the religious 
procession in Edwin Long's picture, " The Flight 
into Egypt " is headed by a band of female 
musicians, several of whom play timbrels. A 
good example of the mediaeval timbrel, having a 
double row of jingles, appears in the Minstrel 
Gallery at Exeter. 

The nakers, often found in mediaeval carvings 
(PI. 1.2) and illuminations, derive their name and 
use, like many other instruments, from the 
Arabs. From this source, perhaps by way of 
Spain, whence also we adopted the Moorish or 
Morris-dance, they came to England ; or it may 
be that their actual introduction here was due to 
the Crusaders. Engel remarks that " names of 
musical instruments derived from the Moors in 
Spain occur in almost every European language." 1 
The nakers are to be regarded as the progenitors 
of the modern timpani, or kettle-drums. 

Of the tabor, or drum proper, there were both 
large and small kinds ; the smaller, to which our 
example belongs, being called the tabourell in 
Queen Elizabeth's time. As a solo instrument it 
is properly played with two drum-sticks ; and 
although the specimen represented here appears 
to be quite plain, it should be pointed out that a 
vibrating cord of catgut, called a " snare," was 
commonly stretched across the parchment of all 
the drum family : also, that the side-cords or* 
' braces " used for tightening the skins of the 
double-headed drum were known both to the 
Egyptians and the Romans. 

The tabor-player was often provided with a 
pipe which he held in his left hand and blew like 
a whistle, whilst he thumped his tabor with the 
drum-stick in his right hand (PI. I.I). The pipe 
had only three holes, but by means of harmonics 

1 Musical Instruments, p. 56. 


Carvings of Medieval Musical 

a scale of nearly two octaves was possible. So 
for the dance the whistle-pipe gave the melody 
while the tabor marked the rhythm. 

The drum and fife band is the lineal descendant 
of the mediaeval pipe and tabor, which thus 
become the ancestors of the modern military 


A varied succession of pipers accompanies our 
taborist here ; indeed, with one exception, all 
the rest of the instruments on the north side 

belong to the wind series. 
The Recorder now to 
be considered is a mem- 
ber of the Flute family, 
and although now obso- 
lete it was once held in 
great esteem. A species 
of flageolet, it is thus 
described by Bacon : 
"The figures of recorders, 
flutes, and pipes are 
straight ; but the re- 
corder hath a less bore, 
and a greater above and below/' 1 We find it men- 
tioned by Shakespeare, Pepys, and Milton, the 
references in Hamlet being well-known ; to play 
it, according to the Danish prince, was 

" As easy as lying : govern these ventages with your 
fingers and thumb, give it breath with your mouth, and it 
will discourse most eloquent music." (Act iii., Sc. 2.) 

Owing to its popularity in England the French 
called the recorder, or beaked-flute (flute a bee), 
" la flute d'Angleterre." The thumb-hole at the 
back, referred to in the above passage, was one 
of its distinguishing marks. It had commonly 
seven finger-holes and was played, as represented 

1 See En gel, p. 125. 


Angel playing a Recorder (late XV. Cent.). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 107 

here, like a clarinet, and not transversely as the 
German flute which has taken its place. 

Like the viols, the recorders were made in 
sets, and a unique English set of four, belonging to 
the Chester Archaeological Society, was exhibited 
and described by Dr. J. C. Bridge at the Society 
of Antiquaries in 1912. 1 On this occasion Dr. 
Bridge quoted a highly interesting incident 
narrated in the " Metrical records of the House 
of Stanley," which should appeal specially to 
the patriotic and musical instincts of Lancastrians. 
It describes the entertainment of the king and 
queen of Castile, who, seeking shelter from a 
storm on their way home from the Netherlands, 
landed at Falmouth and were invited to Court 
by Henry VII. 

" When the King of Castell was driven hether 
By force and violence of wyndie wether, 
He brought with him that were thought good musitions, 
There was none better in their opinions ; 
The King of Castell saide their actes were so able ; 
They were gentlemen of howses notable. 
' I have,' quothe Henerie the Seventh, ' a Knyght my 


One of the greatest earles sonnes in all my land, 
He playeth on all instruments none comes amisse 
Called Sir Edward Stanley ; Lo ! there he is . . .' 
This second sonne Edward (Stanley) was married to an 


Of a thousand markes a yeare, of good land and faire. 
His playing on instruments was a good noyse, 2 
His singing as excellent with a sweete voice. 
His countenance comelie, with visage demure, 
Not moving, ne streininge, but stedfast and sure. 
He would showe in a single recorder pype 
As many partes as any in a bagpype. 

1 See Proceedings, xxiv., 117. 

" Noise," an old musical expression indicating the effect pro- 
duced by several instruments playing together. The Biblical use 
of the word is familiar : e.g., " the noise of thy viols " (Ps. xiv., ii) ; 
" When He saw the minstrels and the people making a noise " (Matt., 
i.x., 23). 


Carvings of Medieval Musical 

He showed much conning those two Kings before 
That the others had no luste to play any more. 
He played on all instruments notable well : 
But of all things mused the King of Castell 
To heare two partes in a single recorder, 
That was beyond their estimations f ar ! " 

"It is evident," says Dr. Bridge, commenting 
upon this remarkable episode, " that Sir Edward 
Stanley was able to imitate the chanter and drone 
of a bagpipe, but I cannot explain how he did it." 
We suspect, however, that, like many another 
entertainer, he had " something up his sleeve." 
Possibly his instrument was a cunningly contrived 
double recorder (PI. III.l). 


The bagpipe, according to William Lynd, 1 is one 
of the most ancient instruments in the world. 
Hipkins describes it as the organ reduced to its 

most simple expression. 
A syrinx, or panpipe, 
with bag or bellows, is 
represented on an ancient 
terra-cotta excavated at 
Tarsus and believed to 
be two thousand years 
old. The instrument was 
known to the Romans as 
the tibia utricularis, and 
a bronze figure of a bag- 
piper was found during 
the excavations at Rich- 
borough. 2 The Emperor 

Nero, whose musical proclivities are generally 
associated with the fiddle, is said to have regarded 
the bagpipe with special favour. 

There were various kinds of bagpipe. Shake- 
speare puts an allusion to the "drone of a 

1 Ancient Musical Instruments, p. 28. 
1 Galpin, p. 174. 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 109 

Lincolnshire bagpipe "' into the mouth of Falstaff. 
Lancashire and Northumbrian pipes are also met 
with. The two main classes, however, are those 
known to us as the Irish and Scotch, the essential 
difference between these two varieties being that 
in the old Irish form the wind is supplied by a 
small bellows under the arm of the player, whence 
the instrument is known in Erse as uilleann, 
or the elbow-pipes ; whereas in the Scottish the 
performer fills his wind-bag by blowing through 
a short pipe held in the mouth. 2 

It will be noticed that the example before us 
has neither mouthpiece nor drone, but simply the 
windbag and " chanter " pipe. Hence we assume 
that it belongs to the Irish class. It may be 
added that an illustration of a bagpipe with 
bellows attached to the windbag occurs in the 
Syntagma Musicum by Michael Praetorius (1619). 8 


The differences between this and the preceding 
example are evident. Here the windbag is held 

under the right arm, and 
its blow-pipe fixed in 
the player's mouth ; also 
in addition to the 
" chanter," a single 
drone-pipe appears. 

Often in later instru- 
ments three or more 
drones are found, and 
Lynd describes a North- 
umbrian bagpipe with as 
many as four drones 
made of ivory. 

1 Henry IV., pt. I, act 1, sc. 2. 

2 See The Carvings of Musical Instruments in Exeter Cathedral 
Church, by Edith K. Prideaux, p. 14. 

3 111. in The History of Music, by Emil Naumann, ed. Ousclev, 
i., 263. 


Carvings of Mediceval Musical 

There exists a curious carving of a bagpiper on 
one of the brackets adorning the Eleanor 
Percy tomb at Beverley minster, where the wind- 
bag of the instrument consists of a small entire 
pig-skin, with fore-legs and feet intact, the blow- 
pipe being inserted in the pig's mouth (PI. III. 2). 
That this is no mere fancy of the artist may be 
inferred from a parallel custom related by Engel, 
who remarks that in Poland and the Ukraine the 
bagpipe used to be made of the whole skin of the 
goat, so that whenever the windbag was distended 
the shape of the animal was fully retained 
exhibiting even the head with the horns ; hence 
they called the bagpipe rosa, signifying a goat. 1 

Bagpipes, although regarded as special favourites 
of the Celtic races, were popular with all classes, 
being associated with folk and dance music and 
also freely found in ecclesiastical sculptures. 
There is evidence, moreover, of their employment 
in the homes of royalty, and it is on record that 
Henry VIII., who was no mean musician, had 
four bagpipes in his collection "' with pipes of 
ivorie." 2 

5. SHAWM. 

The instrument 
depicted here is the 
Shawm, or Schalmey, a 
name which was derived 
through the Fr. chalumeau 
from "calamus," a reed. 
It is perhaps the oldest 
of all instruments, and 
therefore the parent of 
all the reed instruments 
of the modern orchestra. 
Schalmey is a term still 
applied to the lower 

1 Op. cit.. p. 130. 

1 See Galpin, p. 175. 


1. Double Recorder (or Shawm) on a boss of the reredos at 
Beverley Minster (XIV. Cent.). 

2. Bagpiper from the Percy tomb at Beverley Minster 
(XIV. Cent.). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 111 

register of the clarinet. 1 The shawm appears to 
have been introduced into the West by the 

Directly descended from the schalmey is the 
hautbois, or waight, so-called from being used 
by the London watchmen, or " waights," 2 to 
proclaim the time of the night. After a toot or 
short solo on his instrument the watchman would 
cry the hour in quaint fashion, such as : " Past 
three o'clock and a cold frosty morning ; past 
three o'clock : good morrow, masters all." The 
name " howeboie," derived from the Fr. haut-bois, 
dates from Queen Elizabeth's time, and probably 
indicates the shrill tone of the treble shawm. 8 

The modern oboe family, including the bassoon 
and fagotto, is thus the offspring of the shawm, 
its essential characteristic being the double reed ; 
that is, two thin slips of cane which vibrate 
against each other. In the single reed family, to 
which the clarinet belongs, a single reed vibrates 
against the natural tube or the mouthpiece. 
Bagpipes, it has been pointed out, frequently 
exhibit both ; the chanter-pipe having a double 

1 Naumann, i., 261, n. 

2 We first hear of the Manchester " waights," who were the town 
minstrels rather than watchmen, in the Court Leet records of 1563. 
They were at first two in number, but were later increased to four. 
Among their specified duties were " playing mornying and euening 
to gether according as others haue bene accustomed to doe " ; they 
played also at other times, as for example on civic occasions and at 
weddings. They were appointed, though apparently not paid, by 
the court, and had the assistance of the constables of the town in 
" gathering " their wages. Very likely they would wear, as was 
customary elsewhere, a badge of office. A fine set of four such 
badges, with silver collars, dating from the time of Queen Mary, is 
preserved at Bristol. (See Society of Antiquaries Proceedings, xiii., 

A quaint survival of a similar official personage is the horn-blower 
of the " Wakeman," now Mayor, of Ripon, who still blows his horn 
on the Town Hall steps at nightfall, the citizens being thereby 
reminded that " Except the Lord keep the city the wakeman (i.e., 
watchman) waketh but in vain." Ps. cxxvii. 2. 

3 Galpin, p. 165. 

112 Carvings of Medieval Musical 

reed and the drones a single/ Along with the 
bagpipes the shawm was the intimate companion 
of the wandering minstrels of Central Europe. 

" With trumpets also and shawms " is a 
familiar invitation to praise. The conjunction of 
the instruments here is therefore appropriate. 
But trumpets, with their big and little brothers, 
the Buzine (Lat. buccina) and the Clarion, had 
other functions ; sometimes it was the pageantry 
of courts that called them ; at others, as at 
Crecy and Agincourt, they are found in martial 
array among the 

" Pypes, trompes, nakers, and clariounes, 
That in the bataille bio wen blody sounes." * 

The earlier mediaeval " trompes " had a long 
straight cylindrical tube which varied in length 
from three or four feet to six or seven feet, and 

terminated in a spreading 
bell. Gradually and for 
the sake of convenience 
the long straight form 
gave way to the bent 
tube, sometimes shaped 
in zigzag fashion (PI. 1.2), 
but afterwards, as in the 
case before us, with a 
double bend folded over 
upon itself, which gives 
a better construction. 
Thus Herman, an early 
sixteenth century writer, 
tells us that " a Trom- 

pette is straight, but a Clarion is wounde in and 
out with a hope." 3 

1 Lynd, p. 22. 

1 Chaucer, The Knight's Tale, 1. 1653 (ed. Skeat). 

Galpin, p. 203. 


Angel playing a Clavicymbal (late XV. Cent.). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 113 

Both the clarion and the buzine, as the shorter 
and longer forms of the mediaeval trumpet were 
denominated, have disappeared, the former giving 
place to the clarinet, whose high notes made an 
effective substitute for those of the clarion ; and 
the latter to the sackbut, a slide instrument which, 
judging from the Bible and Book of Common 
Prayer, had become well-known in the seventeenth 
century, and is found in the modern orchestra 
under the name of trombone. 


Our next two instruments are of exceptional 
interest as introducing us to the forerunners of 
the keyed instruments which issued in the piano- 
forte and organ of modern days. Although the 
Clavicymbal here represented resembles in shape 
the grand-piano, its fellow the clavichord, a 
unique example of which is figured in the fine roof 
sculpture of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, is actually 
the real ancestor of the piano. 

The essential difference 
between these two keyed string 
instruments of mediaeval times 
subsists in the mode of oper- 
ating the strings. Both were 
derived from earlier forms, 
and may be regarded as the 
application of the mechanical 
principle to pre-existing in- 
struments played by hand, 
such as the psaltery and citole, 
which were played with a 
plectrum or plucked by the 
fingers ; and the dulcimer, 
whose wire strings were struck 
by hammers. The clavicymbal 
embodied the former of these two principles. 

114 Carvings of Mediceval Musical 

The earlier keyed-psaltery from which it was 
derived was introduced by the Italians about 
1400, and was called the clavicytherium, or keyed- 
harp. The English clavicymbal (Ital. clavicembalo) 
developing the same principle of plucking the 
strings mechanically, became in turn the 
virginal, harpischord, and spinet; 1 the strings in 
each case being twanged by means of small 
portions of crowquill, whalebone, or leather 
attached to slips of wood called " jacks," which 
were provided with springs and connected with 
the keys. 

Early representations of this instrument, which 
assumed its form about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, are extremely rare, and 
accordingly the value of the specimen here is 
enhanced. From its peculiar shape, resembling 
somewhat the wing of a bird, the clavicymbal was 
called the " flugel " by the Germans. A beautiful 
Venetian example 2 of the instrument itself, adorned 
with painting, is now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. It is dated 1574, and measures 7 ft. 
4 in. by 3 ft. by 9J in. 


It requires some effort of imagination to realize 
that the winsome little model so charmingly 
portrayed here is not a mere concept of artistic 
fancy, but, on the contrary, that it represents an 
actual and important adjunct of processional and 
other uses in the mediaeval services of the church 
and elsewhere, and is withal in essentials the 
prototype of the " king of instruments " of 

This popular little instrument called the 
" Portative " was so named because it could be 

1 The spinet (Ital. spinetta or spinetto) is said to derive its name 
from the little quill (spina, a thorn) belonging to its mechanism. 

* 111. by Engel, op. cit.. fig. 66. 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 115 

carried about during performance, in contra- 
distinction to the " positive," or standing organ, 
which was placed on a table or rested on the 
ground (PL V. 2). Both are alluded to in the will of 
Richard Fitz- James, bishop of London, 1522, who 

bequeathed his " payre of portatyves " x and his 
" organs being and standing in my chapels " to 
his successor. 2 The fact, which is here implied, 
that both these little organs could be moved about 
explains a custom which obtained in the sixteenth 
century and is illustrated in the churchwardens' 
accounts of the period, namely, the lending of 
organs from one church to another ; as, for 
example, at St. Margaret's, Westminster : 

1508. " For bringing the organs of the Abbey into the 
Church, and bering them home agayne, i\d. " ; 

and at St. Mary at Hill, London : 

1519. " For bringing the organs from St. Andrews' 

1 It is hardly necessary to explain that the old English "payre" 
means a complete set, and is irrespective of the number of parts com- 
posing the set : e.g., a " pair of beads," or " a pair of scissors." 

1 Hopkins and Rimbault's History of the Organ, ed. 1865, p. 38. 

116 Carvings of Medieval Musical 

church against St. Barnabas eve and carrying them back 
again vd."i 

In later days the movable " positive " was 
attached permanently to the " great " organ of 
a church, and as the organist was placed at first 
between them with his back to the " positive", 
the name " chair " organ was at one time applied 
to this portion of the united instrument. 

A popular development of the portative was 
the instrument called the regal, which some derive 
from the Ital. rigabello, and others from the 
Lat. regula, indicating its employment for ruling 
the plain-chant of the services. Its characteristic 
as distinct from the portative was its possession 
of one or more sets of reeds ; hence the terms 
" single " and " double " regals. So convenient 
were these instruments that they were used by 
the travelling minstrels and by performers at 
pageants ; and that they were also acceptable at 
Court is shown by the inclusion of several " paire " 
of them among the musical instruments mentioned 
in the inventory of Henry VIII.'s " Household 
stuff e and other implements."* 

When being played the portative was either 
suspended from the shoulder by a strap, or rested 
upon the performer's knee. Usually it was played 
with the right hand, the bellows, single or double, 
being worked by the left, as shown here. Some- 
times, as in a delightful little group on the Percy 
tomb at Beverley (PI. V.I), the order is reversed, 
but it must surely have required a lusty courage 
to sing, play, and blow the organ at the same 
time, as there portrayed. 

The number of pipes varied greatly : in the 
early examples they were comparatively few. 

1 Ibid., p. 46 ; see also Dr. Cox's Churchwardens' Accounts. 

2 The inventory is printed at length in Galpin's History, App. 4, 
p. 292. 


1. Psaltery, Portative Organ and Harp (broken) ; a group in 
the vaulting of the Percy tomb, Beverley Minster (XIV. Cent.). 

2. Positive Organ on a misericord at Boston Church, Lines. 
(XIV. Cent.). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 117 

Here it is calculated that there may be as many 
as sixty-five ; four or five in a rank in the upper 
register dwindling to two in the lower. 

9. HARP. 

Although the instrument represented here has 
a certain resemblance to the Irish harp, or clarsech, 
due to the slight curve of the front-piece, there 
is reason for supposing* that the carving was 
more probably intended to depict the English 

Harp of the period used by the minstrels. The 
curved front-piece is one of the characteristic 
differences between the Irish and Welsh harps, 
the latter possessing, like the modern French 
harp, a straight front-pillar. But in the Irish 
the bend is very pronounced, whereas the old 
English form from the eleventh century onwards 
persists in the slightly curved front. 

The same form is given to the pig's harp in the 
carving of one of the misericords here. 1 This 
carving (PL V.2), it should be noted, is an example 

1 No. 13 on the South side. 


Carvings of Mediceval Musical 

of the satire commonly directed against the 
minstrel class in mediaeval sculpture. We are 
inclined, therefore, to regard the specimen before 
us as an example of the English minstrel's harp. 

In the early harps the number of strings was 
very variable, and need not be taken as an index 
of development. Usually there were eleven or 
thirteen; 1 but harps with five strings are found 
on the early " Prior's doorway " at Ely, and also 
among the much later sculptures in the nave at 
Beverley Minster ; whereas one of the harpists 
in the " angel quire " at Lincoln holds an instru- 
ment with sixteen strings, which is only one less 
than the example here, although well over two 
hundred years older. 


The next two instruments, although of different 
shape, are very similar in character, their chief 

if not their only essential 
difference consisting in 
the mode in which they 
were played. And as the 
plectra that plucked the 
strings of the psaltery 
could be used as hammers 
for striking those of the 
dulcimer there appears 
a probability that the 
earlier dulcimers were 
included under the 
general term Psaltery. 2 

The psaltery, as we 
have seen, was the proto- 
type of the virginal, spinet, and harpischord. 
Its shape, like that of its successors, varied. At 
one time it was rectangular ; at another, it 

1 Galpin, p. 16. 
1 Galpin, p. 57. 


1. Viol at the back of the reredos, Beverley Minster (XIV. Cent.) 

2. Harp and Bagpipe on a misericord at Manchester Cathedral (late XV. Cent). 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 119 

appears like a right-angled triangle held point 
upwards ; and then, all the angle points being 
flattened, it gradually assumed the trapezoid 
form with fantastic outline which suggested to 
the Italians the name " strumente di porco," 
from its supposed likeness to a pig's head. This 
is the form exemplified here, and if the instrument 
were inverted and held as shown in some illustra- 
tions of it the likeness would be still more apparent. 
Chaucer mentions the psaltery in the Miller's 
Tale (27-30) : 

" And al above ther lay a gay sautrye 
On which he made, a-nighte's, melodic 
So swetely, that al the chambre rong, 
And Angelus ad Virginem he song." 

When played by a skilled hand the psaltery 
stood second to no other instrument, and writers 
praise its silvery tone in preference to that of 
any other. Some psalteries are shown played 
with the plectrum ; here it is twanged by the 
fingers, the strings being apparently twenty in 


In our remarks upon the Clavicymbal we noted 
that the Dulcimer and not the Psaltery was the 
true parent of the pianoforte. For some centuries 
the descendants of the keyed-psalteries held sway, 
and the eighteenth century was well on its way 
before the principle of the mediaeval clavichord, 
derived as we have seen from the dulcimer, was 
so developed as to become a serious competitor 
with the harpsichord. In the end, however, it 
completely vanquished its rival ; and it is owing 
chiefly to the inventiveness and skill of English 
makers that the foreign instruments introduced 
into this country about 1760 have attained the 
wonderful degree of perfection that characterises 


Carvings of Mediczval Musical 

the modern piano. Our modest dulcimer has 
good reason to^be proud of its offspring. 

The name of this in- 
strument seems to be 
derived from dolce, sweet, 
through the intermediate 
dolcemela (Fr. douce- 
melle) ; "an appella- 
tion," says Mr. Galpin, 
" given to a ' sweet- 
toned ' stringed instru- 
ment used in France in 
the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, and 
which possessed in the 
succeeding century a key- 
board variety of the 
clavichord type. ' ' 

In its earliest and simplest form this very 
ancient instrument consisted of a flat piece of 
wood, on which were fastened two converging 
wooden strips, across which strings were stretched 
tuned to the national scale. Later improvements 
were the addition of pegs to regulate the tension 
of the strings, and the employment of two flat 
pieces for the body so as to make it a resonance- 
box. 2 The converging side strips seem to have 
determined the shape of the dulcimer, which here 
possesses thirteen strings and apparently rests 
upon the lap of the performer. 

A high authority warns us that the tail-end of 
king Nebuchadnezzar's famous band was not a 
dulcimer at all ; and it is with regret that we 
take leave of our sweet-sounding instrument, and 
the familiar cadence which it rounds off so well, 
and receive in exchange for it in the passage of 

1 Op. cit.. p. 62. 

* See Stainer and Barrett's Dictionary of Musical Terms, p. 192. 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 121 

the Book of Daniel the more " correct " but 
who shall say euphonious ? bagpipe. 

12. LUTE. 

There is little apparent connection between the 
Lute of Shakespeare's time and the magical 
instrument that under the cunning hand of 

" made trees, 

And the mountain-tops that freeze, 
Bow themselves, when he did sing : " 

but " references to musical instruments by the 
poets of several ages," as a writer 1 reminds us, 
" often tend to mislead." Nevertheless one 
shrinks from the idea that the mighty intellect 
that testified, as we have seen, to the incon- 
spicuous thumb-hole at the back of the recorder 
should be found stumbling on the slopes of 
Olympus. The Orphean " lute," however, seems 
strictly to have been a lyre, or cithara, which was 
a member of the harp family, and which, whatever 
its form and it had many forms was an instru- 
ment devoid both of sound-box and finger-board. 

The traditional form of 
the lyre embodies the 
legendary exploits of 
Hermes with the oxen 
and the tortoise, to the 
body of the latter being 
attached the horns of the 
former, from the con- 
necting jugum, or yoke, 
of which, the strings were 
stretched. There seems 
little doubt that the 
Greeks derived their lyre 
from Egypt ; and, that it was originally one of 
the many forms of their most important 

1 In Stainer and Barrett's Dictionary. 

122 Carvings of Medieval Musical 

instrument the harp is probable from representa- 
tions in tablets and paintings discovered in the 
regions of the Nile. Very likely all these various 
early stringed-instruments had at first a 
common starting point. 

The main characteristics of the lute, like its 
modern derivative the mandoline, are a deep 
pear-shaped resonance-box, and a finger-board 
with frets. These relate it to the guitar family 
as represented by the ancient Egyptian nefer, the 
modern Berber gytarah, the Hindoo sitar, which 
had a body made of a gourd, the moon-guitar of 
the Chinese, as well as the mediaeval cittern and 
gittern. The lute comes to us from Spain, where 
it was introduced by the Moors, and where it is 
still known as the laud, a name derived from the 
Arabic el'ood, the instrument of wood. 

Until the tenth century the lute only possessed 
four strings, but after this the number was in- 
creased, and sometimes, as perhaps is intended to 
be the case here, the four strings were duplicated. 
The frets 1 of the finger-board divided the several 
strings into semitones, and were distinguished by 
letters of the alphabet," one for each fret as many 
as there may be." The upper end of the neck was 
usually bent back at a sharp angle, a device taken 
over from its Arab predecessor for increasing the 
bearing of the strings. The sound-hole is called 
in an old dictionary the " rose " ; and from the 
same source we learn that the lutes of Bologna 
were esteemed the best on account of the wood 
of which they were made, which it is quaintly 
said "' hath an uncommon disposition for pro- 
ducing a sweet sound." 

Popular with the jongleurs in its earlier and 
smaller forms known as the mandore and the 

1 Derived from the French ferrette," banded with iron or other 
metal." (Galpin.) 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 123 

pandurine, the lute developed later into the 
formidable and complex theorbo and chittarone, 
or arch-lute. " Of all stringed instruments of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries," says 
Mr. Galpin, the lute was also " the most attrac- 
tive. To it the hero sang his tale of chivalry, the 
mother hummed her lullaby, the lover urged his 
pleading, and the maiden gave her answer. By 
such associations as these the lute was endeared 
to old and young alike." 1 


The name is the old-English form of fidula, a 
contraction of the Latin fidicula, literally a small 
stringed instrument. 

In ancient days there were many stringed 
instruments played with a bow, and their names, 

shape, and variety are 
almost legion. Large and 
small, single-stringed and 
many - stringed, they 
range from the rebab of 
the East and mighty 
monochord or trum- 
scheit of the South, and 
from the ancient British 
crwth and mediaeval 
rebec, to the viols of 
later days, which in their 
turn have been sup- 
planted by the various 
members of the modern violin family. 

A characteristic of the viol as distinct from the 
present-day violin was its flat back. This was a 
survival of earlier forms, front as well as back 
often appearing flat in the old Fitheles, as may 
be seen here and in examples at Exeter and 

1 Op. cit., p. 40. 

124 Carvings of Mediaeval Musical 

Beverley'(Pl. VI. 1). In all these cases the instru- 
ment is of a more or less square or oblong shape, 
and the incurvation of the waist is absent, which 
must have been detrimental to the bowing ; 
these features, together with the ribs, or side- 
pieces, helping to distinguish the fithele from the 
various crwths, or crowds, rotes and rebecs with 
which it is sometimes confused. 

The instrument here has four strings. The 
drawing, however, does not clearly distinguish 
between the sound-holes and the bridge ; but 
doubtless they are really distinct, as elsewhere. 
The curved bow will be noticed : a form which 
we believe is now entirely obsolete save in the 
case of the double bass ; and even here we are 
informed the straight bow is now sometimes 


Our last instrument is in some respects the 
most curious of all. The Symphony (Fr. vielle), 
or hurdy-gurdy, was a later form of a larger 
instrument called the organistrum, which was 
originally used for ecclesiastical purposes, and at 
first like the organ required two players to 
manipulate it, as shown in the sculptures at 

Organistrum. (From Jioschervillc, Rouen Museum.) 

Boscherville (above), and Santiago, and in many 
manuscript illustrations. One of the players 

Instruments in Manchester Cathedral 125 

worked the keys, by pressing which the strings 
were " stopped " ; while the other turned a 
handle at the end of the body which caused a 
wheel inside to revolve against the strings and 
so produce a sustained tone, the pitch of which 
was regulated by the keys. In the later deriva- 
tive one performer was able to discharge both 
functions. The principle of the hurdy-gurdy was 
accordingly that of a viol sounded by a wheel 
instead of a bow ; hence the name viette by 
which it was known in France. The keys are 
simply slides pushed back by the player, with 
projections to " stop " the string. 

The manner in which the symphony was held 
during performance varies. Sometimes the keys 
appear at the top, as in an 
example found in the Loutrell 
Psalter ; in other instances it is 
held, as here, with the keys 
downwards, in which case the 
slides when released would fall 
back by their own weight. As 
the vielle a roue, or viol with a 
wheel, this curious instrument 
long continued in use, and a 
French specimen of the nine- 
teenth century is included in 
the Galpin collection. 1 
" It is generally supposed," says Dr. Watson 
in his note on this instrument, " that the ancient 
vielle (whose descendant in direct line was none 
other than the peripatetic charmer of our youthful 
days, the vanished hurdy-gurdy) was the proto- 
type of those stringed instruments which are 
played by friction ; in which case it may be 
regarded as the real ancestor of the viol family." 
It is only fair, however, to say that in tracing the 
descent of this family strong claims have been 

1 There is another example in the " Henry Watson Collection " at 

126 Carvings of Mediceval Musical Instruments 

made in other directions, as is the case with 
other complicated pedigrees, but we must forbear 
to pursue the investigation. 

In concluding these notes upon this very in- 
teresting collection of mediaeval carvings, the 
writer would add that it is not without trepida- 
tion that he has ventured upon ground that 
properly belongs to the domain of the expert in 
musical archaeology. Should justification, how- 
ever, be needed for the attempt which has been 
made to describe them he would seek it in the 
fact that no account of the carvings has hitherto 
been available. If, therefore, what is here 
presented be found to be of use, no further excuse 
is needed ; if not, none we fear will be accepted. 

The writer's acknowledgments are due and are 
hereby most gratefully tendered to the Dean and 
Chapter of the Cathedral, to Messrs. J. and E. 
Cornish, Ltd., for kindly allowing the reproduc- 
tions from Crowther's Architectural History, to 
Miss E. K. Prideaux, Mr. F. H. Crossley, F.S.A., 
and the Rev. H. G. Hiller, M.A., for the use of 
photographs, and to Mr. J. F. Russell, librarian 
of the Henry Watson Music Library, and others 
for help courteously rendered in various ways. 


By E. Cuthbert Woods, L.D.S. 

Read 9th December, 1920. 

pile of buildings called The King Edward 
A VII Memorial Convalescent Home for Rail- 
waymen, previously known as Leasowe Castle, 
has had a fairly long and very varied career. 
Helsby, in his edition of Ormerod's Cheshire 
(ii., 474), says it was built by Ferdinando fifth (not 
eighth) earl of Derby, relying, no doubt, on the 
stone in the tower which bears the date 1593, the 
year in which that earl succeeded his father 
Henry. He further states that the building con- 
sisted originally of an octagonal tower four 
stories high, with windows on every side of its 
octagonal periphery, and surmounted by a flat 
lead roof. 

The history of the manor of Wallasey, which 
seems originally to have included Poulton and 
Seacombe, is not at all clear, the evidence being 
scanty. One moiety was held directly of the 
earls of Chester, and appears to have been given, 
though there is no record, to Birkenhead Priory, 
which acquired a mediety of the church. John 
de Meoles, lord of Great Meols, in 1416 held 7 
bovates of land in Wallasey of the Prior of Birken- 
head in socage. 1 Wallasey Hall 2 was in later days 

1 Inquis. p. m. 

2 In 1296 Mary widow of Alan del Halle claimed dower against 
the prior of Birkenhead and against Robert the son of Alan, in respect 
of two messuages and 4 bovates of land in Kirkby in Walley ; 
Chester Plea Roll 9, m.6. 

128 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

considered the seat of this " manor." The other 
moiety of the manor was held of the honor of 
Halton by the fourth part of a knight's fee ; and 
the second mediety of the church was given 
to St. Werburgh's Abbey by one of the Walley 
family. 1 The tenant or mesne lord of the Halton 
part in the time of Edward II. was Richard 
Samson ; by 1450 he had been succeeded by Sir 
Thomas Stanley of Lathom and Henry Litherland 
of Poulton. 2 As in other cases where there is no 
record of change of ownership, the descent was 
probably quite regular, through heiresses. 

The Becheton family, also prominent in Liscard, 
were considerable proprietors. . Williamson says : 

36 Edward III. I find that William de Becheton died 
[1359] seised of ... 7 bovates of land in Wallasey, leaving 
his sister Alice's (married to John de Kirkby in Walley) 
grand-daughters his heirs. 

This account, however, is not quite accurate. 
The heirs were William's sisters, Anilia and 
Ellen, and Thomas son of William, son of Robert, 
son of John de Kirkby Walley by Alice his wife, 
a third sister. The land was held in socage of 
Ellen de Becheton.* 

Thomas, first Lord Stanley, who died in 1 45 , 
was found to have held three messuages and 50 
acres of land in Seacombe, Liscard, Poulton and 
Kirkby in Walley, nothing being said of any 
" manor." The estate was held of Robert 
Beconsall in socage.* 

The same estate of three messuages and 50 
acres was held by Thomas second earl of Derby, 

1 Williamson's Villare in Add. MS. 6031, f. 128d., at the British 

* Halton Feodary in Ormerod's Cheshire (ed. Helsby), i., 707. In 
a Chester Fine of 1607 the estate of John Litherland is described as 
the Manor of Wallasey, with messuages, lands, etc., in Wallasey, 
Liscard, Poulton and Seacombe. 

Chester Inq. p. m., 36 Edw. III., no. 15. 

* Inquis. post mortem in Dep. Keeper's Report xxxvii., 676. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 129 

who died in 1521, of the heirs of Robert Beconsall. 1 
Ferdinando, the fifth earl (1595), reputed builder 
of the Castle, is stated to have held the manor 
of Wallasey ; his three daughters were co-heirs. 
Williamson says further : 

In the 40 Elizabeth William earl of Derby [brother and 
successor of Ferdinando] passed over this " manor " by the 
name of Kirkby-Walley alias Walezey ; 2 and 12 James I. 
I find that Sir John Egerton died seised of this manor, 3 
messuages, 2 tofts, 500 acres of land, 200 of meadow, 1000 
of pasture, etc., and 4s. rent cum pertinentiis in Walezey, late 
part of the possessions of William earl of Derby ; 3 and John 
Egerton is lord thereof, 1710. 

Earl Ferdinando, who was born in London 
about 1559, seems to have been a precocious boy, 
matriculating at the age of twelve at St. John's 
College, Oxford. In 1579, as Lord Strange, he 
married Alice, youngest daughter of Sir John 
Spencer of Althorp a union less distinguished 
than might have been expected for the heir of 
one of the great nobles of the day. He was of a 
literary bent, and poems of his are reputed to 
be contained in a collection called Belvidere, or 
the Garden of the Muses, published 1610, and from 
1589 to 1594 he was patron of the Company of 
Players. He was mayor of Liverpool in 1587 and 
took part in raising forces to resist a possible 
Spanish invasion. He succeeded his father Henry, 
fourth earl, in 1593, but enjoyed his dignities and 
widespread estates but a short time, being cut 
off in the following April, after a painful illness, 
attributed by some to witchcraft and by others 
to poison. He was a very near heir to the crown, 
especially if the King of Scots were excluded as 

1 Inquis. post mortem in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix., 95. 

2 Chester Fines, Sept. 40 Eliz. The claimant was Thomas Fox, 
who was perhaps acting for the Egertons of Egerton and Oulton, 
the next possessors. 

3 Inquis. p. m. 21 James I., no. 7. The tenure was unknown. 
A fine of 1609 shows that the manor was then in Sir John's possession. 

130 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

a foreigner and to the Englishmen of that day 
King James VI. was as much a " foreigner " as 
a Spanish princess would have been and possibly 
the leaders of the state were rather relieved to 
have a romantic and wealthy nobleman out of 
the way. 

The heir male, his brother William, sixth earl, 
was abroad at the time. Disputes ensued as to 
the provision for Ferdinando's widow and 
children, and these lasted some years. They 
were settled by an arbitration, confirmed by 
private acts of 4 and 7 James I., by which 
elaborate entails were made of great part of 
the estates, while others went to the widow and 
daughters. Lands sold by Earl William and his 
predecessors were excluded ; this would exclude 
Wallasey, sold in 1598, and it is not named in 
the acts. 

The races on the Leasowes are mentioned in 
King's Vale Royal, and the fact that the Duke 
of Monmouth rode his own horse at the races 
here in the autumn of 1682, has been referred to 
already in the Society's Transactions. 1 The 
tradition that James I. attended these races is 
discussed in our volume for 1893.* Why the 
original tower was built it is difficult to say. 
Rumour has it that it was built by Ferdinando 
as a stand for watching the horse races on the 
'Wallasey course, but, as Mr. W. F. Irvine points 
out, 3 " Inasmuch as the finish of those races took 
place nearly two miles away, it is not a position 
that would commend itself to short-sighted 
onlookers." But for watching hawking, standing 
as it did almost in the centre of a plain five miles 
long, without a single tree, there could be few 
better positions. Doubtless this would have been 

1 Trans., xiv., 151. " Ib., 149. 

3 Trans., liii., 94. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 131 

an excellent reason to give at the time of its 
erection ; but there may have been others. The 
walls of the old tower are over 3 ft. thick, and 
the remains of the fosse are still to be seen. 
Whatever the ostensible reason for the erection 
of a structure so substantial that sea air and the 
storms of over three centuries, in an exposed 
situation, have failed to affect it, it is more likely 
that it originated in a desire on the part of the 
builder to be prepared for any eventuality which 
the disturbed times in which he lived rendered 

At some time four square towers were thrown 
out from the alternate faces, and it is owing to 
this that the incised dated stone is now on an 
inside wall. It is impossible to fix at what date 
the turrets were added, but they very much 
resemble the architecture of the Racing Stables 
which stood in Wallasey, and on which Mr. 
R. D. Radcliffe argues thus i 1 "It is probable 
that the stables were erected between 1600 and 
1642, and possibly by William 6th Earl of Derby, 
who passed much of his time at Bidston and 
refronted the Hall thereof." May not these 
additions to the tower have been made about the 
same time ? 

They are shown in a plan of " Wallesea Manor " 
of 1735, which illustrates Mr. Radcliffe's paper. 

Mr. Hopps, in his remarks on the older part of 
the building, says : 

" The two turrets remaining intact have each a gable 
over all faces and cross ridge-pieces. They have moulded 
coping stones and are surmounted by stone balls. Their 
windows are the square-headed ones with chamfered 
reveals and mullions and have the protective labels 
typical of their age. The most westerly turret is very 
massive and contains an old spiral stone stairway. The 
building must have existed for fully two centuries in this 

1 Trans. Hist. Soc., xlv., 141. 

132 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

form of an octagon with four flanking turrets, because the 
next stone addition is clearly not ancient. . . . 

" In the ground-floor apartment of the southern turret 
may be seen the lower part of the jambs of the old entrance 
doorway (dated 1593) ... As the sill below them is 
rather more than 5 feet from the ground, it is presumable 
that a ramp and drawbridge for entrance originally existed, 
or else that a simple ladder was used, being drawn up and 
let down as occasion required." 

As James, the seventh Earl, adhered to the 
King's side, the Stanleys lost heavily by the 
Civil War ; their estates were sequestered, and 
much was sold outright, but there is no mention 
of Wallasey or Leasowe in the sequestration 
records. During the Commonwealth horse-racing 
and other " worldly sports and pastimes " were 
suppressed by the Puritans, and it is believed 
that at this time the building once called the 
New Hall became ruinous, 1 and acquired the 
name of Mockbeggar Hall, a title given to any 
deserted or lonely edifice. It is marked by this 
name on Grenville Collin's Pilot of 1690, and the 
shore near the castle and lighthouse is marked 
in the charts of to-day as Mockbeggar Wharfe. 
Sometime about the end of the 17th century it 
was used as a farm house, 2 and in the parish 
registers of Wallasey in 1701, the burial of a son 
of Alice Miller of the New Hall occurs, maybe 
in distinction from Wallasey Old Hall, built by 
W. Meols in 1604. 

' These four square towers," to quote Ormerod 
again, " terminate in gables which rise above 
the central tower, which has a flat leaden 
terrace on the summit." His work was completed 
in 1819, i.e., nineteen years after the sketches 
executed by Mr. Lysons, now in the British 
Museum, which show the roof of the original 

1 Ormerod, ii., 174 note. 
Catalogue of Sale. 15 July, 1808. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 133 

tower as it is at present. But on looking closely 
at the masonry, from outside, Mr. Hopps called 
my attention to the fact that the upper stone 
work above the Oak Room window on the south- 
east front, does not appear so weathered as that 
of the turrets, or the rest of the tower, for on 
the former portion the chisel marks are still 
visible. So possibly another storey was built on 
to the oldest portion by Mr. Egerton of Oulton 
when he made it his residence in 1778. Mr. 
Egerton died there in 1786. 

The building next passed by purchase to one 
Robert Harrison, who sold it in 1802 to the 
widow of Lewis W. Boode, a West Indian planter, 
described as "of Amsterdam and Peover Hall." 
It is in the act of sale that the place is first called 
" Leasowe Castle." In 1818 considerable addi- 
tions and alterations were made to the Castle by 
Mrs. Boode, from the plans of Foster of Liverpool. 
Mrs. Boode was Margaret, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Dannett, rector of Liverpool. Ormerod 
described the gardens in 1816 thus : 

" The gardens are surrounded with a large fosse and 
mound, and disposed in terraces and alcoves. The Castle 
is situated towards the middle of a large level plain called 
the Leasowe which stretches along the end of Wirral and 
is protected partially from the inroads of the sea by a 
range of sandhills, but does not boast of a single shrub to 
break the monotony of the prospect. This plain, containing 
about 220 acres, is about to be enclosed ... in the act the 
sandhills are directed to be preserved as security from the 
inroads of the Irish Sea." 

These sandhills were eroded away soon after 
this, for the Act to build the first part of the 
embankment was passed in 1829. 1 

During Mrs. Boode's occupancy of the castle, 
it was frequently turned into a receiving house 

1 Mortimer, Hist, of Wirral, p. 294. 

134 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

and hospital for the survivors of the shipwrecks 
which were then of frequent occurrence on this 
coast. Unfortunately the inhabitants looked 
upon all property cast up by the sea as their own. 
From the report of the Commission appointed 
to enquire into the necessity of a police force 
in 1837, we learn that, for wrecking, the counties 
of Cheshire and Cornwall were the worst : " On 
the Cheshire coast not far from Liverpool they 
will rob those who have escaped the perils of 
the sea and come safe on shore, and mutilate 
dead bodies for the sake of rings and personal 

Mrs. Boode was killed in a carriage accident, 
21st April, 1826. A gothic monument was 
erected to commemorate the accident and placed 
near the spot where it occurred in Breck Road, 
but owing to widening the road at this point it 
does not now occupy its original site. On a 
stone in the wall which surrounds this monument 
is the following inscription : 

Near this spot Mrs. BOODE of Leasowe Castle was killed 
by a fall from her pony-carriage April 21st, 1826. May ye 
who pass by respect this memorial of an awful dispensation 
and the affectionate tribute of an only child to perpetuate 
her dear mother's memory beyond the existence of that 
breast which will never cease to cherish it. Ah, may the 
sad remembrance which attaches to this spot impress on 
everyone this salutary warning : 

" In the midst of life we are in death." 

Mrs. Boode's daughter and heir, Mary Anne, 
married Col. Edward Cust at Marylebone Church, 
on llth January, 1821. Her husband was born 
in 1794, being the sixth son of Brownlow Cust, 1 
first Lord Brownlow, and a brother of John Cust, 
first Earl Brownlow. He was born at 30, Hill 
Street, Berkeley Square, London. He was 
gazetted Colonel in the 16th Light Dragoons on 

1 Diet, of Nat. Biography. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 135 

15th March, 1810, and saw active service in the 
Peninsular War. In 1816, Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg, afterwards King of the Belgians, 
and an Hon. Colonel in the 16th Light Dragoons, 
appointed Cust as his equerry, and afterwards 
gave him the Grand Cross Order of Leopold of 
Belgium. In 1831, when Leopold became King 
of the Belgians, Cust was created Knight Com- 
mander of the Guelphic Order of Hanover. In 
1818, he became M.P. for Grantham, and sat for 
Lostwithiel from 1826 till the suppression of that 
borough in the Reform Bill of 1832. He became 
Assistant Master of Ceremonies to Queen Victoria 
in 1845 and Master of Ceremonies in 1847. He 
was author of several military histories, for 
which he received in 1869 the Gold Medal of the 
Austrian Empire, from the Emperor of Austria. 
In 1848, he published Sunday Night Readings, 
and in 1850 Family Readings from the New 
Testament harmonised and explained. He received 
the honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford in 1853. 
He was made a baronet in 1876. 

He married, as already stated, the only child of 
Lewis W. Boode, heiress also of her mother. She 
was Bed-chamber woman to H.R.H. the Duchess 
of Kent, mother of Queen Victoria. She wrote 
a book on " Cats," being a cat fancier, and died 
on 10th July, 1882. By her Cust left one son, 
Leopold (called after his godfather, the King of 
the Belgians) and four daughters. 

In May, 1828, Col. Cust (as he then was) con- 
verted Leasowe Castle, his wife's property, into 
an hotel, but it was not a success, and about 
1843 he made his residence there, and visited it 
at times till shortly before his death in 1878. 
He was senior magistrate for Wirral for a number 
of years, and elected one of the first Vice- 
Presidents of this Society on its formation in 

136 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

1849, a position he retained till he became 
President in 1859. It was he who presented to 
it the ivory mace (which originally belonged to 
the Kings of Poland), still in evidence at our 

It was probably when Sir Edward Cust decided 
to make Leasowe his residence that he built the 
surrounding wall with the gates and gate house. 
This makes a striking entrance, with the stone 
portals surmounted by a pair of watch dogs (the 
crest of his family) and the motto " Qui Cust odit 
caveat." The so-called Canute's Seat, which 
occupies such a prominent position in the plate 
of the castle in Ormerod, was also probably the 
outcome of his brain, for, as we have seen, till 
recent times this point was separated from the 
sea by a range of sandhills. 

Close by are three boulder stones, one 6 ft. 6 in. 
by 3ft. by 3ft., the others about 7ft. by 7ft. 
by 3 ft. There is a local legend to the effect that 
these stones were once the favourite haunt of a 
very fascinating but dangerous mermaiden. To 
look upon her was certain death, the heart of 
the observer " being burnt to ashes within his 
breast." Some twenty years ago there was a 
board about 4 ft. by 3 ft. fixed to the wall close 
by, which (as well as I remember) went on to say 
that when the tide was at flood and the moon at 
full at midnight, the lady was to be seen here, 
combing her hair in the manner adopted by her 
kind. Owing to the more abstemious use of 
intoxicating liquors mermaids are hardly ever 
now seen on this coast, but among the folk-books 
mentioned in Chap-books of the 18th Century is 
one with this promising title : 

" The Wonder of Wonders, being A Strange and Wonderful 
Relation of a Mermaid, that was seen and spoken with, on 
the Black Rock, nigh Liverpool, by John Robinson, Mariner, 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 137 

who was tossed on the Ocean for Six days and Nights. 
Together with the Conversation he had with her, and how 
he was preserved ; with the manner of his Death five days 
after his return Home. Licensed and entered According 
to Order." 

A slight quotation may be allowed : 

" But to his great Amazement he espy'd a beautiful 
young Lady combing her head, and toss'd on the Billows, 
cloathed all in green (but by chance he got the first word 
with her) then she with a smile came on board and asked 
how he did. The young Man being Something Smart and 
a good Scholar, reply'd, Madam I am the better to see you 
in good Health, in great hopes trusting you will be a comfort 
and assistance to me in this my low Condition ; and so 
caught hold of her Comb and Green Girdle that was About 
her Waist. To which she replied, Sir, you ought not to 
rob a young Woman of her Riches, and then expect a favour 
at her Hands ; but if you will give me my Comb and Girdle 
again, what lies in my power I will do for you." 

No sailor could resist such an entreaty, and 

" At her departure the tempest ceased and blew a fair 
Gale to South West, so he got safe on shore ; but when he 
came to his Father's House he found every Thing as she 
had told him. For she told him also concerning his being 
left on Ship board, and how all the Seamen perished, which 
he found all true what she had told him, according to the 
promise made him. He was still very much troubled in 
his Mind, concerning his promise, but while yet he was 
thus musing, she appeared to him with a smiling Countenance 
and (by his Misfortune) she got the first word of him, so 
that he could not speak one Word, but was quite Dumb, 
yet he took Notice of the Words she spoke ; and she began 
to Sing. After which she departed out from the young 
Man's sight, taking from him the Compass. She took a 
Ring from off her Finger, and put it on the young Man's, 
and said, she expected to see him once again with more 
Freedom. But he never saw her more, upon which he 
came to himself again, went home, and was taken ill, and 
died in five Days after, to the wonderful Admiration of all 
People who saw the young Man." 

The Black Rock referred to is that on which 
the old Rock Perch stood till replaced in 1827 by 
the present lighthouse. 

138 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

To the right of the present main entrance is a 
mounting stone, a reminder of the fact that 
Miss Boode (Lady Cust) was an excellent horse- 
woman. When she presented the silver bugle 
to the local volunteers, although the ceremony 
took place in a field adjoining the castle, she 
appeared mounted upon her Arab charger. 1 

Of the alterations and improvements which Sir 
Edward introduced into the castle itself, perhaps 
the decorating of his dining room with the oak 
panelling from the celebrated Star Chamber at 
Westminster is most noteworthy. This he pur- 
chased when the old Exchequer buildings were 
demolished in 1836. All this oak was removed 
from the castle after the sale of the furniture 
in September, 1895. Shortly after the German 
prisoners left the castle, a fire occurred which 
involved one corner of the Star Chamber, and 
some of the panelling when removed showed 
traces of having suffered by fire previously 
which would be when the old Exchequer buildings 
were partly destroyed. Some of the tapestry 
in this room is said to be fairly old, and that 
which was burnt it was found quite impossible 
to replace. 

The room now used as the board room was Sir 
Edward's library, and was fitted by him with 
bog oak from the submerged forest. There still 
remains a dummy bookcase, masking a door of 
a passage leading to a window which looks into 
the basement. A list of the titles on the dummies 
still in situ will be found at the end of this paper. 

The incised stone and built-in doorway already 
mentioned are not at the end of this passage, but 
more to the left, and behind the fireplace. The 

1 For further details of this ceremony the reader is referred to 
Memories of Birkenhead, by Mrs. Gamlin, p. 85. A copy of the poem 
she refers to is to be found in the Wallasey Library. 


Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 139 

floor of the board room, which is of English oak, 
is about 8 ft. above the present ground level. I 
have a sketch by Mr. Hopps of the appearance 
of this built-up doorway, from the basement 
below, and also a plan showing how much is to 


be seen in the storeroom above. The height 
which the stone stands above the ground is 
lift. 3 in., so Ormerod is scarcely correct in 
saying it is " in the upper interior part of the 
tower." This door I take to be the original 
main entrance. 

The second floor of the old tower, known as the 
Oak, or Ghost, Room, 1 is roughly octagonal in 

1 The Castle by the Sea. p. 32. 

140 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

shape, 26ft. by 23ft., and is lighted by two 
quaint lantern-shaped windows set in the enor- 
mously thick walls. The room is panelled from 
floor to ceiling, which is traversed by two massive 
oak beams. The walls, however, were not 
originally wainscoted, but were of rough hewn 
stone. There is an old legend that at one period 
of the castle's history there was a serious feud 
between some of the powerful families of the 
North and West, with the result that the chief 
of one of the opposing factions and his young 
son were captured and confined in this room. 
It was given out that the father first smothered 
his son and then committed suicide by dashing 
out his brains against the stone wall of the room. 
It has been related to me that, in the later hotel 
days of the castle, the Oak Room was on one 
occasion occupied by a visitor who knew nothing 
of this story, but who made a terrible hullaballoo 
at midnight about a man and a boy he swore he 
saw standing in the moonlight between his bed 
and the window. 'Tis also said that the clanking 
of chains up and down the old stone stairs has 
been heard at midnight on various occasions. 

The floor of the above Oak Room was, I think, 
the flat roof of the original tower. Helsby, in 
Ormerod (ii., 473), says this " consisted of a tall 
octagonal tower, four stories high." If, as he 
further states, the turrets added later rose from 
the central building I do not see how this can be. 
These words " of four stories " do not appear in 
the first edition. There is nothing of interest 
except an old doorway on this floor, which is 
divided up into small rooms and passages, as 
the plan shows. The numerous additions which 
have from time to time been made render it 
difficult at first to see which the original was, but on 
the third floor plan it shows clearly enough. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 141 

The original building, as far as can be made 
out, consisted of a basement excavated three to 
four feet below the level of the ground, useful as 
a place of confinement for prisoners. There may 
have been a well in this, or a cistern into which 
the rain falling on the flat roof drained, but I 
have not been able to find any trace of either. 
Then the first floor, now the board room, which 
still retains its floor of English oak. Above it a 
second floor, the oak room, surmounted by the 
flat lead roof. 

Writing in 1866, Dr. Hume mentions a well 
near the gate of the castle, surrounded by a wall 
about 4 ft. high, with a gallows crane suspended 
over it. 1 There was no scarcity of water in this 
area, several springs existing on the shore. One 
directly to seaward of the castle, below high- 
water mark, had medicinal properties.' 

The four turrets of the tower are not geometri- 
cally perfect, as a glance at the plans will show. 
One of them contains a stone spiral stair, which 
commences in the basement, on a level with the 
ground, and has a door to the board room and the 
Oak Room. It terminates in a kind of platform 
outside the door on the top floor. 

Besides fitting the library with oak from the 
submerged forest, Sir Edward Cust was responsible 
for the so-called Battle Staircase, the rails of 
which are of iron, 84 in number. On each is 
carefully inscribed in coloured letters one of the 84 
principal and decisive battles in which the English 
took part in the 18th and 19th centuries, from 
Blenheim, 1704, to Sebastopol. On each of 
these rails is also affixed the name of the sovereign 
in whose reign the battle was fought, and the 
names of the British and the foreign General in 

1 Trans. H. S., xviii., 60. Ibid., i. ( 105. 

142 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

command of the respective forces. 1 At the foot 
of the staircase is a handsome marble pedestal, 
surmounted by a figure of Victory holding a 
laurel wreath in outstretched hand. The column 

bears the following inscription, " Opera illius mea 
sunt," the motto of the first Lord Brownlow, 
Sir E. Gust's father. Beneath this inscription is 

1 Cat. of Sale, 17 June, 1893. 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 143 

an order or decoration. It is circular in shape, 
and is surmounted by a diadem with a cross. 
Upon it is blazoned an olive branch, crossed by a 
sword, and the legend " Dieu et mon droit " and 
" Beati pacifici." 1 

The alabaster bas-relief, which has painted 
above it these words : 

" These Remains of Forest Life were found under the 
peat soil upon this shore and seem to verify the local 
adage : 

From Birkinheven unto Hilbree 

A squirrel might leape from tree to tree ," 

is supposed to depict life in the forest. Both the 
panel and the spelling of the superscription I 
take to be part of Sir Edward's scheme of pseudo- 
antique decoration. Another instance of it are 
the curious carvings above the boiler-house door. 
Mr. H. Hopps suggests that they might represent 
"EM AC' (Sir Edward and Lady -Gust's 
initials), and below the date 

M C vm X" 1 IV (or 1834). 

If his surmise is correct it shows approximately 
the date when Sir Edward discontinued the hotel 
and made the castle his residence. 

It is an interesting fact that the first Saint 
Bernard dog ever brought to this country found 
a home at Leasowe Castle. 

Sir Edward Cust died on 14th January, 1878, 
aged 83, in Jermyn Street, London, and the 
property passed to his only son, Sir Leopold Cust, 
Bart., who died in Ireland in 1878, and was 
succeeded by Sir Charles Cust. 

The castle and grounds (in all about 50 acres) 
were offered for sale by auction by Messrs. Branch 
and Leete, on 17th June, 1893, but there was no 
offer. They were again offered for sale in 
September, 1895, by order of Sir Charles Cust, 

1 Castle by the Sea, p. 26. 

144 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

who was relinquishing his Cheshire property, 
The sale took from the 16th to the 20th of 
September, and not only the castle and estate, 
but all the furniture and fittings were disposed 
of. The property was bought by a company and 
once again converted into a hotel, under the name 
of " The Leasowe Castle Hotel." On 15th July, 
1908, the property was offered for sale as a going 
concern, including furniture, fittings, etc., and 
Mr. Harold Smith, of Birkenhead, brother of the 
present Lord Chancellor, was the auctioneer. 
The bidding commenced at 9,000, rose to 10,000, 
and after a few desultory bids was withdrawn at 
1 1,750. It was finally purchased by the Trustees 
of the Railwaymen's Convalescent Homes in 
1910 for 11,750, and the trustees spent a further 
sum of 2,500 in various alterations. 

The new home was formally opened on 12th 
June, 1911, by Mrs. Mason Hutchinson, Lady 
Mayoress of Liverpool, assisted by the Mayor 
and Mayoress of Wallasey. The consecration 
service was performed by the Bishop of Chester, 
assisted by Archdeacon Spooner of Warrington 
and a portion of the choir from Liverpool 
Cathedral. During the war the place was used 
for housing German prisoners, but a few months 
ago it once more renewed its functions as a 
convalescent home for railwaymen. 

The matter in this paper has been collected from 
various sources and authors, as Ormerod, 
Mortimer, Lysons, and a most interesting brochure 
called The Castle by the Sea, written by Mr. T. S. 
Ling, one of the late trustees of the Railwaymen's 
Convalescent Homes, and sold for the benefit of 
the institution. Besides permission to quote from 
this book, Mr. Ling has been kind enough to 
supply me with further information about the 
Castle, and with plans. My thanks are also due 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 145 

to Mr. P. C. Brown and Mr. H. Hopps for much 
assistance in collecting data and slides, and to 
the latter for the sketches which illustrate it. 




Top row. Custs of the past. Opera illius. 

1. Religious ; 2. Virtuous ; 3. Worthy ; 4. Sensible ; 

5. Honest ; 6. Useful ; 7. Beneficent ; 8. Loved ; 9. 

The Custs of the future. Opera mea. 

1 . Peers and Peeresses ; 2. Baronets ; 3. Knights ; 4. 
Ladies ; 5. Honourables ; 6. Rt. Honourables ; 7. 

Second Row. Payne on pleasure ; Contentment, Moore ; 
The Longman Family, Tallboys ; On Angling, Dr. 
Hook ; Reminiscences of a Nursemaid, Infant ; 
Cookery, Fryer ; Above and below, Parr ; 1 , 2, 3. 
Adventures of a Rook, Crowe ; Vocal Music, Singer ; 
How to keep cool, Airey ; On laughter, Smiles ; Under 
a cloak, Hood ; Lightfoot on Dancing ; Essays on 
greediness, Moore ; Rifle practice, Butts ; English 
Orchards, Pears ; Art of Matchmaking, Lowe ; Church 
Music, Bell ; Billiards, Kew ; Fruit of learning, 
Plumtree ; Evils of squinting, Boswell ; The days of 
Chivalry, Knight ; Cricket, Balls. 

Third row. Miseries of Life ; Smoky chimneys ; Stinking 
Lamps ; Open doors. 

Fourth row. Military Records : 1 , The sports of Nimrod ; 

2. Chevy Chase ; 3. Abraham's Defeat of the Kings ; 
4. Encampment of Moses ; 5. Joshua's Conquests ; 

6. Assyrian Campaigns ; 7. Siege of Samaria ; 8. 
Nebuchadnezzar's Judaean Campaign ; 9. Cyrus's 
Jewish Campaign ; 10. Alexander conquers the 
World ; 11. The World conquered by Caesar; 12. The 
World conquered by Napoleon ; 13. Britannia rules the 

146 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

Fifth (bottom) row. Life of Bacon, Hogg ; Culture of 
Trees, Bush ; History of Spiritualism, Rapper ; King's 
Republic ; Needle-making, Sharp ; Rushes, Reed ; 
Counties of Hills, Kent ; vol. 1, 2, 3. Purgatory, 
Purge ; Value of Money, Penny ; Perpetual motion, 
Dunn ; vol. 1, 2, 3. Adulteration of Bread, Hallam ; 
Ironical Essays, Steel ; St. Paul, Peters ; The Arctic 
regions, South ; Our Aristocracy, Earle ; Hitchcock on 
Drapery ; French on the English ; Effects of true 
wit, Smiles ; The Pope not Infallible, Watt ; Black- 
man's Hindoo Law ; Employers and Employed, 


The following lists of the Oxgangs in Wallasey and 
Liscard are copied from John Hough's Notebook or Journal, 
of which an account was given in the last volume of 

Transactions : 


O. H. Q. 

Jonathan Dean 10 | | 

Thomas Hill 3 J 

John Rainford 1 | 

Henry Bird .... .... f 

Mrs. Gorden 1 J 

William Smith \ 

Mrs. Urmson .... .... 300 

John Harvey .... .... .... .... .... 1 

Richard Jackson 6 -| 

Phoebe Hillard 1 J 

Mrs. Webster 200 

Josh. Dean 1 

Thomas Dean 700 

John Hill .... 5 i 

Thomas Robinson 100 

Daniel Robinson .... 002 

Thomas Rodgers | 

Ann Reily { 

William Coventry 

Daniel Taylor 200 

Elizabeth Rainford 1 

Thomas Dean of Hoes Side .... 100 

[? 56] 

John Molyneux 400 

Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 147 

O. H. Q. 

Josh. Robinson .... 

Robt. Richardson 1 6 

William Strong .... .... 1 & 

William Evans 1 | 

Nicholas Seed .... 2 | 

John Dean, senior 2 \ 

Samuel Cotton | 

John Hough 200 

Jonathan Dean 600 

Edward Young 700 

Margaret Tyrer .... .... .... .... .... 100 

Elizabeth Richardson 200 

Thomas Wilson 300 

Deborah Wilcock 1 

Thomas Stanley 2 | 

Samuel Urmston .... .... .... .... .... | 

Thomas Strong 300 

Josh. Kenyon | 

Thomas Dean 1 f 

Daniel Robinson \ 

Robert Postlethwaite .... .... .... \ 

James Coventry .... .... .... .... .... \ 

John Dean, junior .... .... .... .... 230 

William Young 1 

George Mulls 1 

[? 56] 

Though the columns are headed Oxgangs, Halves and 
Quarters, it would appear that \ in the second column 
means half an oxgang, not half of half. The figures in the 
third column seem to be half and quarter oxgangs. But 
this is doubtful. 

On another page occurs the memorandum : 

1748 and 1749. Mr. Hough and Mr. Hillard, Church- 
wardens. One lay of Is. 6^. per year for 3 years. 5 
oxgangs his own estate and 1 oxgang Bread Land ; 6 
oxgangs in all. 

The Bread Dole oxgang does not seem to be mentioned 
in the above, but it may be under the occupier's name. 

From a plea recorded in the Cheshire Sheaf (Series III., 
No. 4416) it would appear that there were in Poulton about 
1600 exactly 28 oxgangs, viz., 17 in Poulton proper and 
11 in Seacombe. 

148 Leasowe Castle : its Owners and History 

Supposing there is some slight mistake in the Liscard 
figures, so that this township and Wallasey had 56 oxgangs 
each, the total for the parish would amount to 140 oxgangs. 
This would point to an entirely fresh assessment of the 
parish according to oxgangs of land, for 140 does not well 
agree with either the 1| hides or 4 carucates shown in 
Domesday Book, as the assessment of Wallasey. It shows 
instead 17| carucates of land. Two holdings of 7 bovates 
each (recorded above) would suit a total of 56 oxgangs. 



By Philip Nelson, M.D., F.S.A. 

Read 7th April, 1921. 

HTHE alabaster carving of the Blessed Virgin 
I and Child, which forms the subject of this 
paper, is of English workmanship and, prior to 
its acquisition by me, was in a church in Brittany. 
Many English alabasters are still to be seen in 
Brittany, and that there was a very considerable 
trade in alabaster-work between England and 
Brittany, countries in close commercial and court 
connection, is evidenced by the export to Nantes 
of the tomb of John IV., duke of Brittany, the 
first husband of Joan, second wife of Henry IV. 
of England, in 1408, at which time a safe conduct 
was granted to John Guychard on the occasion 
of its export to that country by the following 
bill of Privy Seal : 

Rex universis & singulis Admirallis &c. ad quos &c. 
Salutem. Sciatis quod nos ad supplicationem carissimae 
Consortis nostrae, quae ad quandam tumbam alabastri, 
quam pro Duce Britannias defuncto, quondam viro suo, 
fieri fecit, in bargea de Seynt Nicholas de Nantes in Britannia, 
una cum tribus ligeorum nostrorum Anglicorum, qui eandem 
tumbam operati fuerunt videlicet, Thoma Colyn, Thoma 
Holewell, & Thoma Poppehowe ad tumbam praedictam 
in ecclesia de Nantes in Britannia assidendum & ponendum, 
ad praesens ordinavit mittendum, Suscepimus in salvum & 
securum conductum nostrum Johannem Guychard, 
mercatorem, Magistrum bargeae praedictae, ac decem 
servitores suos, marinarios in comitiva sua, ad Britanniam, 
ut praedictum est, transeundo, & exinde in regnum 

150 A XIV . Century English 

nostrum Angliae mercatorie redeundo, necnon bargeam 
praedictam, ac bona et hernesia sua qusecumque ; Et ideo 
vobis mandamus quod ipsum Johannem, & servitores ac 
Marinarios suos praedictos, versus Britanniam transeundo & 
exinde in regnum nostrum Angliae mercatorie redeundo, 
necnon bargeam praedictam ac bona & hernesia sua 
quaecumque, manuteneatis, protegatis & defendatis, non 
inferentes eis seu quantum in vobis est inferri permittentes 
injuriam, molestiam, dampnum, violenciam, impedimentum 
aliquod seu gravamen, Et si quid eis forisfactum vel 
injuriatum fuerit id eis sine dilacione debite corrigi et 
reformari faciatis. Proviso semper quod ipsi quicquam 
nobis vel populo nostro seu dicto regno nostro aut aliis 
dominiis et potestatibus nostris praejudiciale colore 
praesencium interim non attemptent seu faciant quovis modo. 
In cujus &c. usque festum Nativitatis Sancti Johannis 
Baptistae proximo futurum duraturas. Teste Rege apud 
Westmonasterium xxiiij die Februarii [1 407-8]. 1 

This statuette measures 16ins. in height. The 
back is hollowed out and provided with two 
latten wire loops, for attachment to its wooden 
" housyng." The design may be thus described : 
The Holy Mother, who rests her weight upon her 
right foot, wears a long white robe edged with 
gold, over which is draped a white cloak 
lined with scarlet and edged with gold. On her 
head is a tall elaborate open crown and in her 
left hand she holds a very long sceptre enriched 
with leaves. 2 Upon her right arm she supports 
the Divine Child, clad in a white robe and cloak, 
both edged with gold, who holds in both hands 
a bird. 3 

It would be of interest if we could identify the 
atelier from whence came this carving, and there 

1 Rymer's Fcedera, viii., 510-511 (from Treaty Roll 91. m. 15). 
* The sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Psalm xlv., 6. 

8 In regard to the presence of a bird in the hands of the Child I 
would hazard the suggestion that this may refer to the miracle of 
the twelve clay sparrows made on the Sabbath, which became 
endowed with life upon Christ clapping His hands. Gospel of the 
Pseudo-Matthew, xxvii. ; Gospel of Thomas, ii. ; The Arabic Gospel 
of the Infancy, xxxvi. 


(Nottingham Must-inn). 

Alabaster of the Blessed Virgin 151 

is some evidence which may assist us in arriving 
at a conclusion in this matter. 

We know that Edward III., in 1367, purchased 
from Peter Mason of St. Mary's Street, 
Nottingham, for the sum of 200, an alabaster 
reredos, doubtless one consisting of large separate 
figures, for the chapel of St. George at Windsor, 
which required for its conveyance thither in 
1371, ten carts. 

Again, during the priorate of John Fossor of 
Durham, 1341-1374, he gave to the cathedral, 
" Imagines sanctae Trinitatis et beatae Virginis, 
de alabastro, cum tabernaculis, cum aliis 
ornamentis, pretium 22.1. " l 

Subsequent to this (in 1374), John, lord Neville 
of Raby, in conjunction with Prior Fossor and 
others, gave the sum of 700 for the purchase of 
" illud opus super altare quod vocatur La 
Reredos;" 2 and from the Rites of Durham 
we learn that " right over the said hye altar were 
artificially placed in very fine Alabaster the 
picture of our Lady standinge in the midst, and 
the picture of St. Cuthb : on the one side and 
the picture of St. Oswald on the other beinge 
all richly gilded." 3 This reredos, though it was 
shipped in cases from London, was as regards 
the imagery doubtless of Nottingham workman- 

In 1779 there were found beneath the floor of 
the church at Flawford, Notts., three large 
alabaster images of the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter 
and a bishop, which may be dated as circa 1360. 
These, as is also true of the Pieta at Breadsall, 
Derby, may be considered as of Nottingham 

1 Histories Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres (Surtees Society, 1839), 
p. 131. 

1 Ibid., p. 135. 

8 The Rites of Durham (Surtees Society, 107), p. 7. 

152 XIV. Century English Alabaster 

origin, and give us the clue as to the character 
of the sculpture produced there at that period. 
The Flawford Virgin (PL 2) is very similar to 
the large figure at Cadillac-sur-Garonne (PL 3), 
and, like it, exhibits that marked swaying of the 
figure, hauchement, which, perhaps derived from 
the workers in ivory, was a method of treatment 
one associates rather with the French school than 
with the English. 

The statuette (PL 1), the subject of this paper, 
has a close connection with the Cadillac figure, 
but lacks the graceful sway which it exhibits, 
while the folds of the drapery are treated in a 
much simpler manner and it thus comes into 
relationship with the English alabaster image of 
the Virgin, preserved in the church of St. Seurin, 
Bordeaux. 1 

In all these examples the Child is depicted as 
uncrowned, for it is only in figures of the late 
fifteenth century that we find Him crowned, in 
addition to the Mother. 

I would suggest, therefore, in conclusion, that 
this statuette was wrought at Nottingham, circa 
1380, not improbably in the workshop of Peter 
the Mason. 

Mv thanks are due to M : T. A. Bruitails for his 

/ +j 

kind permission to reproduce the photograph of 
the Cadillac Virgin (PL 3), and to the Society of 
Antiquaries for the use of the block (PL 2), of the 
Flawford Madonna. 

1 J. A. Bruitails, Album d'Objets d' Art existant dans les Eglises de la 
Gironde, pi. xii., fig. 2. 





By R. Stewart- Brown, M.A., F.S.A., and 
F. C. Beazley, F.S.A. 

"PHE main lines of descent of this ancient 
A Lancashire family, now represented by 
Crosse of Shaw Hill, Chorley, Co. Lancaster, 
and Legh of Adlington, Co. Chester, are well 
known and were recorded in 1846 in Burke's 
Landed Gentry and in 1873 in Foster's Lancashire 
Pedigrees. Neither of these pedigrees is satis- 
factory and both are very weak in details and in 
the collateral lines. Since they were compiled 
much information has become available ; for 
example a Calendar of the Crosse deeds at Shaw 
Hill, by Mr. R. D. Radcliffe, further Crosse deeds 
in Towneley MS. GG (British Museum), and, 
above all, the valuable notices of the family in 
the Victoria History of the County of Lancaster. 
Owing to the plan of that work, the Crosse family 
was necessarily dealt with by the editors in many 
places, and mainly for the manorial and landed 
descents, so that one has to refer for the family 
to the accounts of Lathom, Wigan, Chorley, 
Aughton, Uplitherland and Liverpool. The 
article on the last place was written by another 
hand and no connected account is given of the 
long and close connection of the Crosse family 
with the town. Hence, on several grounds, it 

154 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

seems desirable to restate the pedigree, at least 
down to 1700, after which date there is little that 
is new to be recorded. 

The pedigree from Adam del Crosse of Wigan 
is clear. The earlier descent suggested from the 
Waleys of Lathom is not proved but, on general 
probabilities and after a study of the evidence 
provided in the references, seems very likely. 
Earlier occurrences of these Walenses are found 
at Lathom and elsewhere and they may well have 
been descendants of men from Wales who settled 
in 1177 in various parts of Lancashire and also 
in Wirral, after their leader, Robert Banastre, 
was expelled from Rhuddlan by Owen Gwynedd. 1 
In this connection it may be noted that the names 
of Adam, Thurstan, Gilbert, Robert and Richard, 
all Banastre names, occur in the early Crosse 

Amongst much entirely new matter the wills 
of various members of the Crosse family are of 
interest ; and several show their continued 
attachment, though settled elsewhere, to the 
chapels of St. Nicholas and St. Mary del Quay at 
Liverpool. Some contain gifts of books to Oxford 
colleges. Perhaps the most noticeable new facts 
in the pedigree are the results of some prolonged 
investigations for the purpose of identifying 
persons of this family bearing the name of John 
Crosse who appear in holy orders between 1500 
and 1530. At the outset there seemed to be four 
or five different clergymen of this name, and 
there has been the greatest confusion made 
between them which has been difficult to clear 
up. It has now been fairly solidly established 
that there were only two. One of them was the 
rector of St. Nicholas' in the Shambles, London, 

1 See Viet. Co. Hist. Lanes., i.. 369 ; ii.. 189 ; iii., 289, 295. 299, etc. ; 
Col. Close Roll, 1227-31, 159 ; Fine Roll, 13 Hen III. m. 7. 11 ; Pipe 
Roll, 3 Hen III., etc. 



Chorley and Liverpool. 155 

who died in 1517 and was the founder, by one of 
his wills, of the grammar school at Liverpool, 
and of a chantry in the chapel of St. Nicholas 
there. The other was his nephew John Crosse, 
rector of Moulsoe and holder of various other 
benefices. Mr. Leach, in his account of the 
schools of Lancashire, 1 thinks the John Crosse 
who died in 1502 and was mayor of Liverpool 
1459 and 1476, was probably the founder of the 
chantry, but this is an obvious error as the founder 
was a younger son and the foundation was in 
1515. Foster, in his pedigree, combines, in the 
person of the nephew, the rectors of St. Nicholas, 
of Turvey (Beds.) and of Moulsoe (Bucks) ; 
Burke does the same and makes him the founder 
of the grammar school. Both are wrong. We 
have established that the rector of St. Nicholas' 
in the Shambles was also rector of Turvey and, as 
such, made a second will in 1517. His patron at 
Turvey was John Mordaunt, afterwards Lord 
Mordaunt, who evidently held the Crosse family 
in high regard, for he presented John Crosse, the 
nephew of the rector of Turvey and the ultimate 
heir of the Lancashire family, to several benefices 
in succession ; and finally by his will in 1560, 
forty-three years after the rector's death, left 
thirty shillings for prayers for his soul in recom- 
pense for certain tithes which had been due to 
him. This continued patronage by Lord Mordaunt 
may have had some connection with the fact that 
his father Sir John Mordaunt, knight, of Turvey, 
who fought on the Lancastrian side at Barnet, 
had been appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster in 1504, the year of his death. He had 
other earlier local connections, having been 
granted, when a King's Serjeant, the manors of 
Eaton and Rushton, Co. Chester, by George Earl 

1 V.C.H. ii, 593b. 

156 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

of Kent and he also became one of the Chester 
Justices in eyre and eventually Justice of the 
Palatine Court of that county. A number of 
Lancashire families seem to have settled in Bed- 
fordshire on the Mordaunt estates and we find that 
the Lancashire names of Pemberton and Raynford 
(which occur in the pedigree below) are well known 
in the neighbourhood of the parish of Turvey. 

In the course of our searches we have met with 
a number of persons at Oxford, Newark and in 
Lincolnshire in the late sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries who bore the name of Latimer Crosse. 
We have been unable to place them in this pedigree, 
but it seems very likely that they descended from 
a branch of the Lancashire Crosses named after 
some member of the family of Sir Nicholas 
Latimer, whose daughter Edith was the wife of 
Sir John Mordaunt the Chancellor, and the mother 
of the Crosses' patron. 1 

A pedigree dated 1598 (attributed to Camden) 
of the Crosses of Charlinch near Bridgewater and 
of Sutton, Co. Chester, has been printed, 2 in 
which that family is stated to descend from the 
Crosses of Crosse Hall, Lancashire, but the 
pedigree appears to be quite untrustworthy and 
we have been unable to verify a single statement 
in the six generations which it contains. It 
appears to have been one of the W. S. Spence 
frauds, exposed over sixty years ago in Notes and 
Queries. 3 

1 Robert Latimer, gent., was one of the executors of the rector of 
Moulsoe, 1533. The name Latimer Crosse occurs in 1862 as that of 
a son of Thos. Crosse, of Brodlands and Friskney, Co. Lines., in a suit 
in which it appears the father owned the manor of Wrenbury, Co. 
Chester (Law Times Reports, 8 N.S. 399). According to Ormerod's 
Cheshire, John Cross of Wrenbury, who died in 1855, assumed the name 
of Starkey under a will of 1809. 

Cheshire Sheaf, Ser. III., vol. v., 94. 
8 2nd Series, vol. ix. 

Chorley and Liverpool 157 

We feel sure, however, that the collateral lines 
of the pedigree here printed are capable of much 
further elaboration, but this we must leave to 

As will be seen from the references we have 
made very full use of the Victoria History and to 
the editors the fullest acknowledgments are due. 
So far as possible an independent investigation 
of the available sources has been made. 

The following abbreviated references have been 
used : 

V.C.H. = the Victoria Hist, of Co. Lancaster. 
C.D.=Crosse Deeds, in Schedule of Deeds at Shaw Hill, 
Chorley, by R. D. Radcliffe, M.A., F.S.A. (Trans. Hist. 
Soc. Lanes. & Chesh., Vols. xli., xlii., xliii., xlv. ; 
also priv. reprint, 1895). 
T. =Crosse and other deeds, in Towneley MS. GG (Brit. 

Mus. Add. MSS. 32305). 

M.D. = Moore Deeds, in Calendar of Moore MSS. (Rec. 
Soc. Lanes. & Chesh. Vol. Ixvii.). 

1. ROBERT LE WALEYS, of the Cross of 

Lathom, near Ormskirk, Co. Lanes, temp. 

Henry III ; mentioned as greatgrandfather 

of Robert of the Cross of Lathom in a suit of 

1321 (V.C.H., iii. 255, w.6). 
II. RICHARD LE WALEYS, of the Cross of 

Lathom, son and heir of (I.) (suit of 1321) ; 

perhaps identical with Richard de la Croyz, 

father of Adam de la Croyz of Wigan (C.D. 

20) ; issue : 

1. Richard le Waleys (III.), of whom below. 

2. Robert of the Cross of Lathom, the elder, 
living 1291 and 1309 (V.C.H. iii. 255). 

3. Adam, brother of Robert of the Cross of 
Lathom the elder (ibid) ; perhaps identical 
with Adam de Cruce of Wigan (see Pedigree 
No. 2 and V.C.H. iv., 75, n.98; iii. 255, n.7). 

4. Henry, living 1291. 

158 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

III. RICHARD LE WALEYS, son and heir of 
(II.) (suit of 1321); also called " Richard le 
Juvene" of the Cross, 1292 (V.C.H. iii. 255, nA). 

son of (III.) plaintiff in 1321 in a cairn to 
land at Lathom of which his greatgrandfather, 
Robert le Waleys, was seised temp. Henry III. 
(V.C.H. iii. 255, .6). 

LATHOM, living in 1334 and defendant with 
his wife Isolda in a Wigan suit (V.C.H. iii. 
255, n.7). The further descent in this line 
cannot be made out. 


Wigan, living 1277 and 1292 (V.C.H. iv. 
75, n.98 ; iii. 255, n.7) ; perhaps identical 
with Adam brother of Robert of the Cross of 
Lathom (see Pedigree No. 1). Issue : 

1. William del Crosse (II.), of whom below. 

2. John de Cruce, of Wigan, living 1295 and 
1329 (V.C.H. iv. 75 ; C.D. passim)', per- 
haps husband of Margery wife of " John 
de la Croyz of Lathom/' 1292 (Lanes. 
Final Concords, i. 72) ; Issue : 

(i) Thurstan de Cruce, of Wigan, living 
1324-67; marr. Emma (V.C.H. iv. 75; 
C.D. 36, 37) ; issue :- 

(a) Hugh del Crosse, of Wigan, living 
1370 and 1392 (V.C.H. iv. 75, w.101) ; 
Mayor of Wigan 1386 (C.D. 80) ; marr. 
Katherine, widow of (1) John Crosse 
(IV.) and (2) William son of Adam de 
Liverpool ; (for her see below). She 
had issue by Hugh, possibly Richard 

Charley and, Liverpool. 159 

(V.), and also Henry (perhaps only 
son), and Imayne, both living 1395 
(V.C.H. iv. 75, w.101). The latter 
probably marr. John Fox of Burton 
in Wirral as his son, Richard Fox, 
calls Richard del Crosse (V.) his 
" uncle " (T. 2840). Hugh died circa 

(b f William } living 1395 (V.C.H. iv. 
(c) Gilbert \ 75, w.101). 
(ii)_ William, living 1324 (C.D. 36 ; V.C.H. 

iv. 75). 
(i) Matilda (or Maud), marr. Henry 

Banastre (of Walton?) (C.D. 36). 
1. Margery, (C.D. 36), perhaps Margery 
sister of John atte Crosse and widow in 
1331 of Roger de Wigan, (son of William 
son of Hugh de Wigan) (V.C.H. iv. 74, 
w.89; C.D. 14*, 36). 

2. Ellen, marr. Alan the fuller, son of Walter 
the fuller, of Wigan, who occurs with his 
brothers John and William 1299-1323 
(V.C.H. iv. 76, C.D. 14 etc.). 

II. WILLIAM DEL CROSSE, the " walker " (or 
fuller), of Wigan (V.C.H. iv. 76) ; called 
William Crosse son and heir of Almeric (? for 
Adam) Crosse in Visitation Co. Lanes. 1567 ; 
had land in Ormskirk (V.C.H. iv. 76, .102) ; 
married Emma daughter of Thomas de Ince. 
She a widow in 1316 (ibid). Issue : 
1. Almoric, or Aymory, the walker of Wigan, 
(III.), of whom below. 

III. ALMORIC, o r AYMORY, the walker, of 
Wigan, living 1309 and 1345, married Agnes 

; she was a widow in 1359 

(V.C.H. iv. w.102). He is called Almeric 

160 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

Crosse son and heir of William Crosse in 

Visitation 1567. Issue : 

I. John Crosse (IV.), of whom below. 

2. William, the walker, of Wigan, living 

1347 and 1369 ; married Isobel 

and had a son Aymory the walker of Wigan 
(V.C.H. iv. 76), who was living 1380 and 
1417 and married Alice daughter of Adam 
the loriner of Wigan (C.D.80), and had a 
son Henry. 

3. Henry, living 1369 (V.C.H. iv. 76), and 
had a son Richard Aymary who is men- 
tioned in 1423 as " cousin " of Richard 
del Crosse (ibid, w.102). 

4. Thurstan, living 1369 (ibid). 

IV. JOHN CROSSE, alias AMORYSON, son of 
Almoric, son of William, son of Adam ; of 
Wigan and Liverpool ; living 1331-1369 ; 
called John Crosse of Liverpool in Visitation 
1567 ; purchased land in Liverpool from 
Adam son of Richard de Liverpool circa 1347 
(V.C.H. iv. 76, n.102) ; Mayor or deputy- 
mayor of Liverpool 1368 (Trans. Hist. Soc. 
Lanes, and Ches. liv. 124) ; died 1369 (C.D. 
65, 66) ; he married, about 1366 (C.D. 56), 
Katherine daughter of Adam son of Matthew 
de Kenyon, and had issue as below ; she 
married, secondly, circa 1371-4, William son 
of Adam de Liverpool, who died in 1383 and 
by whom she had issue (Trans. Hist. Soc. 
Lanes. & Ches. Iv. 114). She married, 
thirdly, Hugh del Crosse of Wigan, (see 
above), and, fourthly, Thos. del Hough 
(Thornton Hough in Wirral), who died 
in 1409. A son John del Hough, " brother 
of Richard del Crosse and of John de 
Liverpool," is mentioned (T.2301). Thos. 

Charley and Liverpool. 161 

del Hough had a former wife also 
called Katherine (Ormerod's Cheshire ii. 
549, V.C.H. iv. 76, n.Wl). Katherine 
(his second wife) was living in 1417 (C.D.126), 
and is given a first husband William de 
Houghton in Visit. Co. Lanes. 1567, probably 
an error. The following are mentioned in 
1369 as sons of John " Almoricson " and 
Katherine, his widow, in an agreement to 
give Adam de Kenyon custody of the 
children's goods (C.D. 66). :- 
(1). Richard. Unless Katherine had two 
sons each called Richard by her first and 
third husbands (who were both Crosses), 
this Richard was the successor (V.) (see 
V.C.H. iv. 76, .102). 
(2). Nicholas. 
(3). Thurstan. 

V. RICHARD DEL CROSSE, of Wigan, Liverpool 
and Chorley ; son of Katherine (C.D. 113, 
125, T. 2679), but by which husband is not 
certain (see above and V.C.H. iv. 76, w.102) ; 
called son and heir of John Crosse of Liverpool 
and Katherine in the Visitation 1567, and son 
of John son of Almoric in a MS. pedigree 
(M.D. 365) ; living ? 1369-1442 ; Mayor 
of Liverpool 1409-10 (T.2592, 2700) ; pur- 
chased lands in Liverpool and settled 
there ; also bought the Eaves Hall (Crosse 
Hall) property at Healey in Chorley 1418-20 

(V.C.H. vi. 40) ; married Margaret , 

she living 1437 (C.D. 138). Issue : 
(1). John Crosse (VI.), of whom below. 
(2). Perhaps Edmund Crosse ; living 1450 
and 1472, witness in 1461 and 1471 to 
sales of land in Liverpool to John Crosse 
of Liverpool (T. 2232, 2270); Royal 

162 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

bailiff, approver and lessee of the lordship 
of Liverpool (Hist. Mun. Gov. Liverpool, 
316 etc.) ; Mayor 1469-70 (Trans. Hist. 
Soc. liv. 130). This Edmund may, how- 
ever, have been of a Rivington family. 
Perhaps Henry Crosse of Wavertree, gent., 
lessee of the lordship of Liverpool 1475 
etc. (Hist. Mun. Gov. Liverpool, 324 etc.), 
was a son of Edmund. 

VI. JOHN CROSSE, of Wigan, Liverpool and 
Chorley, son and heir *of (V.) ; Mayor of 
Liverpool 1459 and 1476 (Trans. Hist. Soc. 
liv. 130 ; Col. Moore Deeds No. 194) ; 
Commissioner of Peace 1 Feb. 1485-6, and 26 
March, 1489 (Duchy of Lane. Pat. Roll). 
In 1442 it was proposed that he should marry 
Alison daughter of William Norreys (T. 2281) ; 
married, first, Joan daughter of Ric. Calcott 
of the City of Chester, gentleman ; dis- 
pensation 26th July, 1449 from Archbishop 
of York, citing a dispensation of Pope 
Nicholas V., they being twice related in the 
4th degree (Reg. Kempe 137 a.b., in Test. 
Ebor.(Surtees Soc.), iii. 331); married, secondly, 
Agnes, Annis, Alice or Avis [? Botyll]," late 
wife " (C.D. 165, 167) ; she was married 
again before 1526 to Humphrey Gerard and 
they then released her dower lands to 
" Master John Crosse, clerk " (T. 2371). 
Will of John Crosse of Liverpool dated 20th 
August, 1502 ; to be buried in the chancel of 
St. Nicholas of Liverpool before the image 
of the Blessed Mary ; to Richard Crosse 
my son and heir, my best gown and the big 
brass pot that was his mother's ; to Roger 
his son, my second best gown ; to my son 
William Crosse, goods in my workshop 

Chorley and Liverpool. 163 

(opella), Richard my heir to assign to him 
the house and garden in Ley Dale Street in 
which Henry Plumbe dwells and my two 
workshops (with the chambers), next the 
Cross, for life (see C.D. 164) ; to my wife 
Agnes and my son John the chaplain, 12 
silver spoons equally between them ; John 
Crosse, son of Richard my heir, to have the 
farm of the tenement I have in the lordship 
of Walton from Wm. Lightwode for 4 years, 
on condition he be willing to take holy orders, 
also 20s, a tunic and gown and a pair of 
" ledrybuskynnus " ; what I heretofore had 
and bought of Margaret Tailor to be ex- 
pended for maintenance of a priest to 
celebrate before the image of the Blessed 
Mary in the chapel of Liverpool, except the 
workshop which I have given to the main- 
tenance of a chaplain celebrating in the 
chapel of St. Mary de Key ; to Wm. Bolton, 
vicar of Walton, a silver bowl ; to Ellen 
Cross my sewing maid 20s. ; to James 
Thomasson 10s. and the tenement in which 
Henry Coke dwells or that in which the 
widow of Edmund Thorpe dwells, for life, 
he to take my sewing maid Joan Longbakke 
to wife ; to John Crouke, one cow ; to the 
church of St. Mary of Walton 26s. 8d. ; to 
the church of Sefton 20s. out of money in 
hands of the rector ; all other goods to my 
son John the chaplain, my wife Agnes and 
Wm. Bolton chaplain, to dispose for my soul; 
witnessed by Thomas Eyvis, Mayor of Liver- 
pool, Thomas Harebrowne, William Hare- 
browne, gent., John Fleccher, John Woolfall, 
Richard Fletewode, chaplain ; proved 23rd 
Sept., 1502 by the executor (John Crosse) 

164 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

(P.C.C. 11 Blamyr). Issue (probably all by 

first wife) : 

(1) Richard Crosse (VII.) , of whom below. 

(2) William Crosse, mercer, of Liverpool 

and London ; married Alice ; 

his will dated 18th December, 1502 ; to 
be buried in the chapel of St. Nicholas of 
Lyverpoll ; all stuff in shop in Lyverpoll 
to son John and daughter Elizabeth, my 
brother Sir John Crosse priest to have the 
guiding thereof to their behoof; to wife 
Alice stuff and goods in London and lease 
of the " s(c)halding house " for 10 years 
on condition she pay my debts ; the over- 
plus of the lease to descend to my said son 
and daughter ; to Sir John Fleccher 5s. ; 
20s. to the building of a house that shall 
be made to the behoof of a priest to sing 
afore Our Lady of the Kye in Lyverpolle ; 
executors wife and son ; my brother, Sir 
John Crosse, to be overseer ; witnessed by 
John Crosse, priest, Sir John Fleccher, 
priest, Elizabeth Themberton (Pember- 
ton ?) ; proved 1st March, 1502-3 by relict 
and executrix, with power reserved etc. 
(P.C.C. 22 Blamyr). Issue :- 

probably both died 
without issue as the 

1. John. 
2. Elizabeth. 

lease of the scalding 
house in London 

seems to have passed 
to their uncle John. 
(3) John Crosse, founder of the grammar 
School at Liverpool and of the chantry of 
St. Katherine in the chapel there ; called 
" my son John the chaplain " (will of 
father 1502), " my brother Sir John Crosse 
priest " (will of brother William 1502) ; 

Chorley and Liverpool. 165 

executor of father's will ; early benefices 
not known ; appointed 16 Sept., 1489, by 
the Dean of St. Martin's-le-Grand (the 
regular patron), to the rectory of St. 
Nicholas ad Macellas (in the Flesh 
Shambles), London, which he held till his 
death in 1517 (Hennessy, Novum Reper- 
torium Ecc. Par. Londinense, 1893, p. 352) ; 
on 8th Aug., 1493, as Master John Crosse, 
M.A. (probably of Oxford), priest, he was 
instituted personally, at Burgh St. Peter, 
to a mediety of the parish church of 
(All Saints) Turvey, Beds., patron the 
prior and convent of St. Neots (Lincoln 
Epis. Reg. xxii., 271, d.). Said to have 
been also one of the two chantry 
priests at Turvey founded by the will 
dated 1504 of Sir John Mordaunt of 
Turvey, Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lane. 1504 (Harvey, History of Hundred 
of Willey, 198; Nicolas, Test. Vetusla, ii. 
461) ; executor and residuary legatee of 
the will dated 21st November 1478 of Hugh 
Botyll, perpetual vicar of the prebendal 
church of Pottern (or Porton), Co. Wilts. 
(Harl. MS. 2042, 162). On 10th April 1507 
as rector of St. Nicholas etc., but not of 
Turvey, he enfeoffed, for the fulfilment of 
his last will, John Fleccher chaplain, John 
son of Richard Crosse, Thomas son of 
George Raynford, William Moore, Evan 
Haghton, Roger Fazakerley and William 
Lake, with all his lands, etc. in Lyrpole 
or Co. Lanes., also those in Fazakerley held 
by feoffment of his " relation " Hugh 
Botehyll, clerk, and the premises there 
bought from William Lightwood (C.D. 170); 
a similar deed dated 6 Henry VIII. (1514-15) 

166 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

confirms these lands to the same feoffees 
except Fletcher ; John Crosse, son of 
Richard, being there called rector of 
Mickleham, Thomas Raynford being called 
of Turvey chaplain, and Hugh Botill being 
entitled B .(accalarius) U.(triusque) J.(uris) 
(Duchy of Lane. Dep. 66). On 5th Febru- 
ary, 1509-10, he received the king's general 
pardon 1 as John Crosse clerk, alias John 
Crosse of London parson of the parish 
church of St. Nicholas ad Macellas, alias 
John Crosse parson of the parish church of 
Turvey, alias John Crosse late of Lyverpull 
clerk, executor of the will of John Crosse 
late of Lyverpull gentleman, alias John 
Crosse clerk, executor of the will of Master 
Hugh Botyll* late vicar of " Portorn " 
Co. Wilts (Pat. Roll. Suppl. 57, m.25, 
formerly Pardon Roll 1 Henry VIII. Part 
II) ; he died between 4th June and 3rd 
July 1517 (when a successor was instituted 
to Turvey), having made two wills. 

By his first will, dated 10th May, 1515, as 
parson of St. Nicholas, etc. (but not of 
Turvey), (printed in full Liverpool Vestry 
Books, ed. Peet, i. 450), he left the lands in 
Liverpool which he had by deed of gift of 
" Sir " Hugh Botill, son and heir of Hugh 
Botill of Liverpool, and lands bought from 
William Light wood in Fazakerley, etc., 
upon the trusts of the deed of feoffment 
(of 1507 etc.), and provided for the estab- 
lishment of a chantry priest before the 
altar of St. Katherine in the Chapel of 
Liverpool, to pray for the souls of John 
Crosse, Avice Crosse, Hugh Botyll and 

1 We owe this reference to Professor J. A. Twemlow of the University 
of Liverpool. 

Chorley and Liverpool. 167 

their friends, and, after his death, for that 
of the founder etc. ; the will gave the 
appointment of new trustees of the chantry 
foundation to the Mayor of Liverpool and 
testator's brother Richard Crosse, etc., and 
provided that the priest should keep 
" gramer scole " and take fees except from 
children named Crosse and those who were 
poor ; testator further gave to the Mayor 
and burgesses of Liverpool ' the new- 
called Our Ladie House " to keep their 
courts etc., the cellar under it to provide 
help for the chantry priest of Our Lady of 
the Chapel of the Key, he to give 5s. a year 
out of the income to the chantry priest of 
St. Katherine etc. ; witnessed by Hum- 
phrey Crosse priest, John Ogle, Thomas 
Eccleston, Laurence Ireland and John 
" Wrythtyntone." Place and date of pro- 
bate unknown and possibly never proved, 
though acted upon in 1527 and 1554 as a 
trust by the Chancery Courts (Duchy of 
Lane. Pleadings iv. C2 (1527), Depositions 
vol. 66, M3 a r). 

The second will, as parson of Tyrvey, is 
date 4th June 1517 ; my body to be 
buried in the church of All Saints in Tyrvey 
in the high chancel ; to my sister Mary 
my best bed and a violet gown ; to my 
sister Elizabeth a bed in London ; to Sir 
Thomas Raynesford priest a bed in Tyrvey 
with what books be'th necessary for him 
to occupy ; to my cousin Elizabeth Pem- 
berton a bed and my russet gown furred 
with black lamb ; to John Copyn a bed 
with half the brass pots and old pewter 
vessels in Tyrvey to the use of Margaret 
his wife and her children, and both my 

168 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

carts and two carthouses, two kine, ten 
sheep and ten lambs ; my cousin 
[ ? nephew ] John Button to have the lease 
of the Scalding house in St. Nicholas 
Shambles in London, during the years, 
to find him to school if he will be a 
priest, or else it be disposed to find some 
other to the school at the mind of my 
cousin [nephew] John Crosse ; to my cousin 
[nephew] James Crosse the great bed and 
hangings in the parlour in London ; my 
farm stock to George Slake, Richard Bar- 
bor, John Bulloke, Thomas Waren ; to the 
Abbey of Lavenden [Bucks.] twelve sheep 
and twelve lambs towards the building of 
the cloister ; to my cousin [? nephew] 
Richard Crosse's wife a gown furred with 
white ; to Sir John Dorff 40s. in remittance 
of part of his debt ; to Maister Pate one 
book ; to my cousin [? nephew] Richard, 
" querester " at Whitingdon College (see 
below) 40s. ; all my books of parchment to 
be equally divided betwixt Mawdelyn Col- 
lege and the King's College of Brasynnose in 
Oxford ; the parson that shall succeed me 
to have the house I dwell in, with the lead 
and the brewing vats for dilapidation ; to 
the church of St. Nicholas in Lyverpole, 
four books, two of them Distructorium 
Viciorium 1 and the other the Con- 
stitutions and Randowlff ; to my cousin 
[nephew] John Crosse clerk a bed, a gown 
and the use of all my books unto such time 
that my cousin [? nephew] John Sutton be 
able to occupy them, or else to be disposed 

1 A " Summa que Destructorium Viciorum appellatur . . . cujusdam 
fabri lignarii filio . . . anno 1429 collecta " was printed at Cologne, 
1480 and 1485, and at Nuremburg, 1496 and later (Cat. Brit. Mus.). 
There is now no trace of this or the other books at St. Nicholas' Church- 

Charley and Liverpool. 169 

for the health of my soul ; all the rest of 
my goods to my said cousin John Crosse, 
and my sister Mary, to be disposed as they 
perceive my mind, whom I constitute my 
executors, and Master John Mordauntesq. 
supervisor ; witnesses, Maister John Mor- 
daunt, esquier, Sir Thomas Raynforth, 
curett of the parish, and Humphrey Har- 
dys ; proved 6th July 1517 by the execu- 
tors (P.C.C. 34 Holder). 

(4) Perhaps Edmund Crosse, who married a 
daughter of Sir William Norreys of Speke 
(M.S. ped. M.D.365), and, with his wife 
and " children " was commemorated in a 
stained glass window in the Norreys Chapel 
at Childwall Church, Co. Lanes. (Trans. 
Hist Soc., Ixv., 99). Issue (inter alios) : 
1- Laurence. ) /Ayrc , , .. 
2. William. } (MS ' ped ' loc ' "'> 

(1) Mary, married in 1486 John son of 
Gilbert Sutton of Scarisbrick (Scarisbrick 
Deed 178), and had issue (V.C.H:, hi. 273). 

(2) Margaret, married circa 1470 Edmund 
son of Richard Gillibrand of Lathom (C.D. 

VII. RICHARD CROSSE, of Walton on the Hill, 
Liverpool and Chorley, son and heir of 
(VI.) ; living in 1515 (C.D. 175 etc.) ; 
married, first, Elizabeth daughter and co- 
heir of Roger Walton of Walton-on-the-Hill 
and Fazakerley, Co. Lanes., armiger, the 
estates being partitioned 4th July 1494 (Chor- 
ley Survey (Rec. Soc. Lanes. & Cheshire), 
37); issue seven children ; married, secondly, 
Elizabeth daughter of Edmund Win- 
stanley of Winstanley, Co. Lanes., marriage 

170 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

agreement 1493 (T. 2250). Issue six (?) 

children. Issue of first marriage : 

1. Roger (VIII.), of whom below. 

2. John (IX), of whom below. 

3. Robert, ob. s. p. 

4. Richard, probably " my cousin [nephew] 
Richard, querester [chorister] at Whiting- 
don College " [Whittington's College in the 
Ch. of St. Michael Paternoster, Cannon 
Street, London] will of John Crosse, rector 
of Turvey, 1517) ; ob. s. p. 

5. William, married circa 1522 Joan 
daughter of Henry Banastre (T. 2887). 
She held Crosse Hall, Liverpool, for life 
(T. 2488), and was alive in 1548 (will of 
Richard Banastre of Bank in Lanes. & 
Ches. Wills (Chet. Soc.), i. 200). He died 
s.p. before 30th April 1532 (will of IX.), 
and probably before December 1526 
(Liverpool Town Bks. ed. Twemlow i. 434). 

1. Blanche, married in 1515 to Roger Breres, 
yeoman and linendraper, of Chorley (C.D. 
175, 179) ; became joint heiress of the 
Walton and Fazakerley property of her 
mother and had issue. 

2. Margaret, married George Garston of 
Walton (C.D. 179) ; joint heiress with her 
sister Blanche. 

Issue of second marriage of Richard 
Crosse (VII.) :- 

1. James (X), of whom below. 

2. Edmund, second in remainder after his 
brother James, and executor of will 1532 
of half-brother John (IX) ; " servant to 
John Lord Mordaunt " (MS.ped.M.D. 365). 

3. Perhaps Humphrey (MS. ped. M.D.365). 
A Humphrey Crosse, priest, was a witness 
in 1515 to the will of John Crosse rector 

Chorley and Liverpool. 171 

of St. Nicholas etc., a defendant in a 
Liverpool chantry suit of 1527, and men- 
tioned in 1530 (deed of rector of Moulsoe 
below), also a chantry priest of St. 
Katherine's altar in St. Nicholas', Liverpool, 
1533 (Valor Ecc. v. 221), also master of 
the Grammar School and aged 50 in 1548 
(Gregson's Fragments and Liverpool Town 
Books, i. 140, 532). All these are perhaps 
not identical. 

4. George (MS. ped.). 

1. Katherine, mentioned in will of half- 
brother John (IX.) ; married (1) John War- 
ren of St. Albans, (2) Edward Taylor of 
Hadley, Co. Middlesex, son of Edward Tay- 
lor of same and Eleanor his wife, daughter 
of Edward Cheeseman, " cofferer to Henry 
8" (Middlesex Peds., Harl. Soc.). 

2. Elizabeth (MS. ped.). 

VIII. ROGER CROSSE, of Walton, Liverpool, 
Wigan and Chorley ; eldest son and heir of 
(VII.) (C.D. 171, 174 etc.) ; married Letitia 
daughter of Thomas Norreys of West Derby, 
(according to Foster) which marriage was 
dissolved 12th October 1519 by the official 
of Bishop of Chester, for want of consent, the 
parents having compulsorily espoused them 
when children (C.D. 176) ; Burke states 
that Letitia afterwards married Thos. Norreys 
of Speke; but she may have been daughter of 
Richard Norreys, married, secondly, Hum- 
phrey Ball of Chester (Visitation of Cheshire 
1613, 15). Roger Crosse died 22nd April 1522 
s.p. ; inq.p.m. at Preston, llth August; 1 
he was seised of 56 messuages and 1215 
acres of various kinds of land, etc., as 

1 The year is now illegible. 

172 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

follows : Walton 12 messuages, 450 acres, 
held of the King in socage, rent 20s. ; Liver- 
pool 12 messuages, 150 acres, a windmill, 
of the Duke of Lanes, in free burgage, rent 
23s. lOd. ; (West) Derby 2 messuages 42 
acres, of the King by custom of manor and 
court roll, rent 11s. 8d. ; Rainhill 1 mes- 
suage 16 acres, of Richard Lancaster esq. 
in socage, rent 4|d. ; Much Woolton 2 mes- 
suages 22 acres, of St. John of Jerusalem in 
socage, 12d. rent ; Ditton 2 messuages 36 
acres, of William Dichefield in socage, rent 
4d. ; Upholland 17 acres, of Edward Earl of 
Derby by custom and court roll, rent 17s. ; 
Golborn 1 messuage 28 acres,of Thomas Lang- 
ton and Henry Keighley, esqs., in socage, 
rent 3s. 8d. ; Wigan 8 burgages 44 acres, of 
rector of Wigan in free burgage, rent 19s. 2d. ; 
Adlington 2 messuages 54 acres, of the Lords 
of Leylandshire in socage, rent 8Jd. ; Heath 
Chernock 1 messuage 30 acres, of St. John of 
Jerusalem, in socage, rent 12d. ; Coppull 3 
messuages 66 acres, of Richard Worthington 
of Worthington, in socage, rent 4s. ; Chorley 
10 messuages 260 acres, of the Lords of Ley- 
landshire, rent 26s. 8d. ; and of St. John of 
Jerusalem, rent 4d. ; John Crosse, clerk, is 
his brother and heir and was 40 years and 
more at date of inq. It also appears that on 
12th September 1522 the said John granted, 
by charter, to Nicholas Banastre and Henry 
Banastre jun., gents., Crosse Hall in Lyver- 
pole, etc., to Joan daughter of Henry Banas- 
tre for life, etc., then to William Crosse 
brother and heir [apparent] of said John; 
Alexander Banastre and Thomas Banastre, 
chaplain, being appointed attorneys to 
deliver seisin ; said Joan still was living. 

Chorley and Liverpool 173 

Also that by another charter 19th February 
1524-5 John Crosse (IX), rector of Mulsho, 
Bucks, confirmed to said William and Joan 
for her life other lands in Liverpool, etc. 
(Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. vi. 18). 

IX. JOHN CROSSE ; "to take Holy Orders " 
(will of grandfather 1502) ; a chaplain 1509 
(C.D. 171) ; aged 40 and more at inq. p.m. 
of brother Roger, to whose Lancashire estates 
he became heir ; probably John Crosse of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, B.A. 18th June 1511, 
M.A. 27th June 1514 ; presented to numerous 
benefices ; instituted 31st October 1513 
(patron John Mordaunt of Turvey) to the 
rectory of Mickleham, Surrey (Manning and 
Bray, Surrey ii. 663) ; instituted 15th Novem- 
ber 1518 (by the same patron on grant from 
Goring Priory) to the rectory of Moulsoe, 
Bucks. (Lincoln Epis. Reg. xxv. 53), also on 
22nd May 1525 by the same (then Sir John 
Mordaunt Kt.), to the rectory of White 
Roding, Essex, which he held till his death 
(Newcourt, Repertorium (1710) ii. 500) ; also 
on 3rd June, 1530, by the same to the vicarage 
of West Horndon, Essex, which he soon 
resigned, a successor being appointed 24th 
August 1530 (ibid. 342) ; resigned Moulsoe, 
not " to a kinsman " as thought by Lipscomb 
(Bucks, iv. 254) but probably pro forma, on 
presentation to West Horndon. He appears 
to have been re-instituted to Moulsoe " on 
resignation," personally at Woburn, 18th June 
1530, patron Sir John Mordaunt (Lincoln Ep. 
Reg. xxvii. 213) ; on 12th October 1530, as 
rector of Moulsoe, he made a feoffment to Sir 
Ewin Quykk, clerk, George Goldwell and 
William Dowse, upon the trusts of his last will, 

174 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

of all lands in Co. Lanes, formerly held 
by John Crosse his grandfather and inherited 
from his brother Roger (except lands in Cop- 
pull, etc., with which he enfeoffed John Mor- 
daunt jun. and Edmund Feteplace esquires, 
Roger Hoggeson and Henry Holywell by 
charter 24th June 1528), Humphrey Crosse 
clerk and Richard Dowse being appointed to 
deliver seisin (C.D. 178) ; died between 30th 
April and 10th September 1532 when a 
successor was appointed to White Roding 
(Newcourt, Repertorium ii. 500) and on 20th 
June 1533 to Moulsoe, both on his death 
(Lincoln Epis. Reg. xxvii. 217 d). Will, as 
rector of Moulsoe, dated 30th April 1532 ; to 
be buried where I die ; to Master Sterky my 
gown of medley furred with black lamb, and 
to John Hoggeson, clerk, my best short gown 
with two tippets of same cloth ; to the Royal 
College of Oxford called Brasenose 1 , four 
books of the Bible with " Lira ", six books 
of Antoninus (three called " Cronicles " and 
three " Summa") and a book called "St. 
Augustine on the City of God " ; residue of 
goods to [half] brother Edmund Crosse, he 
to pay 5 to Katherine Crosse my sister to 
her marriage, at the discretion of Sir John 
Mordaunt, Kt., Lord Mordaunt ; all lands in 
Wigan, Lyverpole and Walton which de- 
scended to me on death of my father to my 
[half] brother James Crosse and to Edmund 
Crosse in tail male successively with con- 
tingent remainders etc. to Blanche Brears, 
Margaret Garston and said James ; lands in 

1 The College has two volumes of " The Bible with Lira," three 
parts (Nos. 2, 3, 4) of the Summa, dated 1475 (inscribed ' ex dono ' the 
founder Bp. Smith of Lincoln), and " St. Augustine," etc., 1488 (in- 
scribed ex dono John Raster, a fellow). This will throws doubt on 
these ascriptions. 

Chorley and Liverpool. 175 

Coppull, Heath Chernock, Heley and Chorley 
and a messuage called " le Crossehall " and 
all manors etc. to the same belonging, with 
the moiety of a water mill, to Edmund for 
life, then to Blanche and Margaret in tail, 
James in tail, and heirs male of Edmund ; if 
Blanche and Margaret disturb James in the 
enjoyment of the lands at Walton which Joan 
Crosse widow of my brother William Crosse 
enjoys of my grant for life, then after her 
death the lands in Heley and Chorley with 
Crossehall etc. to remain, after death of 
Edmund, to James ; rest of lands in Co. 
Lanes, to Blanche and Margaret in tail, 
except a messuage in Golborn in par. of 
Wynwick to servant William Dowse for life ; 
executors Robert Lattymer gent, and brother 
Edmund ; overseer " Lord " Mordaunt ; wit- 
nessed by Sir John Mordaunt Kt. " Lord " 
Mordaunt, John Mordaunt esq., John Browne 
esq., Edmund Fetiplace esq., Eugene Quike 
chaplain, Proved 27th February 1532-3 by 
Edmund Crosse (P.C.C. 24 Thrower). 

X. JAMES CROSSE, goldsmith and citizen of 
London (C.D. 181, 187, etc.) ; heir to the 
Lancashire estates of his half-brother 
John (IX) (C.D. 179 etc.) ; married Mar- 
garet daughter of Cotes, according 

to Visitation 1567, but daughter of Thomas 
Trotter according to MS. ped. (M.D. 365). 
He died 24th Jan. " last past " 4/5 Philip 
& Mary ; his inq. p.m. at Wigan, 4/5 
Ph. & M. (1557-8), shows he mortgaged the 
estates (being the same as those held by Roger 
Crosse), to John Fleetwood, esq. for 60 and 
that on 20th November, 1538 they were 
assigned by Fleetwood, James Crosse and his 

176 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

wife Margaret, to Roger Ashawe esq. and 
Lawrence Ashawe his brother on the uses of 
a deed of 10th November 1538 between 
Roger Ashawe and James Crosse ; John son 
and heir of James Crosse having married 
Alice daughter of Roger Ashawe ; remainders 
are mentioned to Thomas and Christopher 
brothers of John Crosse and to the heirs of 
Richard Crosse, great-grandfather of James ; 
Margaret the wife and Roger Ashawe were 
then dead ; John Crosse was his son and 
heir, aged 33 at date of inq. (Duchy of Lane. 
Inq. p.m. x. 20). Issue : 
1. John (XL), of whom below. 
2. Thomas (Visit. 1567), (ancester of Crosse 

of Ledsham Co. Chester according to 

Foster, but this has not been proved, 
3. Christopher (Visit. 1567), mentioned as a 

Spanish merchant 1561 and 1564 (C.D. 

196 and Liverpool Town Books i. 179). 
1. Elizabeth, married George Bloodworth 

(Visit. 1567). 

XL JOHN CROSSE, of Crosse Hall in Chorley, 
Healey and Crosse Hall in Liverpool, son and 
heir of (X) ; aged 33 at Inq. p.m. of father ; 
Mayor of Liverpool 1565 and 1572, deputy- 
searcher of Liverpool Customs 1563-4, Mayor- 
elect 1563, deputy-mayor 1568, etc. (Liver- 
pool Town Books, i. 615 index) ; married 
thrice, first, to Alice daughter of Roger 
Ashawe of the Hall of the Hill in Heath 
Charnock, Co. Lanes., contract for marriage 
llth October 1533 (C.D. 181, 184, 185) ; she 
was buried at Chorley 26th February, 1557-8 ; 
issue six children ; married, secondly, Alice 
daughter of Ralph Assheton of Great Lever, 
Co. Lanes. (Visitn. 1567) ; issue a daughter ; 

Chorley and Liverpool 111 

married, thirdly, Ann daughter of Robert 
Langton of The Lowe in Hindley, Co. Lanes. 
(Visitation). John Crosse died in July 1575 ; 
will dated 24th July 17 Elizabeth ; to 
be buried in the chapel of Lyverpole usually 
called the chapel of Saynt Nicholas ; mentions 
wife, daughter Bridgett (100), sons Richard, 
Robert, William, Edmond and John ; and 
Jane Langton ; executors Peter Stanley of 
Bickerstaffe, Ralph Assheton of Lever, 
Thomas Ashaw of the Hill, Edward Stanley 
of Pou(l)ton ; witnesses, John Maynwaring, 
William Secum, Richard Andleser, Roger 

, proved C. C. Chester 1st August 

1575 by first three executors. 

Issue of first marriage : 

1. John (XII.), of whom below. 

2. Richard. 

3. Robert. 

4. William. 

5. Edmund, bapt. 22nd July 1557 at Chorley. 

1. Ann, married Laurence Ireland of 

Lydiate, Co. Lanes. (Visitn. 1567). 
Issue of second marriage : 
1. Bridget, married Laurence Brownlow 

(MS. ped. M.D. 365). 

XII. JOHN CROSSE, of Crosse Hall in Chorley 
and Crosse Hall in Liverpool, son and heir 
of (XL) ; Freeman of Liverpool 23rd July 
1568, bailiff 1569, mayor 1581-2; married 
Alice daughter of John Moore of Bankhall, 
Co. Lanes., marriage covenant 7th August 
1566 (C. D. 224, M.D. 255). She was alive 
in 1617 (will of son Richard). The will of 
John Crosse, dated 9th November 1596, men- 
tions my wife "Alis," children, William, Mary, 
Eleanor and Elizabeth Chorley ; to son and 

178 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

heir Richard my gilt salte and cuppe, my 
grey mare and her colt ; to daughter Eliza- 
beth " th'one of my little gilt bowles " ; to 
Alice her daughter an incalf heifer (T. 2251). 
Place and date of probate unknown. He was 
alive in 1598 (inq. p.m. of XIV.) and probably 
later. The name " John Crosse " appears as 
one of the 79 Lancashire gentry who signed 
a loyal address to James I. at Wigan on 31st 
March 1603 (Lanes. Lieutenancy (Chet. Soc.) 
ii. 245). He was probably the John Crosse 
buried at Chorley llth September 1612. 
The inq. p.m. of his grandson, (XIV.), after 
reciting the seisin of the grandfather of the 
various estates (including 330 acres in Wood- 
church and Knoctorum, 1 Co. Chester, held 
of the manor of East Greenwich), states that 
by fine of 12th September 1598 he gave them 
to Henry Byrom, Philip Langton, William 
Moore and Laurence Browne [? Brownlow] to 
fulfil a settlement of 20th September 1596 
between (1) himself and his son and heir 
Richard and (2) Anne Ireland widow of 
George Ireland of Hutt. Issue : 
1. Richard (XIII.), of whom below. 
2. William. 
1. Elizabeth, married William Chorley of 

Chorley, Co. Lanes. (Visitns. 1567 and 1664, 

C.D. 189, 190). 
2. Mary. 
3. Eleanor. 

XIII. RICHARD CROSSE, of Liverpool and 
Chorley ; son and heir of (XII.) ; Freeman 
of Liverpool 16th May 1574 ; married Anne 
daughter of Robert Langton of The Lowe, Co. 
Lanes. (Visitns. 1567, 1664) ; died at Liver- 

1 For sales by the Crosses of this property, see Cheshire Sheaf, August- 

Chorley and Liverpool. 179 

pool 27th March 1619 ; Inq. p.m. 7th Sep- 
tember, 1619 (Lanes. Inq. (Rec. Soc.) ii. 135 
and another inq. 27th September 1625, Duchy 
of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxv. 3) ; held upwards of 
600 acres in Liverpool, Walton, Fazakerley, 
West Derby, Coppull, Chorley, Healey and 
Kirkdale in Co. Lanes., Woodchurch and 
Knoctorum, Co. Chester ; heir son John aged 
19 years, 1 month, 3 days. Will dated 20th 
August 1617 ; to be buried in the chappell 
of Liv'poole where formerlye my auncestors 
have been buryed ; 50 to be bestowed upon 
my funeral (10 to poor of Walton, 10 
to poor of Lyverpoole, 30 on the blacks and 
mouldmeats and other necessaries); 300 to 
son Robert now an apprentice in London ; 
360 to son William ; to brother William 
Crosse my ambling mare ; to my mother a 
best feather bed, etc. ; legacies to my cozen 
Richard Chorley, my cozen Alice Chorley, 
my cozen Laurence Brownlowe, my aunt 
Brownlowe, Henry Houle, John Winstanley, 
my cozen Judith More (5 at her marriage), 
Richard Lunt my hoste, Mr. Richard More ; 
money owed by Mr. John Poole, Nicholas 
James and Tyrer, John Eccleston, John 
Banks, Richard Lunt, Mr. More's tenant ; 
all the rest to John Crosse, son and heir 
apparent ; executors John Harrington of 
Huyton Hey and James Anderton of Cleaton, 
Co. Lanes., the younger, esq. ; overseers Sir 
Richard Molineux Kt. and Bt., and Sir Gil- 
bert Ireland Kt., my best beloved friends. 
Debts due to Hugh Stursacres, Mr. Hallowes 
of Manchester (for 4 yards of Kersey prooffe 
at 6s. 7d.) ; I remember not anie more but if 
any ells doe demand anye, on due prooffe pay 
it without suyte, for I have hated suyte all 

180 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

my lyeftime and wold not heare of it after 
my deathe ; a bond due to Ralph Eccleston 
and money owed by his brother Richard 
Eccleston for ground in the Speake fields ; 
bonds in my name of ould Mr. Starkey of 
Stretton, but the truth is the money is his 
daughter Timothye's (sic), but publish not 
this without her consent lest she lose her 
money to her father ; Richard Eccleston 
my tenant. [Note on will] : ' Upon Mon- 
day in Easter weeke being the 29th of March 
1619 this will was found in the chiste of the 
said Richard Crosse at Walton in his chamber 
there amongst his bills and bonds of debt 
& in the same place where the gould & silver 
& rings were w'ch wee found, and the other 
syde of this sheete of pap. was cut the one 
half awaye as nowe it is, and this will wee 
foure found as aforesaid being putt in trust 
to look for it. [sd.] W. Norres, Alex Moli- 
neux, Robt. Blundell, Thomas Molineux." 
Proved C. C. Chester 8th August 1619 by 
John Harrington, power reserved to James 
Qeyton (sic), of Qeyton. Inventory 5th 
April 1619 by Oliver Fairhurst, John Diccon- 
son, Robt. Flecher and Richard Lunte, 
1615 12s. 4d., six yoake of oxen (64) barley, 
malte, oats, beanes, pease, rye, wheat, hus- 
bandry geare, books (5), bills, bonds, &c. 
(1080 4s. 4d.) his backclothes and app'ell 
20. Issue :- 

1. John (XIV.), of whom below. 
2. Robert (will of brother John) ; an appren- 
tice in London 1617 (will of father) ; 
probably Robert Crosse of Chorley who 
proved the death of John Crosse (XIV.) 
in 1640 (Roy. Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc.), 
ii. 96). 

Charley and Liverpool 181 

3. William, mentioned in wills of father and 
brother John. 

XIV. JOHN CROSSE, of Liverpool and Chorley 
aged 19 years 1 month 3 days at inq. p.m. of 
father ; married, first, Juliana daughter of 
Henry Banestre of the Bank in Croston, Co. 
Lanes. ; she was buried at Chorley 15th 
March 1625-6 ; secondly, about February 
1630-1, Frances daughter of Thomas Wool- 
fall of Woolfall, Co. Lanes. ; postnuptial 
settlement of lands in Mellor and Showley 
30th October 1640 (Roy. Comp. Papers (Rec. 
Soc.), ii., 95) ; her will as Frances Crosse 
of Cunscough (in Melling), Co. Lanes., widow, 
dated 4th February 1688-9, proved C. C. 
Chester 15th June 1693 by the executors, 
" her kinsmen " John Bamber of Aughton, 
gentleman, and James Hunter of Cunscough, 
yeoman ; she left a gold ring and pix to her 
daughter-in-law Mistris Crosse, and a gold 
ring to her nephew, Master Stanley of Moor- 
hall (son of Peter Stanley who married 
testator's sister Elizabeth). Her arrears of 
jointure included 125 due from John Crosse 
esq. and 215 from Thomas Crosse esq. 
John Crosse died 3rd December 1640 at Tox- 
teth Park and was buried at Liverpool 
(Roy. Comp. Papers ii. 96) ; will dated 18th 
October 1637 ; to be buried in St. Nicholas' 
Chappell in Liverpoole amongst my ances- 
tors ; lands in Lanes, and Cheshire (except 
certain lands to the use of John Crosse my 
second son) to executors for 9 years, they 
paying to my son Richard for his maintenance 
30 p. a. and for the preferment in marriage 
of my daughter Frances ; mentions the house 
I bought of Richard Broster in Liverpool 

182 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

called the Angell with the horsemill thereto 
belonging ; my other younger children except 
John who is preferred ; son Richard under 
21, my brother Haggerston [Thomas Hag- 
gerston of Haggerston, Northumberland, 
created Bt. 1642, married Alice sister of 
Juliana testator's first wife and was of 
Cuerden Co. Lanes, in 1637] to bring him up, 
to whom and to my sister [-in-law] I bequeath 
gold rings ; my cousin Bridget Chorley ; my 
two brothers Robert and William ; Mr. 
Robert Harrington, Mr. Roger Briers, John 
Banks, Ralph Winstanley ; executors John 
Harrington of Huyton Hey and Richard 
Chorley of Chorley esq. ; debts to my two 
sons John and Thomas 400 ; debt due to 
me from William Crosse of Goosnergh 290 ; 
my son John in lieu of divers lands sold shall 
have all my lands in Shouley and Mellor ; 
proved C. C. Chester 29th January 1640. 
Inq. p.m. at Preston 30th April 1641, recites 
seisin, etc., of grandfather (see XII.), father 
Richard and self of the same estates ; also 
his own seisin of 8 messuages 200 acres in 
Mellor (held of heirs of Thomas Southworth) 
and Shouley (tenure unknown), 100 acres in 
Goosnergh (held of the Duke of Lanes, as 
,ob knight's fee) ; that on 30th October 1640 
he conveyed those in Mellor and Shouley 
to Thomas Woolfall and Robert Harrington 
on trusts for his younger son John with 
remainder to settlor's other sons Thomas and 
Robert and to his own issue by Frances his 
wife ; that on 16th February 1630-1 he had 
granted Crosse Hall in Healey and Chorley 
etc. to John Harrington of Huyton and 
Robert Harrington his son and heir in satis- 
faction of the dower of Frances (whom he was 

Chorley and Liverpool. 183 

to marry) ; that he and his former wife 
Juliana were seised in her right of a mill and 
lands in Bretherton, (held of Duke of Lan- 
caster as 260 of a knight's fee), and that they 
had issue Richard the eldest son and heir, 
aged 16 years 3 months 3 days at father's 
death. His wife Frances survives at Wool- 
fall (Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxix. 7 and 
C.D. 209). Issue :- 
1. Richard (XV.), son of first wife. For him 

see below. 

2. John, second son, of Showley and Mellor 
Co. Lanes., aged about 17 in 1652 (Roy. 
Comp. Papers ii. 95) ; and if so could not 
be a son of first wife. 
3. Thomas (will and inq. of father). 
4. Robert (inq. of father). 
1. Frances (will of father), daughter of a 
" former (? first) wife " (Roy. Comp. Papers, 
ii. 98) ; possibly Frances Crosse of Wool- 
fall, buried at Huyton 22nd August 1666. 

XV. RICHARD CROSSE, of Liverpool and 
Crosse Hall, Chorley ; aged 16 years 3 months 
and 3 days at inq. p.m. of father (C.D. 209) ; 
matric. Hart Hall, Oxford, 1st July 1640, aged 

14 (Alum. Oxon.}, married Elizabeth 

(C.D. 211) ; buried at Chorley 18th March 

1658-9. Issue :- 

1. Richard (XVI.), of whom below. 

2. John (XVII.), of whom below. 

3. Robert, bapt. Chorley 19th March 1650-1 ; 

entered on Preston Guild Roll 1662. 
4. Thomas, bapt. Chorley 12th October 

1652 ; entered on Preston Guild Roll 1662. 
5. William, bapt. Chorley 18th June 1654 ; 

entered on Preston Guild Roll 1662. 

184 The Crosse Family of Wigan, 

6. Alexander, bapt. Chorley 6th January 
1655-6 ; buried there 26th September 1656. 

1. George, bapt. Chorley llth June 1657; 
buried there 9th March 1657-8. 

1. Juliana, bapt. Chorley 1st October 1646 ; 
buried at Garstang 15th March, 1679 ; 
married, by licence dated 15th October 
1664, as of Toft, Co. Chester, the Rev. 
Robert Ditchfield, B.A., Oxon., Vicar of 
Garstang ; he buried there 10th July 1677. 

2. Ann, bapt. Chorley 2nd December 1649 ; 
buried there 14th April 1659. 

3. Jane, married Ralph Longworth of Upper 
Rawcliffe in St. Michaels on Wyre, Co. 
Lanes., a major in Colonel Kirkby's trained 
band ; he buried at St. Michaels 25th 
January 1693-4. 

4. A child, buried Chorley 29th March 1645. 

XVI. RICHARD CROSSE, of Crosse Hall, eldest 
son of (XV.), bapt. Chorley 23rd October 
1647, ob. inf. s.p. and buried Chorley 13th 
September 1661. 

XVII. JOHN CROSSE, of Crosse Hall, Liver- 
pool and Crosse Hall, Chorley, second son 
and ultimate heir of (XV.) ; bapt. Chorley 
29th December 1648 ) at Brasenose College, 
Oxford 1668 ; outburgess of Preston 1662, 
1682 ; Common Councillor of Liverpool 
1685 ; married Ann daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Yate of Middleton Cheney, Northants; 
postnuptial settlement 10th April 1681 
(C.D. 213) ; he was buried at Chorley 7th 
February 1688-9 as " Captn. John Cross 
of Cros Hall esqr." will dated 24th January 
1688-9 ; personal estate (including part of 
500 given to testator by his mother 
Elizabeth) to sons and daughters Thomas, 

Charley and Liverpool. 185 

John, Dorothy, Ann Joane, Julian and 
Frances equally ; executor brother-in-law 
Ralph Longworth esq. ; witnessed by Pe. 
Standish, Benjamin Edmundson [curate of 
Chorley 1684-1713], G. Woosey ; armorial 
seal of three (lions' ?) heads erased, impaling 
Crosse ; proved C. C. Chester 28th February 
1688-9 by James Browne of Chorley, shoe- 
maker, for the creditors, R. Longworth 
renouncing ; a second grant 26th December 
1695 to John Smith of Chorley, a creditor. 
Issue : 

1. Thomas (XVIII.), of whom below. 
2. -John, bapt. Chorley 10th August 1676 ; 
of Heath Charnock ; administration C. C. 
Chester, 5th June 1711 to his sister Juliana 
Cross of Sephton, spinster. 
3. Richard, buried 30th November 1681 at 


1. Dorothy, bapt. Chorley 27th November 
1673 ; married Edward Farnworth, 
probably of Euxton, Co. Lanes. ; she 
buried at Leyland 18th February 1720. 
2. Ann, bapt. Chorley 14th January 1674-5 
(married Rev. William Loftus, according to 
Foster) . 

3. Joanna, married John France of Little 
Eccleston Hall ; he buried at Kirkham 
27th December 1762 ; she buried there 
5th September 1705, M.I. (Hist, of Kirk- 
ham (Cheth. Soc.), 195; Hist, of St. 
Michaels on Wyre (Cheth. Soc.) 95/6.) 
4. Juliana, see brother John. 
5. Frances. 

6. Elizabeth, buried Chorley 3rd November 

XVIII. THOMAS CROSSE, of Crosse Hall, Chor- 
ley and Liverpool ; son and heir of (XVII.) ; 

186 The Crosse Family of Wigan, &c. 

entered on Preston Guild Roll 1682 ; married 
Mary " grandchild " of Thomas Clayton of 
Adlington, Co. Lanes.; (probably daughter of 
John Williamson of Liverpool, and Anne his 
wife daughter of Thomas Clayton of Adlington, 
who were married at Bolton-le-Moors 30th 
August 1676) ; postnuptial settlement 22nd 
July 1698 (C.D. 215) ; Mary Crosse married, 
secondly, on 12th July 1711 at Chorley, 
James Parker of Bagganley Hall in Chorley, 
yeoman, who was buried 23rd August 1747 ; 
she was buried 21st February 1753 ; for them 
and their issue see Wilson, Chorley Church 
(1914). Thomas Crosse was buried at Chorley 
24th June 1706 ; administration C. C. Chester 
30th April 1707 to widow. He left issue. 1 

1 For the pedigree from this point and the division of the family 
into the Leghs of Adlington, Co. Chester, and the Crosses of Shaw 
Hill, in Chorley, reference may be made to Foster's Lancashire 
Pedigrees, Burke's Landed Gentry, Ormerod's Cheshire, iii., 663, 
Earwaker's East Cheshire, ii., 249, and the Victoria History of the 
County of Lancaster. 


By John Livesey. 

The following deed (from Close Roll 5556) gives 
some further information as to the endowment 
of Tockholes Chapel, recorded briefly in Abram's 
History of Blackburn, p. 695. 
[January 2, 1735-6]. 

ATHERTON This Indenture made between John Atherton 
& of Liverpool, co. Lancaster, merchant and 

HOLME. Frances his wife of the first part, the 
Governors of the Bounty of Queen Ann for 
the Augmentation of the maintenance of the poor Clergy, 
and Ralph Livesay of Livesay in the said county, Esq., 
of the second part, Alexander Osbaldeston of Preston, John 
Ainsworth of Pleasington, Esquires, John Holme, clerk, 
and Thomas Whalley, gent., both of Blackburn all in the 
said county of Lancaster (trustees for the Chapel of 
Tockholes hereinafter mentioned) of the third part, and 
Thomas Holme, clerk, curate of Tockholes in Blackburn 
aforesaid of the fourth part. Whereas the said Ralph 
Livesay did by his deed bearing date the 9th of February 
1724 propose and promise to the said Governors to advance 
and pay 200 so soon as they should order 200 to be added 
thereto the whole to be laid out for a perpetual augmentation 
of the Curacy of Tockholes aforesaid. And whereas the 
said Governors have ordered 200 to be paid out of their 
revenue to be laid out together with the moneys so proposed 
as aforesaid in a purchase of lands and tythes to be settled 
for a perpetual augmentation of the said Curacy of Tock- 
holes. And whereas the said Alexander Osbaldeston, John 
Ainsworth, John Holme and Thomas Whalley have agreed 
and consented to add 105 being part of the Chapel Stock 
of Tockholes to be laid out together with the moneys so 
ordered by the said Governors and proposed by the said 
Ralph Livesay as aforesaid making together in the whole 

188 Tockholes Chapel 

505 : Now this indenture witnesseth that for and in 
consideration of 505 to the said John Atherton in hand 
paid he the said John Atherton doth grant bargain sell and 
confirm unto the said Thomas Holme and his successors, 
curates of the Curacy of Tockholes, all that messuage or 
tenement called Barnsfold and several closes and parcels 
of land thereunto belonging containing 53 acres 1 rood 
22 perches lying in Goosnargh, co. Lancaster, now in the 
occupation of John Parsons. To have and to hold the 
same unto the said Thomas Holme and his successors 
curates of the curacy of Tockholes for ever for a perpetual 
augmentation of the said curacy, etc. 

In witness whereof, etc., 
Witnesses : 





THE New Hall is marked on Speed's plan of 
Lancaster (1611) as situated on the south 
side of Church Street, then called St. Mary's 
Street, near the present New Street. It was the 
house of Lawrence Starkey in the time of Henry 
VIII., and he probably built it. Starkey was a 
prominent official in the county in the reigns of 
Henry VII. and Henry VIII. A younger con- 
temporary has been wrongly identified with him 
both in Whitaker's Whalley (ii., 46-48) and in 
Pink and Beaven's Parliamentary Representation 
of Lancashire, viz., Lawrence Starkie of Hunt- 
royde. The statement that he ended his days 
in the London Charterhouse is due to some error 
on the part of the index-maker of Brewer's 
Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., 1 or to con- 
fusion with another of the same name. 

Our Lawrence was a younger son of Geoffrey 
Starkey of Stretton, in Cheshire, about five miles 
south of Warrington, and brother of Richard 
Starkey who held that manor till his death in 
1526. z His mother was Joan, daughter and 
co-heir of Roger Darby of Chester and Liverpool, 
and by her he was a kinsman of Lady Stanley 
wife of Sir Edward Stanley of Hornby (after, 
wards Lord Mounteagle), and probably owed 
his promotion to this circumstance. He 
became one of Sir Edward's most trusted 
officials, and was deputy or acting sheriff for him, 

1 Letters and Papers, v., 301 (dated 18th June, 1531). 
* Cheshire Sheaf, 3rd Series, ix., 103. Pedigree in Ormerod's Cheshire, 
i., 666, where Lawrence is omitted. 

190 Lancaster Jottings 

Sir Edward having been appointed sheriff of the 
county for life in 1485. 1 He was also one of the 
coroners, and for a time at least was a receiver 
of the Duchy revenues. 2 Lord Mounteagle, who 
died in 1523, made him one of his executors, 
and in that capacity he occurs in the State Papers 
of Henry VIII.'s time, several of his letters being 
preserved in the Public Record Office. 3 Starkey 
served as mayor of Lancaster in 1495-6 and later 
and was returned as one of the members of the 
borough in 1529. 4 

The first documents here printed recite com- 
plaints against him both as mayor of the town 
and under-sheriff of the county. Starkey himself, 
in a letter to Lord Darcy soon after Lord 
Mounteagle's death, states that Mounteagle's 
adversaries had prayed the king to remove him 
(Starkey) from the office of sheriff, alleging that 
they could not have justice while he held it. 8 
Collom bridge, mentioned in the following deposi- 
tions, is now known as Cowan Bridge ; near it 
is the Lowood School of Jane Eyre. Lancaster 
Corporation had the tolls of the bridge in 1488,' 
which explains their possession of a house there. 
There is nothing to fix the date more exactly 
than the fact that Sir Henry Marney was 
Chancellor of the Duchy from 1509 till his death 
in 1523. 

To the right honorable Syr Henry Marney Knyght 
of the garter Chauncellour of the Duchie of 
Lancastre. 7 

Humbly shewyth unto your Maistership your Oratour 
Wyllyam Tunstall of Fayrthwayte Parke in the Countie 

1 For example, see Duchy Pleadings (Rec. Soc. Lanes. & Ches.), vol. i. 
1 Ducatus Lane., i., 197 ; ii., 204. 

* Brewer's Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., iii., iv. 

* Ibid, iii., p. 2692. 

6 Ibid., iii., No. 3187 (17 July. 1523). 

* V.C.H. Lanes., viii., 43, note 171. 

7 Ducby of Lancaster Pleadings, vol. 18, T3. 

Lancaster Jottings 191 

of Lancastre that where your sayd Oratour by spec y all 
labor and procurement of one Laurence Starky gentylman, 
mayr of Lancastre and undershyref of the Countie of 
Lancashyre, and one William Sclater of Lancastre by theyr 
malycyose and crafty meanys made a byll of indictament 
for to have indycted your sayd Oratour at the towne of 
Lancastre, the whiche to doo xij. men of the sayd towne 
refusyd knowyng the sayd byll was onely made for malyce. 
And the sayd Starky perseyvyng that he cold not performe 
his malycyose intent went unto the farthest part of the 
sayd shire to a towne callyd Wygayn and ther indictyd 
your sayd Oratour of forsyble entre into a house wherunto 
the towne of Lancastre never pretendyd tytyll nether before 
nor sens. And where your sayd Oratour hath layn syk and 
went not oute of his house save onely upon crowches all 
this last somer, yet notwythstondyng the sayd Starky for 
malyce hath indictyd hym wherof he knowyth not In lyke 
forme as he dyd indycte syr Christofer Pykeryng and his 
broder wyth other xxx. persons wyth them for stelyng of 
shepe, and also John Cansfeld for stelyng of a mare, as ys 
his custume to doo wyth many other suche as he owyth 
malyce unto. In consideracion not onely of the premysses 
but also for the great Iniuryes, extorcyons, wronges, 
counterfeatyng and forgyng of evydences as of counter- 
featyng of a testymonyall of the gentylmen's sealys of 
Lancashire and Westmerland agayns Maister Urswyk for 
the Priour of Cartmell wherof he was attayntyd bifore the 
kynges Councell in the kynges days that dede ys (whose 
soull God pardon), as also for makyng of the byll of 
defamacyon of Maister Conyngesby, For the whiche one 
Gylys Curwen's wyfe dyd opon penaunce at Westmynster ; 
as also for forgyng of evydences of Edward Parker's land, 
whereby the said Parker's wyfe was dystracte long tyme 
after ; As also for receyvyng of dyvers summes of moneye 
of dyvers collectors, retournyng them to be dede whom be 
yet lyvyng, in deceyvyng the kynges grace of his dutye 
and the sayd collectors. And ferthermore where the sayd 
Starky beyng shireff and Receyvour should, because he 
was and ys the kynge's offycer, ought to have gevyn good 
example in that wyld countre for to obey the kynges 
commaundement, he nothyng regardyng the kynge's 
commaundement ne the pryvey sealys to hym dyrectyd 
wold not appere befor your Maistership because that a 
Chanon which usyth sorcery and that hath done opon 
penaunce at Yorke for crystenyng of a Cok dyd councell 

192 Lancaster Jottings 

hym to tary at home whan the sayd commaundement came 
to the sayd Starkey, Advertysyng hym that yf he came at 
that tyme that he shuld be hangyd, but advysyd hym to 
tary to suche tyme as he bad hym goo and then he wold 
warant hym to cumme up safe. Plesyth yt your good 
Maistership, the premysses consydered, to punysshe and 
correcte the sayd Starkey acordyng to Justyce that other 
may be ware and take example for forgyng of evydence, 
extortion and infidelite ; So that the sayd cuntre may be 
by your proteccion in good rest and quete. And your sayd 
Oratour shall pray to Almyghty God for the preservacyon 
of your Maistership long to endure. 


He denies the charges, most of which are " nothing 
material." No complaints had been made against him 
before the king's judges or special commissioners. As to 
the special complaint here made he says that Lancaster is 
an ancient borough, and the mayor, burgesses and common- 
alty are seised of a house in Tunstall nigh to Collombrige, 
which they have held for 20 years past. But about six 
years ago William Tunstall forcibly entered and still keeps 
possession of it, and that was the reason why he was 
indicted at Wigan. At a sessions at Lancaster a little 
before last Christmas a number of complaints were made 
against Tunstall by many persons for riots, extortions, 
briberies, etc., and Tunstall's neighbours have many times 
complained to Lord Mounteagle as sheriff of the injuries 
he has done them. 


Tunstall in reply reiterated his complaint. 

With such a position under the Stanleys it is 
not surprising that Starkey acquired wealth. 
He purchased a number of small properties in 
north Lancashire in Lancaster itself, Bolton-le- 
Sands and the neighbourhood, Preston and 
Broughton ; also others in Yorkshire, Cheshire 
and Staffordshire. He was twice married. The 
name of his first wife is not known, but from her 
daughter's will, quoted below, it appears that 
she had a tenement at Henley-on-Thames. This 
daughter, whose name was Margaret, married 
George Singleton, as appears from the complaint 

Lancaster Jottings 193 

next cited, and after his death (about 1518) she 
married William Banaster. By her second 
husband she left a son and heir Wilfrid, who was 
sixteen years of age in 1550 and therefore born 
about 1534. 1 The date of Tunstall's complaint 
was sometime in the latter end of 1523, after 
Lord Marney's death. The parliament referred 
to was that summoned for April, 1523. The 
election is not recorded by Pink and Beaven, who 
say, under Lancaster, that " returns were dis- 
continued for nearly two centuries," i.e., between 
1331 and 1529. 

Complaint 2 by William Tunstall to Sir Richard Wyngfeld, 
K.G., as Chancellor of the Duchy, concerning the manor 
of Auclyff [Aldcliffe] near Lancaster. He states that 
Elizabeth late abbess of Syon by lease of 7 Sept. 1515 
granted the manor for seven years to George Syngilton, 
who died two or three years later, when one William Banyster 
marrying George's widow came into possession. The 
present abbess 3 gave plaintiff a lease of the manor to begin 
on the expiry of that mentioned, but Banister refuses to 
quit, in spite of the abbess and in spite of a privy seal 
directed against him by Lord Marney lately Chancellor. 
" And over that one Laurence Starkey, fader-in-lawe unto 
the said Banyster, beyng nowe mayr of Lancastre, by 
his subtill and crafty meanys a litill before the cummyng 
up to London of the said Banyster causid the said Banyster 
to be made a freman of Lancastre, And incontynent after 
causid hym to be chosen a burgeys of parlyament. By 
reason whereof the said Banyster myght escape from this 
courte and the lawes of the realme in defrauding and 
delaying your said Oratour of his right and also to frustrate 
and delude the kynges said commaundement." 

Banaster in reply [T.9a] denied there was any such lease 
made to Singleton, or that any privy seal had been directed 
against him ; at any rate he had never been called to 
make answer. George Singleton had held the manor not 

1 There is a pedigree in Whitaker's Craven (ed. Morant), 236. Wilfrid 
married Isabel, daughter of John Talbot of Salesbury, and is named as 
his son-in-law in Talbot's will, 1551 ; Piccope's Wills (Chet. Soc.), 
iii., 106. 

2 Duchy of Lane. Pleadings, xviii., T9. 

3 Dame Agnes," from the first day of March last past " (1522-3) 
See T9, b. 

194 Lancaster Jottings 

by lease, but in succession to his brother by the custom of 
tenant-right of the country there used time out of mynde. 
The abbess Elizabeth was very desirous that Margaret 
Starky, daughter to Lawrence, should marry Singleton, and 
promised that they should enjoy the manor according to 
the custom of tenant right. Lawrence consented and 
" gave great sums of money to the same George in marriage 
with his said daughter," so enabling him to pay debts he 
owed to the abbess. He himself held the manor in right 
of his wife, George's widow. As to the further charge 
made he " saith that he was freely by the desire and good 
minds of the burgesses of the said town [of Lancaster] 
chosen burgess thereof as other burgesses tofore there hath 

Tunstall replied denying the tenure by tenant-right. The 
manor had always been held by lease from the abbess as 
by one Claughton, Sir Thomas Strikland kt. and one 
Gardyner. Banister rejoined, repeating and amplifying 
the statements he had made previously. 

Lawrence Starkey's second wife was Anne, 
daughter of Sir Thomas Butler of Bewsey, one 
of the magnates of the county. She had been 
married previously to a Radcliffe, 1 and to George 
Atherton of Atherton or Chowbent, esq., 2 and it 
is said she had dower from each. Starkey 
married her about 1519, and this being a great 
match for him he was expected to make a corre- 
spondingly liberal settlement to provide for her 
and any issue by her. The statement of several 
witnesses, as will be seen by the depositions 
printed below, was that he offered to assign his 
whole landed estate to feoffees for the use t)f 
himself, his wife should she survive him, and their 
issue, whether son or daughter. As this arrange- 
ment practically disinherited the daughter by 
the former marriage, it was on this point that, 
after his death, the disputes took place which led 
to the examinations of witnesses by order of the 

1 Apparently John Radcliffe of Radcliffe Tower, whose wife was 
named Anne. He died without legitimate issue in 1514. V.C.H. 
Lanes., v., 59. 

Lanes. Visitation of 1567 (Chet. Soc.). Atherton died in 1518. 

Lancaster Jottings 195 

Chancellor. By this marriage he had a daughter, 
Etheldreda, who was 28 years old and more in 
1550, and therefore was born about 1520. 1 She 
married Humphrey Newton of Newton and 
Pownall in Cheshire and left issue. 2 

Starkey died on 24th July, 1532. In addition 
to the two daughters named above, he had an 
illegitimate son, Oliver Starkey, who occurs as 
holding property in Cat on. The following in- 
quisition is declared in the depositions to record 
the result of an agreement between the disputants. 
The statement seems reasonable enough in view 
of the date, and must be taken into account in 
considering its terms : 

By an inquisition 3 taken at Preston before Ralph Worsley, 
esq., escheator, on 26 August 4 Edward VI. [1550] it was 
found that Lawrence Starkye esq. had died seised of four 
messuages, four burgages, and various lands and rents in 
Lancaster, Preston, Broughton, Halghton, Chepindale, 
Bolton [-le-Sands], Slyne, Haklackes, Nether Hutton, 
Hyesham, Scotford and Flokborowe. The estate descended 
to Margaret wife of William Banaster esq. and Etheldred 
wife of Humphrey Newton gent., as daughters and heirs, 
who accordingly entered into possession. On 31 March 
30 Henry VIII [1539] Margaret Banaster, then a widow, 
granted a life annuity of 20s. to her servant William 
Symkynson, on tenements in Broughton near Preston ; 
and on 6 Oct. 1542 she made her will, of which the following 
extract is recorded : 

Item yt ys my wyll that my brother Olyver Starkye 
and my servantes Wylliam Sympkynson and George 
Metcalfe shall have every oon of them annuell rent of 
xxs. by yere for terme of their lyffes and for the lyf 
of every of them to be taken and receyved yerelye of 
the revenues rentes and proffytes of my moitie and 
purpart of my laundes in the countye of Lancaster at 
days usuall and accustomed by thandes of myne 
executours. And for default of paiment of the said 

1 In depositions (see below) taken in November, 1541, the mother 
Anne was stated to have died about 22 years earlier say in 1520. 

2 Visitation of Cheshire, 1612 (Harl. Soc.) 
' Duchy of Lane. Inq. p. m., ix., 21. 

196 Lancaster Jottings 

annuityes the said Olyver, Wylliam and George 
severallye to dystreyne upon all my laundes in 
Lancashire tyll thay be satysfied of theire said annuityes 
wythe the arrerages of the same. Providet alway that 
when so ever yt shall happen eny of the said Olyver, 
William and George to deceasse that then the annuitie 
of hym so deceasynge to retorne and remayne to myn 
executours for performaunce of thys my last wyll. And 
the resydew of all the rentes and fermes and the 
revenues of my moitie and purpart of my laundes to 
me discended by my father in the countyes of Yorke, 
Lancaster, Chester and Stafford, and also of a mese or 
tenement in Henley upon Thames discended unto me 
by my mother I will that myne executours shall yerely 
receyve perceave and take the same for terme of 
xiiijth yeares next ensuinge my deceasse towardes the 
payment of my dettes and performaunce of my wyll ; 
the remaynder to reverte to my sone Wylfryde Banaster 
and hys heires for ever. 

Margaret died on 20 Oct.* following, and her moiety of 
her father's estate then came to her son and heir Wilfrid 
Banaster, who being under age became the king's ward. 
The lands were held of the king as Duke of Lancaster by 
knight's service. Lawrence Starkye died 24 July 24 Henry 
VIII. [1532], and the heirs were the above-named Wilfrid 
and Etheldred, their ages now being 16 years 10 months 
and 28 years respectively. 

The following petition/ addressed to the 
Chancellor in Hilary term 28 Henry VIII. (Jan. 
1536-7), shows how the matter stood five years 
after Starkey's death : 

To the right hon. Sir William Fitzwilliam Kt., lord 
admiral of England and chancellor of the Duchy of 

Humphrey Newton and Etheldrede his wife complain 
that whereas the late Lawrence Starkie, one of the king's 
receivers of the Duchy, had lands in Preston and elsewhere 
in Lancashire, also in Cheshire, Staffordshire and Yorkshire, 
and about 17 years ago enfeoffed Sir William Laylond Kt. 
(then esquire) and others to hold to the use of the said 
Lawrence, Anne his wife and their issue, the said Etheldrede 
being that issue, yet she cannot obtain possession. Lawrence 

1 Duchy of Lane. Depositions, xxxi., N2. 

Lancaster Jottings 197 

being in debt to the king at his death, a commission was 
appointed to inquire into his possessions, and a return 
was duly made ; then the administration was committed 
to William Banastre, Sir Simon Starky (deceased), Thomas 
Starky and Richard Marbury, who will not pay the king 
the money owing to him nor allow petitioneis their 
inheritance under the feoffment. They pray that Banastre 
and the others be called to account. 

An order was then made for the attendance 
of William Banaster and Thomas Starkey 
esquires and Richard Marbury gent. Thomas 
Starkey of Stretton and Sir Simon (no doubt a 
priest) were nephews of Lawrence Starkey. 

William Banaster in reply said he was willing 
to render an account to anyone the Chancellor 
of the Duchy might appoint to receive it, but his 
own wife Margaret was one of the heirs of Lawrence 
Starky e and he had to preserve her right. 

On 15 Nov., 1537, the king ordered Sir 
Marmaduke Tunstall, Sir James Layborne and 
George Leigh to inquire into the complaint and 
Banaster's reply. The following letter gives the 
result : 

Oure deuties in humble wysse remembrede unto your 
goode lordshipe, pleasithe the same to be advertishede : 
We resavede a commyssion oute of the Duchie chamere 
to us and to oone George Leighe esquiere directede for 
a mattre in travesse betwixe Humfrey Newton and 
Etheldrede his wiff upon thone partie, and William Banastre 
gentilman and Margaret his wyf upon thother partie ; 
and accordyng to theffecte of the said commyssion we 
appoyntede Fryday the vth daye of Aprill last paste to 
have executede the same and ther of dide assertayne the 
said George Leigh and the aforsaid Newton by our 
writynge as we be creadabilly informede ; Who dide faithe- 
fully promyse for to have kepte the same day. At which 
day we bothe were redie at Lancastre accordynge to our 
deweties and the said Banastre in likewysse, bot the said 
Legh and the afforsaide Newton dide not appeire ne none 
for theme. By reason whereof and for asmuche as the 
saide Leigh was of the quorum in the same commyssion 
we colde nothinge doo at that tyme in executynge the same 

198 Lancaster Jottings 

and for so mych as the afforsaide Newton, unto whome the 
folowynge of the same commyssion dothe specially belonge, 
was then absente as he haith beyne sinderye tymes herto- 
fore, We trust that your lordeshipe will taike suche one 
indeferent ordre and direccion in the premisses that the 
saide parties heraftre shalbe at a better staye and 
appoyntemente ; wherein your lordeshipe shall do a 
good and meritoryus deade, as knowithe the holie Trynitie, 
whoe preserve your lordeshipe withe myche honour. Writyn 
at Lancastre the vjth day of this instante moneth of Aprill 

Youer own to hys lytyll pouer 

Yowrs at commandment, 


To the right honorable and cure 
singulere goode lord the Erie 
of Hampetonne Chauncelere of 
the Duchie of Lancastere. 

The Newtons resumed their complaint in the 
Easter term of 1540, by the following bill. 1 It 
shows that William Banaster died between April, 
1538, and April, 1540. Henry Banaster is 
described as " of Whitwell." 

To the right hon. William earl of Hampton lord 
admiral of England and Chancellor of the Duchy. 
Humphrey Newton and Etheldrede his wife recite their 
story in similar terms (the feoffment was made 22 years 
ago ; the lands in Cheshire were at Appleton and Stretton, 
and those in Staffordshire at Newcastle ; the debt to the 
king was 158 19s. 6d.), renewing the complaint that 
William Banaster and Margaret his wife had taken the 
rents of Starkye's lands from Pentecost 24 Henry VIII. 
till Martinmas in the 28th year, and that William Banastre 
had accounted before Thomas Burgon and others appointed 
by the Chancellor but was found in arrears ; and that 
afterwards, in April in the 28th year [1537] George Poulett 
and Thurstan Tyldesley were made receivers of the estate, 
Poulett for Cheshire and Staffordshire (receiving nothing 
because the lands are mortgaged) and Tyldesley for 
Lancashire and Yorkshire (18 yearly). William Banastre 
is now dead, and the deed of feoffment, with other evidences , 

1 Duchy of Lane. Pleadings, xii., N. 1. 

Lancaster Jottings 199 

has come into the hands of Margaret Banastre and one 
Henry Banastre, brother of William, who have " by their 
craftye and subtyll invencions and collusyons embeseled 
conveyed and destroyed as well the said dede of feffement 
as also some part of the said other dedes evidences and 
wry tinges." Margaret has entered into possession of the 
estate, to petitioners' injury. They claim also a moiety 
of that third part of the goods, which is the children's 
share according to the custom of the county. 

Margaret Banaster's reply recited the former 
answer of her late husband, and denied the 
alleged feoffment ; if the deed had been drawn 
up, possession had not been given. Newton had 
already had witnesses examined on that matter 
and failed to prove his case. As to the goods 
and chattels her husband had rendered an 

Humphrey and Etheldrede replied, saying that 
Anne before she married Lawrence Starkye had 
lands of 80 a year for life as jointures from her 
previous husbands, Radclyff of the Towre esq. 
and Atherton of the Cholbent esq., and also 
owned considerable goods, and therefore her 
father Sir Thomas Butler in consenting to the 
third marriage required this feoffment to be made 
under which they claimed. They renewed their 
charge of embezzling the deed and their claim 
for a moiety of the third part of the goods. 

Henry Banaster's reply has been preserved. 
He said that the late Roger Banaster of 
Waddyngton made his will about five years ago, 
and appointed the said Henry, William Banaster 
of Esyngton, and Henry Colthurst (deceased) his 
executors. In searching his papers they found 
the deed of feoffment and read it ; it was signed 
by Lawrence Starkye and sealed. They left it 
in a chest in Roger's house. Afterwards 
Margaret Banaster, then wife of William Banaster 
of Lancaster, came to the house, accompanied 

200 Lancaster Jottings 

by William Towrner of Lancaster and others, 
broke the chest open and took the deed away. 

A commission ordering them to inquire was 
directed to Sir Edward Fytton kt., John 
Holcroft esq., Francis Frobyssher and John 
Kechyn, on 12 Feb., 32nd year [1540-41]. 

Depositions 1 were accordingly taken at Lancaster 
on 6 April, 1541 (32 Henry VIII.), by Sir Edward 
Fitton, John Holcroft esq. and Francis Frobissher 
on behalf of both plaintiffs and defendant in the 
claim of Omfray Newton and Etheldrede his wife 
against Margaret Banester. The interrogatories 
are included with the Pleadings just cited 
(xii., N. 1) ; fourteen questions were put on 
plaintiff's behalf and five on defendant's. 
Omitting the points on which no answers were 
given, the depositions, which name the New Hall 
as Starkey's Lancaster residence, were as follows : 

For the Plaintiffs. 

William Turner, mayor of Lancaster, aged 50, said he 
knew Lawrens Starkie, one of the king's receivers of his 
Duchy of Lancaster. He never knew feoffment made to 
Sir Thomas Sothworth knight and others of all his lands 
and tenements to the use of Laurens Starkie and Anne his 
wife and to the heirs of their two bodies lawfully begotten ; 
but he saith he heard it " commyned " that he was minded 
to give five pounds lands to the use of a chantry in the 
church of Lancaster. 

John Singleton, gentleman, aged 80 and above, saith 
" that he and Laurens Starkie came ridinge home frome 
London to gether and in a feld of thisside Rigley townes 
ende he said unto the said Laurens Starkie, ' I herd say ye 
most be maried.' And he answerd hym and said, ' I ame 
maried to a doughter of Sir Thomas Butler.' And that he 
said he hade made sure all his landes that he hade or myght 
have to the heires of hym and her, man or woman, except 
fyve poundes to dispose at his plesure." He heard say 
that Symkinson fetched writings, but in what place he 
knoweth not nor where they came afterward. 

1 Duchy of Lane. Deps.. xxxv., N 2. 

Lancaster Jottings 201 

Sir William Cayton, priest, aged 40, saith he heard 
Laurens Starkie say in Winmerlee chapel, 1 afore his mistress 
Alice Ratcliffe, that he had given all his lands in feoffrnent 
(except five pounds) to the heirs of his body which he had 
by Butler's daughter his wife ; and that five pounds he 
\vould be ordered by his mistress Alice to the use of Olyver 
Starkie his bastard son. The custom of Lancaster is that 
the child shall have the third part of his father's goods. 

John Standish of Lancaster, gentleman, aged 60 and 
above, saith that he heard say that " levery and season " 
were made, but whether it was to the use of his wife or 
not he knoweth not ; and that possession was taken in 
his chief house at Lancaster, but to what person or what 
use he knoweth not. The custom of Lancaster is that the 
child shall have the third part of his father's goods. 

Richard Newton, gentleman, aged 56, saith he heard 
say that Laurens Starkie, then being the receiver of 
Lancaster, did make a feoffment to certain cofeoffees of 
all his lands and tenements within the realm of England, 
except five pounds for the performance of his last will, to 
the use of the issue lawfully begotten between the said 
Laurens and the daughter of the said Sir Thomas Butler. 
He hath heard say that the said Lawrens had delivered 
possession unto the use aforesaid. He heard say that he 
was of a great substance and that he was sore indebted 
unto the king's grace. The child shall have the third part 
of the goods after the custom of the country. 

Christopher Standish, aged 46, saith that he heard 
Lawrens Starkie in his own house at Lancaster say that he 
had made a deed of feoffment to his wife and unto the 
heirs of his and her bodies lawfully begotten. He hath 
heard say that possession was delivered in all his lands. 
He was in company with one William Symkinson in 
Broughton church after the death of Laurens Starkie, and 
there he said that the heirs that he had by Butler's daughter 
should have all his lands. And Symkinson said, Nay, she 
must but have but the one half. And he said again there 
was a feoffment that would give her the whole. And 
Symkinson said again that that feoffment would not come 
to light. And further the said deponent saith that the 
said Symkinson said that " there was a feoffment and I 
did see it since my master died, but I think it shall never 
come [to] light again." 

1 This chapel is not otherwise known. Probably it was a domestic 

202 Lancaster Jottings 

Thomas Ward of Lancaster, aged 50, saith that he hath 
heard say that there was a feoffment made, but to what 
use nor whether livery and seisin thereof were made he 
knoweth not. 

Thomas Wilson, aged 57, being household servant and 
cook to Laurens Starkie, saith that upon a Friday about 
xij of the clock he fetched all the people out of the north 
side of the New Hall at Lancaster, and then he saith that 
" my maister dyd giffe the reigne of the dore to Sir George 
Gillebrand priest to giffe possession to my maister," but 
to what intent he knoweth not. 1 

Thomas Bradshaye, servant to Sir Thomas Butler, kt., 
aged 60, saith that he heard Laurens Starkie say that he 
would make a feoffment of his lands, but whether he did 
or not he knoweth not. 

Edward Barker, aged 42, saith that he hath heard 
Laurens Starkie say that he had made his lands by 
feoffment as surely as could be devised to Sir Thomas 
Sothworth, Sir Thomas Langton, Sir William Laylond, 
the old parson of Werington and Sir George Gelebrand, to 
the use of himself and Anne his wife and the longer liver 
of them and to the heirs of their two bodies lawfully 
begotten ; but whether livery and seisin thereof was made 
or not he knoweth not. He heard say that Sir George 
Gelebrand took the deed in the one hand and the ring of 
the door in the other hand, and took possession. He 
heard William Symkinson say that he read the feoffment 
that was made betwixt him and Anne his wife, and after 
the decease of Master Starkie when William Symkinson 
had been at London shortly after the death of the said 
Laurens, " I askyd hym how the land shuld be devided 
now when my maister was deade ; and Symkinson said 
that he hade made sure that she shuld have bot the one 

Alexander Branthwait, aged 50 and above, late house- 
hold servant to Starkie, saith he hath heard his master say 
that he would make all his lands sure, except a certain 
[part] which he would not name, to the use of him and his 
wife and to the heirs of their two bodies lawfully begotten, 
but whether he did it or not this deponent knoweth not. 
He heard Henry Banister of the Whitwell say that he read 
a deed, which (as he said) was to the use of the said Lawrens 
and Anne his wife and the heirs of their two bodies law- 
fully begotten. 

'The north door would be the principal entrance, in Church Street. 

Lancaster Jottings 203 

For the Defendant. 

James Clough of Lancaster, late servant to Lawrens 
Starkie, aged 50, saith he hath heard say that Humfrey 
Newton hath offered money to certain persons to be witness 
for him, but never none to him. A man of Rowland told 
him that the said Humfrey did offer him money for to be 
one of his witness, but his name he knoweth not. 

William Symkinson, servant to defendant, aged 30, 
saith that the said Laurens Starkie did purchase all his 
lands during the time of his first wife, mother of the said 
Margaret Banister, except his lands and tenements in 
Amoundernesse, which he purchased of one Singleton, 
and which amount to the sum of iiij. li. or thereabouts. He 
hath heard say that the said Newton did offer the house 
that [he] dwelled in to Thomas Colthirst to be a witness 
for him. 




An order was made that the Newtons should 
have a moiety of the lands, without let by 
Margaret Banaster. 1 

Depositions on behalf of the Newtons were 
taken in Cheshire also, as appears by the following 
Inspeximus on the Recognizance Roll of 33 and 
34 Henry VIII. [19 Dec., 1541].' They are 
interesting as recording Lord Mounteagle's opinion 
of the marriage arrangements. 


1. Whether Lawrence Starky, in consideration of his 
marriage with Anne daughter of Sir Thomas Butteler, 
gave to feoffees all his lands (except parcels of the 
total rent of 5 a year), to the use of Lawrence, Anne 
and their issue. 

2. Whether the deed of feoffment was duly executed. 

3. What goods had Lawrence at his death ? 

4. Whether any of the feoffees had been heard to say 
they were present at the New Hall in Lancaster when 
possession was taken. 

1 Duchy of Lanes. Decrees and Orders, vii., 105d. 

2 Roll 205, m. 2. The " interrogatories " are not printed in full. 

204 Lancaster Jottings 


taken at Chester before Sir Rees Manxell kt., Chamberlain 
of Chester, in the Exchequer there the xvij. day of November 
in the xxxiij. year of the reign of our most dread sovereign 
lord Henry the VIII [1541] .... concerning a matter in 
traverse depending betwixt Humphrey Newton and Ethlrede 
his wife plaintiffs, and Margaret Banester, defendant. 

Geoffrey Deyne of Astley in the county of Lancaster, 
yeoman, of the age of Iviij. years, sworn and examined upon 
the holy Evangelists upon the interrogatories foresaid, 
upon his oath saith to the first article that he the said 
deponent was servant to Anne daughter of Sir Thomas 
Butteler kt., the said Anne then being wife to George 
Adderton, and continued her servant after marriage had 
betwixt the said Anne and Lawrence Starky during all the 
lifetime of the said Anne ; which Anne died about xxij. 
years past. And also saith that Lawrence Starky upon a 
Friday about xij. of the clock of the same day delivered 
feoffment to Sir George Gylibrounde priest (in the name 
of Sir Thomas Longton, Sir Thomas Southworth, Sir Richard 
Delves parson of Waryngton and others 1 ) of all his lands 
and tenements except lands of five pounds by the year, 
which the said Lawrence reserved to do his pleasure withall, 
to the use of the same Lawrence Starky and Anne his wife 
and to the heirs of the said Lawrence begotten of the body 
of the said Anne whether it were male or female : which 
feoffment was taken at the New Hall in Lancaster at the 
north door by the ring of the same door ; at which time 
this deponent was present. And also saith that one other 
time Sir Richard Delves, uncle to the said Anne, did take 
like feoffment of all the lands of the said Lawrence Starky 
in the names of the feoffees foresaid, reciting the said use : 
which feoffment was likewise taken at the north door at 
the New Hall in Lancaster by the ring of the same door. 
And divers times this deponent hath heard the said Lawrence 
Starky say unto this deponent and other his servants that 
he had delivered feoffment of all his lands except five pounds 
to the intent aforesaid. And also saith that the said Sir 
George Gilibrounde showed this deponent that he [had] 
taken possession to the uses aforesaid. And also saith that 
the said Lawrence Starky commanded one Thomas Wylson, 
then being cook and servant to the said Lawrence, to cause 
the house called the New Hall to be avoided, as well of the 

1 The other feoffees were Sir William Leyland and Gilibrounde 

Lancaster Jottings 205 

blind man which the said Lawrence kept for alms as all 
other, at the time of the feoffment given and delivered to 
the said Sir George Gilibrounde. And as unto the deeds 
this deponent doth not remember that he saw any. To 
the second article he saith that he this deponent was 
present when that the same estate and feoffment was 
executed according to the uses beforesaid. To the iij. and 
iv. articles he nothing can say. 

Thomas Rymyngton of Preston in the county of Lancaster, 
of the age of Ivij . years or thereabouts, sworn and examined 
upon the holy Evangelist upon the interrogatories foresaid, 
upon his oath saith to the first article that he this deponent 
was servant unto the Lord Mountagle that died last and 
fellow in household with Lawrence Starky and of counsel 
with the said Lawrence concerning the marriage between 
the said Lawrence and Anne daughter of Sir Thomas 
Butteler kt. And saith of a truth that he this deponent 
heard the said Lawrence show the said lord then his master 
that he could not obtain the marriage of the said Anne 
unless he the said Lawrence did make a feoffment, unto 
the said Anne and unto such issue as the [said] Lawrence 
should lawfully beget of the body of the said Anne, of all 
his lands except five pounds : which the said lord advised 
him to do, and said Else he the said Lawrence was not 
worthy to have her ; and said his cousin Sir Thomas 
Butteler was none such child without assurance of the lands 
to agree to the marriage. And further saith that he this 
said deponent was present when Sir George Gilibroande did 
deliver [sic] feoffment at the north door of the New Hall 
in Lancaster by the ring of the same door in the name of 
Sir Thomas Longton, Sir Thomas Southworth, Sir William 
Leylond kts., and Sir Richard Delves, parson of Waryngton, 
to the uses and intents as the said Geoffrey Deyne, the 
first deponent, before hath deposed and said. And saith 
in everything concerning the feoffment taken and delivered 
by the said Sir George Gilibrounde priest as the first 
deponent hath said. And further saith that Lawrence 
Starky showed this deponent divers times that he the 
said Lawrence had delivered feoffment of all his lands and 
tenements to the feoffees before named to the uses and 
intents before specified, and at the executing of the said 
feoffment certain deeds were read declaring the uses before 
named. To the second article he saith as he in the first 
article hath saith, and in every other thing as Geoffrey 
Deyne the first deponent hath deposed and said. To the 

206 Lancaster Jottings 

iij. article he saith that the said Lawrence at the time of 
his death was well plated and had substance to the estimation 
of the deponent to the value of three hundred marks. To 
the iiij. article he nothing can say. 

William Warde of Monkesheth in the county of Chester 
gent., of the age of xlvij. years or thereabouts, sworn and 
examined upon the holy evangelists upon the said interro- 
gatories upon his oath saith that about two or three years 
past this deponent then being at London in company with 
one Humphrey Newton, the same Newton desired this 
said deponent to go with him to hear the saying of one Sir 
George Gylibrounde priest, then being at Saint Katherine's 
besides the Tower of London. And according to his request 
this deponent and the said Newton went to the said Sir 
George ; at which time the said Newton said, " Sir George, 
you were priest and servant to Lawrence Starky my father- 
in-law and were privy to the feoffment made in consideration 
of the marriage had betwixt my father-in-law and my 
mother-in-law, daughter to Sir Thomas Butteler kt., which 
feoffment, as I am credibly informed, ye did take and receive 
in the name of Sir Thomas Langton, Sir Thomas South- 
worth, and Sir William Leyland kts., and of Sir Richard 
Delves, parson of Warrington, and others to the use of 
Lawrence Starky and Anne his wife and to the heirs of their 
two bodies lawfully begotten." Whereunto the said Sir 
George answered and said, " I do not perfectly remember 
the use thereof " ; saying further, " I remember that 
Lawrence Starky delivered me feoffment, in the name of 
the said Sir Thomas Langton kt., and the others his 
cofeoffees, by the ring of the hall door in Lancaster, 
according to the use and intent mentioned in the deeds 
made thereof." And more therein this deponent knoweth 

The result is narrated in the following petition 
by Wilfrid Banaster. A division had been made, 
each of the parties receiving a moiety, as appears 
by the Starkey inquisition above. Wilfrid himself, 
after his mother's death, became the king's ward 
until he came of age and livery was granted to 
him on 20 March, 1 555-6. l As Sir Robert 
Rochester died 28 Nov., 1557, this petition must 
have been sent in to the Duchy Chancery about 

1 Deputy Keeper's Report, xxxix., 550. 

Lancaster Jottings 207 

that time, for the petitioner states that he had 
held his mother's moiety " for two years past." 

To the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Rochester kt. Comptroller 
of the King and Queen's household and Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Complaint by Wilfrid Banaster, Robert Dyconson, 
Thomas Smythe, Thomas Rigmaden and George Wynder. 
Humphrey Newton had exhibited a bill of complaint against 
William Banaster now deceased, father of Wilfrid, alleging 
that Lawrence Starkey deceased had enfeoffed Sir William 
Leyland kt. and others in his lands at Lancaster, etc., to the 
use of the said Lawrence and Anne his wife and their issue, 
the issue being a daughter Etheldrede wife of Humphrey. 
William Banaster had replied, defending the right of his 
wife Margaret, the other daughter and co-heir of Lawrence. 
After the Newtons' reply, commissions were issued, evidence 
taken, and the whole matter discussed thoroughly by the 
chancellor and counsel. It was adjudged that as Humphrey 
Newton had not been able to prove any such feoffment as 
he alleged, the estate must go to the two daughters as 
co-heirs, and a partition between them was made of the 
New Hall in Lancaster. William Banaster and Margaret 
died seised of one moiety of the estate, and a commission 
in the nature of a Diem clausit extremum was issued, whereby 
it was found that Margaret had died seised of a moiety and 
that Wilfrid Banaster was her son and heir. Being under 
age he became the king's ward, but in time sued his livery 
and had enjoyed his mother's moiety for two years past. 
" And nowe so yt ys, if yt please your honorabill mastershepe, 
that the said Humfray Newton ys and of longe tyme 
hayth byn servant and doth weare the cote and lyvere of 
one Sir Edmund Trafforth knyghte, whoo ys nowe sheriffe 
of the saide countye of Lancastre, and in hoope of suche 
frendeshepe and unlawfull favor as he shall fynde in the 
said sheriffe, beyng his maister, and other of his frendes 
dwellynge within the said countye of Lancaster, and also 
for that he knoweth the said Willffride Banaster, one of 
your said oratours, whoe ys sole tenant of the said moyte 
of the premisses, to be a poore yonge man and to have fewe 
frendes within the said countye of Lancaster, the said 
Humfray Newton and Etheldride his wiffe in Lent last 
past arrayned one assise of novell dissin agaynst your said 
orators before the kyng and quene's justic of assise at 
Lancaster concerning such parte and porcion of the premisses 

208 Lancaster Jottings 

lyeng and beynge within the said countye of Lancastre as 
dothe apperteyne unto the said Willffride Banaster and 
whereof hee ys nowe seased : Whereunto your said oratours 
have appered and pleaded in barre. Which assise ys yet 
dependyng, where youre said orator ys lyke to be 
condempned by the frendesheppe of the said sheriffe and 
by the mayntenance and bearynge of divers other persons 
within the said countye of Lancaster, whoo doo greately 
favour the said Humfray Newton and Etheldride his wiffe. 
And for as myche as the tytylls of both the saides parties 
have heretofore byn throwly and delyberately harde and 
determyned in this honorabill courte in maner and forme 
aforesaid, yt may therefore please your honorabill master- 
shepe to graunt the kynge and quene's heighnes writt of 
iniuncion to be dyrected unto the said Humfray Newton 
and Etheldride his wiffe theire counselors and attorneys 
comandyng and enyoynyng theme and every of theme 
upon a certen payne therein to be lymyted no further to 
procede in the said assise against your said orators nor 
agaynst any of theme." 

The injunction was granted and proceedings 
stayed, but at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign 
(in February, 1558-9) Banaster was called upon 
to show cause why the injunction should not be 
dissolved. 1 Soon afterwards Humphrey Newton 
and Etheldrede his wife petitioned Sir Ambrose 
Cave as chancellor, 2 reciting a feoffment made 
on Lawrence Starkye's marriage with Anne the 
mother of Etheldrede, whereby all Lawrence's 
lands were to descend to the issue of this marriage, 
except some to the value of 5 a year. The 
deed of feoffment had been lost and had come 
into the hands of Wilfrid Banaster, who was 
trying to dispossess the complainants. All the 
feoffees were dead except Sir Thomas Langton, 
now very aged and not able to travel to the 
court. They therefore ask that a commission be 
issued for the taking of his evidence in the matter, 

1 Duchy of Lancaster Order Books, xii., 92. 

* Duchy of Lane. Pleadings, xlvi., N 5. There is no date on the 
petition, but the Ducatus ascribes it to 2 Eliz. 

Lancaster Jottings 209 

and of any other testimonies. They have a suit 
depending at the assizes at Lancaster, and their 
whole claim rests upon the feoffment referred 

In their petition to Sir Ambrose Cave, 
Chancellor of the Duchy, in Hilary term 3 Eliza- 
beth [1560- 1], 1 his poor and daily orators Wilfrid 
Banaster, Robert Diconson, Thomas Smythe, 
Thomas Rigmaden and George Winder state that 
Humphrey Newton and Etheldride his wife had 
exhibited a bill of complaint against Margaret 
Banaster, mother of Wilfrid, concerning lands 
in Lancaster, Bolton, etc., and that inquiry had 
been made and the result returned to the court. 
Margaret had died seised and Wilfrid on entering 
into his inheritance as son and heir, had demised 
parcels to Diconson and the other complainants. 
But now the Newtons were trying to dispossess 
them and had " offered a great part of the 
premisses unto divers men of the said county for 
their favour and aid in that behalf," and had 
received " such comfort of the obtaining of their 
ungodly purpose " that they were now actively 
prosecuting a suit at the assizes which they had 
entered as long ago as Lent 3 and 4 Philip and 
Mary (1557). 

This petition delayed proceedings for a time, 
but in June, 1561, the plaintiffs' case was dis- 
missed with costs. 2 The Newtons may have 
succeeded in establishing their claims, for in 
1561 they sold their lands in Lancaster to Sir 
Richard Shireburne of Stonyhurst, and he died 
in 1596 in possession of the New Hall. 3 Soon 
afterwards it seems to have been acquired by 
Henry Porter, vicar of Lancaster, 1582-1609, 

1 Duchy of Lane. Pleadings, xliv., B 21. 

2 Duchy of Lane. Order Books, xiii., 56. 
3 V.C.H. Lanes., viii., 40. 

210 Lancaster Jottings 

for from a Chancery suit of 1684 1 it appears that 
the New Hall near the Castle Hill in Lancaster 
descended to his grandson Henry, a leading man 
in the town and district in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. 2 

From the depositions in this suit it appears 
that he married Anne, daughter of Henry 
Ashhurst of Ashhurst near Wigan, and died in 
1666. His widow, who had the New Hall as 
part of her jointure, lived for a time at Ashhurst 
and Ormskirk, but returned to Lancaster and 
died at the New Hall. Henry Porter had a son 
of the same name (born 1635), who died " when 
the great plague was in London." He had been 
admitted to Gray's Inn in 1657. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Bryan Taylor of Mythop, 
about June, 1654, and left two children Henry 
and Anne. The son died in 1682, before attaining 
his majority, and the daughter became heir. 
She had been baptized in Gray's Inn Chapel in 
1659 and married Ralph Livesey, gentleman.' 
The depositions, which are very long, give many 
details about the family and estates. Henry 
Porter, grandfather of Anne, had purchased a 
house in Cheney Lane, Lancaster, but his 
" ancient lands " had belonged to his grandfather 
the vicar. 


The following petition* refers to the decay of 
the mill in Bulk, which has long ceased to exist. 
There is no date on the document itself, but 
the calendar places it in 12 Elizabeth (1569-70). 

1 Pal. of Lane. Chancery Depositions, bdles. 109 and 111. 

2 See pedigree in Dugdale's Visitation (Chet. Soc.), 234. 

a Anne's surname is not recorded in the Livesey pedigree in Croston's 
Baines, iv., 37. The eldest son was named Porter. 

* Duchy of Lancaster Pleadings (P.R.O.), Ixxxiii., N 1. 

Lancaster Jottings 211 

To the right Honorable Sir Raphe Sadler knight 
one of the Quenes ma'tes moste Honorable Pryvie 
Counsell and Chauncelour of her Duchie of Lancaster. 
IN MOSTE humble wise complaynynge shewith unto 
your Honour your suppliantes and Daylie oratours Brian 
Newton maior of the Towne of Lancaster and Burgesses 
of the same Towne That where there hath ben an aunciente 
Water mylne standing uppon the water of Loyne commonly 
called Loyns mylne nere to the saide Towne which is nowe 
altogether thorough the great Radge of waters utterly 
decayed and that there hath ben a certaine yerelie Rent 
of Power poundes or thereaboutes goinge oute of the saide 
mylne and paied to the Chauntrie preste there in tymes 
past untill the Dissolucion of Chauntries And sithens that 
tyme Hath ben paied to the Quenes highnes and her noble 
progentours in the right of the Duchie of Lancaster, And 
that the proffittz of the same mylne over and beside the 
same Rente have ben of Long tyme used to be paied and 
bestowed uppon a Scholemaster to teache a Schole at 
Lancaster aforesaide and bring upp Chylderne and youth 
in Lernynge and vertu But so it is if it maye please your 
honour that nowe of Late the said mylne and the Damme 
and Were belongynge to the saide mylne by reason of 
Extreeme Floodes are become Royenous and in suche 
great Decaye that no proffittz at all neither to the Quenes 
highnes nor to the Schoole canne be taken or had of the 
saide mylne And that the repaier and makinge of the said 
Were and Damme and of the saide mylne will coste one 
hundreth poundes at the Least before any proffitt can 
Arryse or come of the same or that the Rentes thereof 
canne be paied : Wherefore your said oratours moste 
humblie praie your honour to take order either to buylde 
and repaier the saide mylne agayne in suche sorte as it 
hathe ben heretofore, For the Ease and Commoditie of 
the saide Towne that the said Schoole master thereby maye 
have som relief or els to remitt the saide Rente of Power 
poundes And to geve Libertie and Licence to your saide 
Oratours to buylde and repayer the saide mylne and Damme 
and that they maye take and have the proffittz of the 
same to the mayntenance fynding and kepinge of the saide 
Free Schoole within the same Towne without any Rente, 
And your saide Oratours will uppon theire owne Charges 
buylde repaier and mayntayne the same to the only 
use of the saide Schoole. IN CONSIDERACION whereof the 
premisses tenderlie considered and for that the said Towne 

212 Lancaster Jottings 

is Fair from any Schoole or place of Lernyng Male it please 
your honour to take suche Order and direction towchinge 
the premisses as to your honour shall seme meteste to 
stande with the greateste commoditie of a common welth 
and bringyng well upp of youth in those partes. And your 
saide Oratours shall Daylie praie unto God for the 
preservacion of your honour in helth and honour Longe 
to contynewe. 


Endorsed with address 

Your honours Humble peticioners 
the Maior and Burgesses of the 
Towne of Lancaster. 


In a petition to the vice-chancellor of Lancaster 
in 1647 Thomas South worth of Highfield, 
gentleman, gave the following account of his 
descent in making a claim to lands in Ashton 
and Bolton Holmes : he was eldest son and 
heir of George Southworth, eldest son of Thomas, 
eldest son of George Southworth of Highfield, 
esq., whose wife's name was Anne. (Pal. of 
Lancaster Chancery Bills, 18, No. 194.) The 
claimant died in 1673. There is an account of 
the family in V.C.H. Lancashire, viii., 37. 


The following pleadings give important in- 
formation as to the succession in the vicarage 
during the Civil War period. Dr. Wildbore was 
appointed in 1631 and held his position until 
expelled as a Royalist, though his presentation 
had been opposed at the beginning. It appears 
that this opposition was renewed and carried 
to a successful issue during the predominance 
of the Parliament. At the Restoration the 
judgment was ignored and Dr. Marshall's 
successor was appointed in 1660 as to a vacancy 

Lancaster Jottings 213 

caused by the death of Dr. Wildbore. The Mr. 

Strickland, whose short incumbency separated 

those of Barnett and Marshall, has not been 

(Pal. of Lane. Bills 23, No. 112). 

Petition to John Otway, vice-chancellor, dated 4 Sept., 
1662, from Samuel Barker of South Luffenham, gent., and 
Elizabeth his wife, only child of Augustine Wildbore, D.D., 
late vicar of Lancaster, deceased, and administratrix of his 
goods. Dr. Wildbore,. said the petitioners, was vicar of 
Lancaster in May, 1641, and was expelled in February 
1642[-3] for his loyalty to the king, and the profits of the 
vicarage were sequestrated by the then late powers. 
Nehemiah Barnett was appointed by them as vicar and 
received the tithes, etc., for six years in Wildbore's lifetime 
and died in possession about October, 1648. He made a 
will, appointing George Toweleson and Henry Porter, 
esqs., executors. William Marshall was appointed to 
succeed him by the said late powers in 1648 or 1649, and 
received the profits for five or six years in Wildbore's life- 
time. On 25 Dec., 1646, the Committee of Plundered 
Ministers ordered that Dr. Wildbore's children should 
have a clear fifth part of the tithes, rents, glebelands and 
Easter Book for their maintenance. After his death in 
April, 1654, the petitioner Elizabeth, his only child, was 
duly appointed administratrix, and she ought to have 
received the said fifth part accruing during his lifetime, 
such fifth part being worth 60 a year. Thus 360 was 
due during the time Barnett held the vicarage and the 
same for the time Marshall held it up to her father's death. 
Porter (Barnett's surviving executor) and Marshall having 
refused to pay anything, redress is asked for. 

(Pal. of Lane. Answers. 39, No. 18). 

The answer of William Marshall, Doctor of Phisick, to the 
complaint of Samuel Barker and Elizabeth his wife. 
After Wildbore had been instituted a writ of Qitare impedit 
was brought against Wildbore, the late bishop of Chester, 
and Thomas Farrington, gent., by Tobias Knipe, Arthur 
Garner, John Kellett the elder and John Kellett the younger 
in the Court of Pleas of Lancaster and in Lent 1647 Knipe 
and Garner had judgment in their favour, recovering the 
presentation. John Kellett the elder was then dead, and 
the other had withdrawn. Wildbore had therefore never 
been lawful vicar. Such judicial proceedings had been 

214 Lancaster Jottings 

confirmed by a recent act of Parliament. George Tolnson 
of Lancaster purchased the advowson from the said Toby 
Knipe and William Knipe his son, and first presented one 
Mr. Strickland to the vicarage, and on his resignation 
presented this defendant (William Marshall), who entered 
on possession in June, 1649, and received the profits. He 
had never heard of the alleged order by the Committee 
of Plundered Ministers, and he himself received the profits 
not by any sequestration but as lawful incumbent, 
presented by the right patron, and instituted by those 
then exercising the government of the nation, although 
by usurpation. The yearly value of the vicarage while he 
held it was 200 a year. 

(Ibid., No. 26.) 

The answer of Henry Porter. He denied the validity 
of Wildbore's appointment on the same ground as Marshall. 
Tobias Knipe and William his son, having vindicated their 
right as lawful patrons, presented Nehemiah Barnett in 
1646 or 1647 ; he was duly instituted and received the profits 
till his death in October 1647. He had been appointed to 
serve the cure in 1643, but did not receive the whole profits 
of the vicarage until he was duly presented as stated. This 
defendant (Porter) does not think Barnett had more than 
100 a year during that earlier period, for pensions were 
paid also to those who officiated at Stalmine, Orton 
[Overton], Wyersdale and Gressingham, chapelries in the 
parish. After he became vicar, defendant does not believe 
his profits were more than 100 a year, owing to the dis- 
turbed state of the nation, " all goods and commodities 
in that country being at so low values as that some of the 
profits of the vicarage were farmed and set at almost half 
the rate they have been set for at other times." Defendant 
does not remember what the whole estate of Barnett came 
to, but after debts, etc., were paid, only about 230 of 
personal estate remained, of which defendant, who was 
only one of the executors, received about 80 ; he kept 
for a year one of Barnett's three young children, and paid 
the 80 to the other executor. He pleaded for the benefit 
of the act of Oblivion. 



By Henry Peet, M.A., F.S.A. 

In January, 1912, when the parish offices, 
Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, were being overhauled, 
I found a number of deeds relating to the sale 
of pews in the parish church, together with many 
other ecclesiastical documents for which the Poor 
Law authorities had no use, and which were 
about to be discarded and probably burnt. 
Many of these documents have already been 
printed in the Appendix to the Vestry Books, and 
the originals are now in the safe at St. Nicholas's 
Church. The conveyance deeds of the pews, of 
which abstracts are here printed, are not only 
interesting to the antiquary, but may be of great 
use to the genealogist, as the references to 
Liverpool families of the 17th and 18th century 
are very numerous, and contain details of their 
histories not to be found elsewhere. 


Indenture made 2 June 1687 between the Worshipfull 
Peter Bold, Esquire, Maior of Leverpoole, and the Aldermen 
of the sd. Burrough on the one part and William Blundell 
of Leverpoole, marriner, of the other part, Reciteth, That 
whereas John by divine permission late Ld. Bishopp of 
Chester by his grant bearing date 23 February 1681 hath 
given licence and leave to the sd. maior and aldermen to 
build a loft or gallerie on the south side of the Chappell 
of Leverpoole to be seated and disposed of by the sd. maior 
&c. as they should think most convenient ; Now witnesseth 
that the sd. maior &c., in consideration of the great charges 

216 Abstracts of Deeds relating to the Sale of 

and expence which the said William Blundell hath laid 
out in building of the said loft or gallerie and a seate therein, 
Have given and granted unto the said William Blundell 
his heirs and assignes All that seate by him erected on the 
said gallerie, containing foure foote in breadth to the front 
and in length southward seaven foote and sixe inches, 
and in possession of the said William Blundell or his 
assignes, adjoyning unto Mr. James Prescots seat on the 
east side and to George Griffiths seat on the west side ; 
To have and to hold, etc., the said seat unto the said William 
Blundell, etc. 

Witnesses : Robt. Seacome, Rich. Windell, Edw. 
Tarleton, James Barton, Thomas Sandiford. 


Sale of the moiety of two seats in the north east gallery 
by the Mayor and Aldermen to Joseph Briggs, mercer, 8 
July, 1696. Printed in full in Liverpool Vestry Books, 
ii., 488. The corresponding deed to Reynolds is recited in 
No. V. below. 


Peregrine Gastrell, Esqre., official principal &c. to 
Samuel Ld. Bishop of Chester : Whereas in a business of 
Assignation and Confirmation of a certain seat or pew 
situate in the East Gallery of the parochiall Chapel of 
St. Nicholas in Liverpoole, containing in length three 
yards and a half and in breadth one yard and a half and 
next adjoining to a seat or pew of William Webster, 
Alderman, southwards, to a seat or pew of Mrs. Edward 
Tarleton eastwards, and to a new gallery lately erected by 
the Corporation northwards ; which cause was lately 
promoted by Bryan Blundell of Liverpoole, Alderman, 
against all persons, &c. We did decree the said pew or 
seat to him the said Bryan Blundell as by our Act of Court 
on 26 Nov., 1730. We do now assign and confirm the said 
seat or pew unto the said Brian Blundell, &c. Dated at 
Chester, 11 December, 1730. 


This Indenture made 29 August 1737 between Elizabeth 
Evered widow, relict and sole executrix of the last will of 
Joseph Briggs late of Liverpoole, mercer, deceased, her 
former husband, and the Rev. Henry Briggs, D.D., Rector 
of Holt in the county of Norfolk, clerk, and Grace his wife, 
who is daughter and sole heir-at-law of the said Joseph 
Briggs, of the one part and Benjamin Anyon of Liverpoole, 
ship-wright of the other part : Whereas by a Deed or 

Pews in St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool 217 

Grant dated 8 July 1696 [Deed II. above] made between 
Thomas Johnson junior, esquire, then Mayor of Liverpoole 
and the Aldermen, of the one part and the said Joseph 
Briggs of the other part reciting a certain general grant 
made by John, Lord Bishop of Chester, dated 23 February 
1681 to the Mayor and Aldermen to build a gallery in the 
north-east end of the parochial chappell of Liverpoole to 
be disposed of by the said Mayor and Aldermen as they 
should think most convenient (which said gallery was built 
and seated accordingly) and that the said Joseph Briggs 
did at his own expense erect and build the moiety of the 
seats herein granted ; They the said Mayor and Aldermen 
by virtue of the aforesaid general Grant and for the 
considerations before mentioned Did give and grant unto 
the said Joseph Briggs and his assigns one moiety or half 
of all that and those two several seats then erected and 
to be erected by the said Joseph Briggs and one William 
Reynolds since deceased on the loft or gallery adjoining 
on the east side to the seat then in possession of Alderman 
Thomas Tyrer or his assigns and now of Alderman George 
Tyrer, and on the west side to the seat then in possession 
of Hugh Langford and now of Henry Gamon, tallow 
chandler, the front seat containing in length seven foot 
and in breadth seven foot, the passage seat thereto con- 
taining in length seven foot and in breadth three foot 
one inch, To hold one moiety or half of the said two several 
seats unto the said Joseph Briggs and his assigns for ever, 
etc. And whereas the said Elizabeth Evered and the 
said Henry Briggs and Grace his wife are now possessed 
of the said moiety of the said two seats and have agreed 
to sell the same to the said Benjamin Any on for the sum 
of Twenty one pounds. Now this Indenture witnesseth, 

[Signed] ELIZABETH EVERED X her mark. 


Witnesses : William Briggs, Eliz. Bridges. 


This Indenture made 13 October 1739 between Peter 
Rainford the younger of Liverpoole, gardiner and Catherine 
his wife, formerly called Catherine Reynolds, widow and 
relict of Hugh Reynolds late of Liverpoole mariner 
deceased, and administratrix of William Reynolds son 
and heir of the said Hugh Reynolds, of the one part and 
Benjamin Anyon of Liverpoole, shipwright, of the other 

218 Abstracts of Deeds relating to the Sale of 

part : Whereas by a certain deed or grant dated 8 July 
1696 made between Thomas Johnson, junior, esquire then 
Major of Liverpoole and the Aldermen of the said Burrough 
of the one part and William Reynolds, then of Liverpoole, 
mariner, of the other part reciting that whereas John, Lord 
Bishop of Chester, had given licence dated 23 February 
1681 to the said Mayor and Aldermen to build a loft or 
gallary in the north east end of the chappell of Liverpoole 
to be disposed of as they should think most convenient 
(which said gallary was built accordingly) : They the said 
Mayor and Aldermen by virtue of the aforesaid grant did 
give and grant unto the aforesaid William Reynolds and 
his assigns one moiety or half of all that and those two 
seats erected by the said William Reynolds and Joseph 
Briggs late of Liverpoole, mercer, deceased on the said 
loft or gallary adjoining on the east side then in the 
possession of Alderman Thomas Tyrer and now of Alderman 
George Tyrer, and on the west side of the seat then in 
possession of Hugh Langford and now or late in possession 
of Henry Gamon, tallow chandler, the front seat containing 
in length 7 ft. and in breadth 7 ft., the passage seat there 
containing in length 7 ft. and in breadth 3 ft. 1 in. : To 
hold one moiety or half part of the said two severall seats 
unto the said William Reynolds and his assigns forever ; 
Whereas the said Peter Rainford and Catherine his wife 
are possessed of a moiety of the said two seats and have 
agreed to sell the same to the said Benjamin Anyon for 
21 now this indenture witnesseth etc. 



Witnesses : Thomas Calley, J. Prior Clayton. 


Indenture made 21 March 1746 between Sarah Worthing- 
ton of Ormskirk, widow, Richard Barton of the same 
place, Malster, and Elizabeth his wife, (which sd. Sarah 
and Elizabeth are daughters of Elizabeth Livesey late of 
Liverpool but afterwards of Ormskirk, widow, deceased 
and also together with Thomas Livesey her son executors 
and devisees under her last Will) of the one part and William 
Whalley of Liverpool, merchant, of the other part : 
Whereas the sd. Elizabeth Livesey widow being possessed 
of a certain seat or pew in the East Gallery of the Chappell 
of Liverpool (comanally called the old church) heretofore 
erected at the equal expense of Sir Thomas Johnson and 

Pews in St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool 219 

Mr. Edmund Livesey deceased, being situate between the 
pew or seat late of Mr. John Wareing deceased and the 
pew late of John Lyon, marriner deceased, and Anne 
Williamson widow did by her last Will in writing bearing 
date on or about 13 December 1743 give and dispose of 
the sd. seat or pew to her sd. son and daughters Thomas, 
Sarah and Elizabeth each a fourth part and to the children 
of her son Edward another fourth part, as by the sd. in 
part recited Will it doth more fully appear, And the sd. 
William Whalley having come to an agreement with the 
sd. Richard Barton for the purchase of his sd. wife's sd. 
fourth part and also with the sd. Sarah Worthington for 
her fourth part at the rate of 10 10s. each share, Now this 
Indenture witnesseth, &c. 



Witnesses : Thos. Radcliff, Staw. Gill. 


This Indenture made 17th November 1756 between 
Thomas Antrobus of Liverpoole, surgeon, and Katherine 
his wife (which said Katherine is executrix of the last Will 
of Isabell James late of Liverpoole, widow deceased, who 
was the sole executrix of the last Will of Ann Williamson 
late of Liverpoole widow deceased, formerly Ann Moon, 
widow, and which said Katherine is surviving devisee in 
the sd. last Will of the sd. Ann Williamson of the premises 
hereinafter mentioned) of the one part and Thomas Ward 
of Liverpoole, marriner, of the other part : Whereas the 
sd. Thomas Antrobus and Katherine his wife are now 
lawfully possessed unto a moiety or half of the seat or 
pew hereinafter mentioned by virtue of a Grant made by 
the mayor and bailiffs of the Bgh. and corpn. of Liverpoole 
unto William Litherland late of Liverpoole, mercer, deceased 
bearing date on or about 15 October 1683 and ofseverall 
mesne grants or assignments derived under the sd. original 
grant, whereby the sd. moiety became legally granted and 
assigned over unto the sd. Ann Williamson deed. ; And they 
the said Thomas Antrobus and Katherine his wife have 
agreed to sell the sd. moiety unto the sd. Thomas Ward 
for 40 : Now this Indenture witnesseth .... agree to 
sell the westardmost moiety or one half of all that seat 
or pew in the gallery over the north chancell at the east 
end of the church or parochiall chappell in Liverpoole, 
on the east side of the seat there late belonging to Alderman 

220 Abstracts of Deeds relating to the Sale of 

Thomas Johnson and now to William Whaley, containing 
ten foot in length and four foot six inches in breadth, and 
all right, title, &c. 

[Signed] THO. ANTROBUS. 

Witnesses : Edwd. Rimer, Robt. Richmond. 


This Indenture made 17 April 1759 between Nicholas 
Christian of Ramsey in the Isle of Man, merchant, and 
Catherine his wife of the one part and John Brownell of 
Liverpoole, gentleman, of the other part. In consideration 
of the sum of Thirty one pounds ten shillings to the said 
Nicholas Christian paid by the said John Brownell they the 
said Nicholas Christian and Catherine his wife have sold, 
etc., to the said John Brownell all that seat or pew situate 
in the west gallery in the chapel of St. Nicholas in Liver- 
poole, eastwards adjoining to a seat formerly of one Mary- 
Gibson, westward to a seat of Jane Harper widow, north- 
ward to the north wall and southward to the south isle 
of the said gallery ; in length eleven feet and in breadth 
3 feet ; and now in the possession of the said Nicholas 
Christian or undertenants ; which was formerly granted 
by Faculty dated 17 June 1727 to John Christian late of 
James Street in Liverpoole deceased and by him devised 
to the said Catherine Christian along with all his real estate 
there, who hath levyed a fine of the said premises and 
declared the uses to the said Nicholas Christian in fee and 
all the estate, &c., of them the said Nicholas Christian 
and Catherine his wife or either of them to the said seat ; 
To have and to hold the said seat, &c., unto the use of 
him the said John Brownell &c. 

Witnesses : Thomas Callow, G. W. Procter. 


Samuel Peploe, official Principal &c. of Edmund, Lord 
Bishop of Chester : Whereas in a certain cause of confirming 
a certain seat or pew situate in the West Gallery of the 
Chapel of St. Nicholas in Liverpoole adjoining eastward 
to a seat heretofore of Mary Gibson and now of Edward 
Dean, westward to a seat heretofore of Jane Harper, widow 
and now of Richard Harper, northward to the north wall 
and southward to the south isle or alley of the said gallery, 
containing in length eleven feet and in breadth three feet, 

Pews in St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool 221 

Promoted by John Brownell, gentleman a parishioner and 
inhabitant of the said parish against all manner of persons 
in general &c,, and Lawrence Brannigan for his interest 
specially intervening, the Revd. Abel Ward, clerk, M.A., 
our lawful surrogate, did decree the said seat or pew to be 
continued to him for the purpose hereafter mentioned as by 
the Act of Court made on Thursday 12 July 1759. We 
therefore confirm the said seat to the said John Brownell 
and his family so long only as they continue parishioners 
and inhabitants of the said parish. Dated at Chester 
31 July 1759. 

HUGH SPEED, Dep. Reg. 
Thos. Store, proctor. 


Indenture made 1st June 1767 between Richard Golightly, 
shipwright and Thomas Golightly, wine merchant ; All that 
pew situated on the north side of the middle gallery at the 
east end of the Parochial Chapel of Our Lady and St. 
Nicholas and at the top higher end or most eastwardly 
part of the same and next to the wall at the top higher 
end or most eastwardly part of the north side of the middle 
gallery, containing in breadth from east to west five feet 
(the window there excluded) or thereabouts, and in length 
or depth from north to south eight feet five inches and now 
occupied by Mr. Golightly or by Mrs. Cobham of Liverpool, 
widow, as his undertenant, &c. In consideration of the 
sum of sixty pounds, &c. 

Witnesses : Wm. Pickance, Jno. Lawson. 


Sale of a Pew by Dr. Charles Morton to Mrs. Susannah 
Metcalf, 1 February 1773. Printed in full in our 
Transactions, Ixxi, 44. 


This Indenture made 13th July, 1773, between Jonathan 
Ward of Liverpool, bricklayer, and Mary his wife of the 
first part, Jane Ball widow of Liverpool of the second part, 
and Charles Ward of Liverpool, gentleman, son of the said 
Jonathan Ward and Mary his wife and nephew of the said 
Jane Ball, of the third part : Whereas the said Jonathan 
Ward in right of his wife and the said Jane Ball are now 
seized to the seat or pew hereinafter described for the 
joint lives of them the said Mary Ward and Jane Ball and 
after the death of the shortest liver the survivor of them 

222 Abstracts of Deeds relating to the Sale of 

will be absolutely entitled to the inheritance thereof in 
fee ; and being unwilling to let the said pew go out of 
their family but being desirous that the same shall continue 
therein, have agreed to convey the same to the said Charles 
Ward ; Now in consideration of the natural love etc. and 
also in consideration of the sum of 5s. apiece to them paid 
by the said Charles Ward they the said Jonathan Ward 
and Mary his wife and Jane Ball have sold and transferred 
by these presents all that seat or pew situate in the north 
gallery of the Chapel of St. Nicholas and Our Lady the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, being one of the front seats of the 
said gallery, bounded on the east end by the pew of Mr. 
Farrington, on the west side by the pew of [blank] and at 
the back by the aisle or passage leading along the said 
north gallery ; which pew is now in the possession of them 
the said Jonathan Ward and Jane Ball etc. 

[Signed] JONATHAN WARD his mark. 
Witnesses : John Oddie, Thos. Rideing, Thos. Bailey. 


This Indenture made 14th January 1782 between Charles 
Ward of Doncaster, plasterer, only acting executor of the 
last will of Charles Ward late of Liverpool, gentleman, 
deceased, of the one part and William Edwards of Liverpool, 
gentleman, of the other part : Whereas by Indenture 
bearing date 13th July 1773 made between Jonathan 
Ward, then of Liverpool, bricklayer, and Mary his wife, 
both since deceased, of the first part, Jane Ball, then of 
Liverpool widow, also since deceased, of the second part 
and Charles Ward deceased of the third part [recites the 
transfer of the pew and its position as in Deed No. XII.] : 
Whereas the said Charles Ward deceased by his last will 
dated on or about 8 September 1778 bequeathed unto the 
children of his son the said Charles Ward the party hereto 
and of his cousin Mary Fogg of Liverpool his seat in the 
north gallery of St. Nicholas Church amongst them all 
share and share alike to take as joint tenants and of his 
said will the said Charles Ward nominated his said son 
Charles Ward the party and his wife Alice Ward his sole 
executor and executrix ; and whereas the said Charles 
Ward departed this life after the making of his said will 
without altering the same And he the said Charles Ward 
the party hath alone proved the said will in the Consistory 
Court at Chester And whereas the children of the said 

Pews in St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool 223 

Mary Fogg departed this life before the death of him the 
said Charles Ward the testator, whereby the estate and 
interest of the said children of the said Mary Fogg in the 
said pew became lapsed and the same vested only in the 
children of the said Charles Ward ; And whereas the said 
Charles Ward the party as the father of his children these 
devisees under the said will hath come to an agreement 
with the said William Edwards of Liverpool for the sale 
to him of the said pew for the sum of 60 : Now this Inden- 
ture witnesseth etc. that in consideration of the sum of 
60 paid by the said William Edwards to him the said 
Charles Ward to be by him the said Charles Ward applied 
for the use of all his children (the pew is now in the actual 
holding or possession of Mr. William Naylor as undertenant) ; 
And lastly the said Charles Ward hereby appoints in his 
place and stead Thomas Rideing and Henry Penington, 
both of Liverpool, gentlemen, his true and lawful 
attorneys, etc. 

Witness : Thomas Rideing, Hy. Penington. 


Bond of Indemnity, dated 14 Jan. 1782, Charles Ward 
to William Edwardes, bound in the sum of 120 against 
claim any of the children of Charles Ward may make on 
his Pew. 


Deed appointing and authorizing power of attorney 
(dated 14 Jan. 1782) appointing William Lyon, Joseph 
Lyon, John Manley, Henry Townley Ward, Richard 
Shaw and Thomas Hutton Attornies of his Majesty's Court 
of King's Bench, jointly and severally or to any other 
Attorney of the same court to appear for him (Charles 
Ward of Doncaster plaisterer) in an action for debt at the 
Suit of William Edwards of Liverpool. 


Sale of a Pew by Mrs. Susannah Metcalf to Nicholas 
Crook and Ellis Lorimer, Churchwardens of the Parish of 
Liverpool, 15 August 1798. Printed in full in Vestry 
Books, ii., 489. 



John Christian of Liverpoole gent. I give unto my niece 
Catharine Corlett, the eldest daughter of my sister Catharine 
wife of Patrick Corlett of the Isle of Man, my copyhold 

224 Pews in St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool 

messuages lands and tenements situate in West Derby in 
or near Clubmoor and Pilch Lane her heirs and assigns 
for ever. I give unto Catharine Corlett the eldest daughter 
of my said sister all my messuages etc. in Liverpoole during 
my estate therein (the interest of my wife during her life 
to be allowed her) ; subject nevertheless and I do hereby 
charge the several messuages etc. in West Derby and 
Liverpoole (except that my estate of Clubmoor afore- 
mentioned) with the payment of the clear sum of 10 
yearly to be paid unto my said sister Catharine Corlett 
during her life and also with the payment of 10 unto 
Bryan Blundell gent, for the use of the poor children in 
the charity school in Liverpoole and also with the payment 
of 10 to Elizabeth wife of Robert Edwards of Liverpoole 
I also give unto my niece Ann Corlett the second daughter 
of my said sister Catharine Corlett and her heirs all my 
copyhold messuage etc. in Thomas Lane in West Derby 
I further give unto the said Ann all my houses and gardens 
situate in Douglas in the Isle of Man, paying 40s. yearly 
unto Margaret my half-sister during her life and the sum 
of 40 at the death of the said Margaret to her eldest son 
provided he lived to the age of 21 years otherwise no pay- 
ment of the said sum to be made. Also I give to my niece 
Margaret Corlett, third daughter of my said sister Catharine 
Corlett, and her heirs all my messuage &c. in Little 
Woolton. I also give unto my dear and loving wife all 
the wrought plate of which she was possessed before her 
marriage to me, together with my best feather bed and 
also two standing beds which belonged to her before our 
marriage. And the remainder of my real and personal 
estate after payment of my debts, legacies and funeral 
expenses, I give unto my said niece Catharine Corlett. 
The Rev. Anthony Halsall of Great Crosby, clerk, and the 
said Patrick Corlett of the Isle of Man to be executors ; 
he gives them 5 a piece. Directs that his nieces shall not 
marry without the consent and approbation of his 

Dated 6 January 1738-9. Proved at Chester 24 February, 

Notes on back of the Will : Cath. baptized 27 Oct. 1728. 
Ann, baptized 21 February 1729-30. Margt. baptized 16 
February 1731-2. Ann married 1749 to Joseph Richmond 
of Liverpool. Margt. unmarried. 

By W. H. ChippindalL 

WHEN the Domesday Survey was made, in 
the year 1086, the manor of Thirnby appears 
as dependent on the lordship of Whittington, and 
with other late possessions of Tostig was in the 
king's hand. After this date no more is heard 
of this manor. Yet some slight evidence regard- 
ing it has come to notice lately and the following 
attempt to locate it is founded thereon. 

The possession of a manor would give rise to a 
family name and a family, of " de Thirneby " has 
been discovered in the township of Lowther, 
where they seem to have settled late in the 12th 
century, 1 probably receiving lands there in com- 
pensation for the loss of their lordship in Thirnby, 
as on the formation of the county of Westmorland 
the manors of Middleton, Barbon, Casterton and 
a part of Thirnby were included in that county 
and taken away from what had been known as 
Amounderness. The other part of Thirnby was 
added to the manor of Whittington. 

If a large scale map, showing the boundaries of 
the townships of Kirkby Lonsdale and 
Whittington, be examined, it will be seen that the 
boundary line from the river Lune, westward, 
proceeds in a series of straight lines up to a point 
about 400 yards west of Biggins Park fence, 
cutting across the ancient fields so as to leave 
parts of those fields in Westmorland and parts 

1 Cumberland and Westmorland A. & A. Soc. Transactions, 
N.S. xvi., 113. 

226 The Lost Manor of Thirnby 

in Lancashire. Now all ancient boundaries 
followed some natural feature or ancient fence or 
dike, curving and bending as the particular 
feature necessitated ; hence it may be assumed 
that this straight-lined boundary is a modern one 
and arose through the necessity of marking out 
the division of the ancient manor of Thirnby. 

The family of " de Thirneby " ended in three 
co-heiresses 1 who married c. 1220-1230 as follows : 
Isabel married Robert de Alneto [Dawney], Sarra 
married Henry de Haverington, and Alice married 
Richard de Copeland, all bearing names asso- 
ciated with the holding of land in Whittington 
and Kirkby Lonsdale townships. Further, in the 
inquest on the death of William de Lindsay 
in 1283,* we find " David de Haverington and 
Ralph de Patton hold Thirnby and render 
66s. Sd. yearly ; it is worth 10/." Also " Alan de 
Coupeland holds the fourth part of Kirkby 
Lonsdale and renders \2d. yearly ; it is worth 
100s." But before this, in Hilary term, 14 Henry 
III., 1230, there had been a plea between John 
de Kirkby and Richard de Copeland as to how 
much land Richard de Copeland held in the vill 
of Kirkby Lonsdale. 3 The result of the trial is 
not on record but is evident from the above- 
quoted inquest on William de Lindsay ; and it 
is submitted that this fourth part of the vill of 
Kirkby Lonsdale is the Westmorland part of the 
old manor of Thirnby. 

The land lying along both sides of the boundary 
here was known as " Thirnby " until the end of 
the seventeenth century if not later, and is 
mentioned in the will of John Hudson of Kirkby 

1 Ibid. 

Lanes. Inq. and Ext. (Record Soc.). i., 256. 

1 Farrer, Cockersand Chartul. (Chetham Soc.), 913. 

The Lost Manor of Thirnby 227 

Lonsdale, dated 22 or 24 April, 1615, 1 proved at 
Kirkby Lonsdale on the 6 July following, in 
which he leaves to his son John Hudson "the 
lands and tenant-right in Thyrneby which [I 
devised] unto him before as mentioned in a] 
dede beringe date the xixth day of April 1615 
lyeinge jointly toge[ther and in the occupation of] 
William Harryson and Edward Bainbrigge 
whereof s[ome part] of the saide ground in 
Thyrneby aforesaide lyeing and d . . .[? being] 
[wi]thin the countye of Westmorland] and the 
[other part within the] countye of Lancaster 
which was bought of the right [wor]shipfull Lady 
Elizabeth Curwen." 

There is also a reference to Thirnby in the 
Kirkby Lonsdale Court Leet Rolls on 22 April, 
1667, viz. : ' We find Mr. John Foxcroft dead 
since last Court and Jane Foxcroft his daughter 
next heir to his customary estate in Thirnby of 
the yearly rent of 4d." This John Foxcroft was 
a lawyer, and acted as steward of the manor of 
Kirkby Lonsdale in 1666 ; he lived at Holme 
House opposite Sellet Mill in Whittington town- 
ship. In the same court rolls, under date 28 
February 1669-70, is recorded a surrender by 
Richard Bayliffe of Biggins to his son Edward 
Bayliffe of various fields " and a close called Little 

Nowadays Thirnby Wood, overlooking Sellet 
Mill from the north, and Thirnby Well (the 
source of the mill stream for Sellet Mill) are the 
only names left to indicate the position of this 
ancient manor, and I am inclined to believe that 
Sellet Mill and Holme House are all that is left 
of the ancient hamlet of Thirnby ; but the outer 
boundaries of this manor appear to be hopelessly 

1 The will is mutilated and the words within square brackets are 
an attempted restoration. 


gentleman, aged 39, in 1715 deposed that about a year 
before he had purchased from Edmund Taylor and James 
Chadwick the reversions of houses in Pool Lane and Redcross 
Street and an opening out of John Street into Harrington 
Street, being of the inheritance of John Harrington, esq., or 
Charles Harrington or Dorothy his mother. The depositions 
were taken at the " Golden Lion," an inn kept by John 
Seacombe. (Pal. of Lancaster Chancery Depositions, bdle. 
145). In a different suit in the following year James 
Chadwick of Liverpool, yeoman, aged 52, deposed concern- 
ing a purchase of bricks for the late John Cleveland ; this 
time the depositions were taken at a house called the 
" Woolpack," kept by John Lathom. (Ibid., 147.) This 
house was Jane Wrench's in 1725. (Ibid., 155.) 

of Croxteth, gentleman, and Thomas and James his sons, 
stated that John and Thomas had for some years been 
partners in the trade or mystery of manufacturing pig-iron 
into bars, hoops, rods, etc., at slitting mills near Chorley 
called Birkacre mills ; and about May 1747 and later they 
sent to William Houlcroft of Liverpool, white-cooper, 
parcels of hoop-iron, etc., to be disposed of on commission, 
to the value of 300 and more. John Chadwick had 
recently made over his moiety to his son James, who thus 
became partner with his brother Thomas. They had long 
wanted Houlcroft to come to an account with them, but he 
had put the matter off, and had died intestate ; and they 
now therefore made a claim for the amount due to them from 
the estate against his widow and son, Alice Houlcroft and 
James Houlcroft, who had come into possession. In the 
following year, John Chadwick having died, the plaint was 
renewed by the executors of his will his widow Ellen, and 
his sons Thomas and James Chadwick. (Pal. of Lancaster 
Chancery Bills, vol. 80.) The connection of these Chadwicks 
with Croxteth is further shown by the fact that one of 
the " lives " in a Molyneux lease of 1746 was John son of 
John Chadwick of Birkacre, aged 18 (Claughton Chapel 

Stray Notes 229 

CURATES OF HALE CHAPEL. William Sherlock of Farn- 
worth, clerk, aged 70, in 1633 deposed that he knew Hale 
chapel in Childwall. He had known Edward Baguley, who 
was curate at Hale, and succeeded him about 47 years 
previously, continuing as curate for 12 or 13 years, during 
all which time he administered the sacraments, married, 
buried the dead, and performed all things pertaining to a 
church or parochial chapel. He also knew Thomas Lydiate, 
Mr. Hall, Mr. Janyon, William Sherlock (his own son), Mr. 
Kenwrick and George Barlowe (plaintiff in the case) 
among others who in their several times were curates at 
Hale. He himself had been placed there by George Ireland, 
esq., and Mr. Kenwrick by Sir Gilbert Ireland. Another 
witness (aged 80) remembered William Crosse, Edward 
Baguley, William Sherlock the elder, Robert Swan, John 
Janion, Thomas Lydiate, Mr. Hall, William Sherlock the 
younger and Edward Kenwrick. Yet another remembered 
Mr. Whitfield, before Crosse. Another said a Mr. March 
came between Baguley and Sherlock. (Pal. of Lane. 
Depositions, bdle. 30.) This is an important addition to 
the list of curates in V. C. H. Lancashire, iii., 149. 

BLUNDELL OF LITTLE CROSBY. Henry Blundell, who was 
in possession of the manor 1421 to 1456, had two brothers, 
John and Robert. The former seems to be the John 
Blundell of Crosby who with Katherine widow of Ellis de 
Formeby (probably his wife) claimed a debt of 70s. from 
Thomas Lathom, a drover, and Robert Lathom in 1442-3 
(Chester Plea Roll 148, m. 34.) John's son Thomas became 
vicar of Brackley, 1462-1489 ; and was also rector of Eydon 
1469-1489, and vicar of Stotesbury 1473-1486, all in 
Northamptonshire. (Baker, Northants., i., 505, 575, 691.) 
See V. C. H. Lanes., iii., 88, note 2. 

THE KIRKBY FONT. The following is one of the alterna- 
tive interpretations (see p. 99) of the carvings on this 
interesting font. On one side appears the Temptation and 
Fall, with the cherub with his flaming sword driving Adam 
and Eve from the paradise of pleasure. The other 
side is occupied chiefly with a group of seven " priests," 
telling of Redemption by the preaching of the gospel. 
These figures naturally have St. Peter in the centre ; his 
brother apostle St. Paul stands on his right, being indi- 
cated by the sword and the book of epistles, and on St. 
Peter's other side is the local apostle St. Paulinus (or St. 
Chad), vested with the pallium as Archbishop of York. The 
front pendant of the pallium hangs down almost to the 

230 Stray Notes 

point of the chasuble. A local devotion to St. Paulinus is 
shown by the dedication at Walton (Trans., Ixxi., 91). The 
remaining four, judging by their number, may be the 
four evangelists ; three seem to carry their gospel books, and 
the other, who has first place, may be meant for St. 
Matthew, handling his bag of tax-money. The last figure 
may indicate, by its diminutive size, the youth of St. John. 
The series of seven ends with a representation of St. 
Michael's victory over the serpent, through whose lying 
mouth he thrusts his spear. As the carvings go completely 
round the font, St. Michael and the cherub come next to 
one another, though they are at the opposite ends of the 

WIGAN CHURCH c. 1580. In one of Erdeswicke's MSS. 
is the following brief note : " Mr. Stokes told me that 
Wiggan in Lancashyre, the Churche therof was of thre 
sundry buyldings and repayrings : as was to him by 
anncyent men proved : who had seen in the last repayring 
therof, fragments of idols, some of the Romayn fetures and 
symmetry, some of the Saxons : etc." (Harl. MS. 473, 
fo. 2.). 

LONGWORTH OF ORMSKiRK. John Longworth of Orms- 
kirk, gentleman, was a man of some prominence in the 
district in the first half of the eighteenth century. A 
plea by James Magrath of Aughton in 1759 and 
later gives information as to his descendants, he hav- 
ing died. The first defendants were his son John 
Longworth and grandson John (eldest son of John). In 
1761, however, another grandson, James Longworth, 
became defendant, for John the son had died on 1 May, 
1761, and John the grandson, who was of tender years, had 
followed on 24 June, his heir being his brother the said 
James. Somewhat later were added Mary Longworth 
widow of the senior John (who had had a first wife 
Margaret) ; the executors of John the son, viz., Trifosia 
Longworth his widow and William Aspinall ; and Catherine, 
Margaret, Betty, Nancy, Jane, Bella and Mary, other 
children of John Longworth the son. (Pal. of Lancaster 
Chancery Bills, 80, nos. 13, 41, 48.) 

ROCHDALE GLEBE. In a disputed case in 1670 a deposi- 
tion was made by Robert Bathe, clerk, lately vicar of 
Rochdale, aged 65. He had been incumbent of the benefice 
for about 23 years, and said in his time the tenants of the 
glebe had been accustomed to alienate, assign or exchange 

Stray Notes 231 

their tenements, the ancient rents being paid. (Pal. of 
Lancaster Chancery Depositions, bdle. 84.) 

DR. KUERDEN. Richard Keurden, doctor in Physick, 
aged 55, was deponent in a Chancery suit in 1679, stating 
that he paid a rent of Id. called the " Jerusalem rent " to 
Lord Molyneux for lands in Cuerden, formerly paid to the 
Order of Jerusalem. Many others in Cuerden also paid 
Jerusalem rents. (Pal. of Lancaster Chancery Depositions, 
bdle. 99.) 

HAMBLETON CHAPEL. Roger Sherburn, clerk, aged 40, 
was in 1653 described as preacher at this chapel, the history 
of which is obscure. (Pal. of Lancaster Chancery Deposi- 
tions, bdle. 49.) 

PHILIP BENNET. One William Bennet was rector of 
Brindle from 1603 to 1629, when he died. His wife had 
been buried there in 1617. In 1688, James Gerard, the 
sexton, then aged 66, said that he remembered Mr. Bennet's 
burial ; he was then a schoolboy, seven or eight years old. 
He knew also Philip Bennet his son, and John Bennet, a 
younger brother of William. As Philip is unusual as a 
Christian name it seems not unreasonable to identify him 
with the Philip son of William Bennet of Lancashire, 
educated at Rivington School, who entered Christ's College, 
Cambridge, in 1625, and took the B.A. degree in 1629 ; l 
and further to identify him with the Philip who was minister 
of Ulverston in 1646 and of Cartmel in 1649, being ejected 
from this cure in 1662 for nonconformity. (Pal. of 
Lancaster Chancery Depositions, bdle. 117.) In 1654 he 
was attacked by two Quakers, Edward Burroughs and 
Francis Howgill, in their " Answers to Several Queries put 
forth ... by P. Bennett," " who calls himself a minister 
of Christ, but is found a deceiver." 

John Griffin senior and John Dounvill the elder in 1343 
concerning the presentation to this rectory, the following 
statement of the patrons and rectors was put in. Ran die 
de Praers was seised of the advowson in the time of Henry 
III., and presented Randle de Meynwaryng ; Randle's son 
Thomas de Praers in the same reign presented Ralph de 
Caldwelle. He was succeeded in the time of Edward I. 
by Richard de Thicknes, presented by Randle son of the 
above Thomas de Praers. This Randle also presented 

1 J. Peile, Christ's College Register, i., 368. 

232 Stray Notes 

John le Teu in the same reign, but dying without issue 
he was succeeded as patron by his brother Richard, who 
presented Adam de Wetenhale in the time of Edward I. 
(This is an error ; it should be Edward II.) The vacancy 
was caused by Adam's death. Griffin claimed by gift of 
Thomas de Praers, brother and heir of Handle son of the 
Richard first named, and his claim is supported by a deed 
in the Recognizance Rolls, dated 1338, by which he was to 
exercise the patronage until Thomas's death, which 
happened in 1349. Plaintiff accordingly recovered. 
(Chester Plea Roll 55, m. Id.) 

In a case in the Exchequer Court of Chester in 1584 
(Starkie v. Yonge and others, concerning Knight's Grange) 
one George Dickyns, gent., of Chorleye in Cheshire, aged 63, 
deposed that in the latter end of April and after a good 
piece of Lent was spent in 35 Henry VIII., he was at the 
New Castell uppon Tyne as they journeyed toward 
Scotland to Lyethe and Edenburghe ; and there then did 
see in the said town Edmund Trafford deceased, then 
esquire and after made knight at Liethe, who (deponent) 
did then serve William Ratclief, Edmund Savage deceased, 
then esquires and after made knights also at Liethe with 
examinate's master. Alexander Massie was in Newcastell 
at the time aforesaid, who there was deponent's chamber- 
fellow. And he thinketh that John Domvile and Robert 
Shawe did then attend upon the said William Ratcliffe. 
To his remembrance and as he thinketh the said persons 
and every of them did then make their abode in Newcastell 
aforesaid by the space of one month together or thereabouts. 
(Exchequer Bills, Chester, bundle 12.) The English army 
appears to have assembled at Newcastle in March and 
April, 1544, sailing for Scotland about the 1st May. 

SPORTING RIGHTS. A petition of John Oldton in October, 
1583, to Robert earl of Leicester, chamberlain of Chester, 
complains of a breach of the statute of 23 Elizabeth against 
hunting and hawking over lands on which corn is standing 
or growing. " So it is, right honorable lord, that one William 
Mynshull, gent., the said statute nothing regarding, hath 
diverse and sundry times since the feast of St. John Baptist 
last past (the certain days whereof your orator doth not 
perfectly remember) hawked and hunted with a hawk 
and spaniels in a certain closure of land of your poor 
orator lying in Mynshull . . . then sown with oats and 
the same therein growing, to the great destruction and spoil 

Stray Notes 233 

not only of your said orator's corn and grass therein 
growing, but also thereby your orator's hedges were broken 
down and the gates of the said field thrown open to the 
lanes and highways, whereby sheep and cattle depasturing 
in the said lanes and highways entered into your orator's 
corn and grass to the great hindrance and damage of your 
poor orator. And your said orator very gently required 
the said William Mynshull to desist and leave off his said 
misdemeanours and thereupon showed him the. said 
statute . . . Yet, that notwithstanding, right honorable 
lord, the said William Mynshull of his perverse malice and 
very despite, accompanied with divers other persons 
that is to say, Elinor Mynshull wife of Thomas Mynshull 
of Erdesweeke, esq., Gertrude Mynshull wife of the said 
William Mynshull, Richard Mynshull brother of the said 
William Mynshull, John Walker gent., and one William 
Rylandes yeoman . . . did upon Tuesday the tenth day 
of September last past eftsoons enter into your orator's 
said closure of ground wherein the said oats were then growing, 
and therein the said William Mynshull did then hawk and 
hunt with a sparrowhawk and a great number of spaniels 
. . . . And albeit the said Elinor Mynshull, Richard 
Mynshull, John Walker and William Rylandes be ready and 
willing to compound and make full satisfaction . . . yet 
the said William Mynshull and Gertrude his wife wilfully 
standing in their evil doing, do as yet utterly refuse and 
deny to pay to your said orator the said forfeiture of 
40s. . . . although they have been sundry times gently 
reminded . . . ". The complainant therefore asked for a 
subprena against Mynshull. The accused denied that he 
was " culpable of the supposed matters." (Chester 
Exchequer Bills, bdle. 11.) 


The table annexed exhibits the Society's membership on 
January 1st, 1922. 







1st Jan., 1921 .... 





1st Jan., 1922 .... 











Having regard to the increased subscription, the finan- 
cial difficulties through which the country is passing and 
the numerous deaths among our members, no less than 
eight, it is matter for congratulation that our numbers are 
so well maintained. 

The Council desires to express regret for the deaths of 
the following members, viz. : Mr. John Hargreaves, Senior, 
Mr. T. T. Wainwright, Mr. J. W. Alsop, B.A., Mr. W. T. 
Rogers, Mr. J. T. Thompson, Mr. T. W. Blundell, Mr. E. H.W. 
Butterworth, and for that of Miss Watt, a most generous 
contributor to the funds of the Society. 

During the past year fourteen new members have been 
elected and in this period nine meetings were held. The 
first, the Annual General Meeting, included a fine series of 
lantern slides, illustrative of items of archaeological interest, 
while the fifth was, by kind permission of the Library, 
Museums and Arts Committee of the Corporation of Liver- 
pool, held at the Reference Library, when a remarkable 
series of old local play-bills was exhibited. 

Report, &c. 235 

No discoveries of archaeological interest have been reported 
during the past year. 

Volume 72 of the Society's Transactions is now in the 
hands of the members, and though somewhat less in size 
than recent numbers it contains several papers of con- 
siderable local interest. It is hoped that the next volume of 
the Transactions will be of more normal size. 

The first summer meeting of the Session took place on 
25th June, when the members visited Leasowe Castle, 
Bidston Church, and Bidston Hall. At Leasowe Castle, 
a former home of the Earls of Derby, the date stone 1593, 
with the Three Legs of Man, carved over a doorway in the 
tower, and the oak said to be from the Star Chamber, West- 
minster, with the heraldic badges of Henry VII., and 
Henry VIII. aroused much interest. Afterwards the 
members visited Bidston Church, where the Vicar (the Rev. 
T. M. Standring, M.A.) kindly showed them the Church, 
the registers, and Churchwardens' books. A visit was also 
paid to Bidston Hall, which was erected by the 6th Earl 
of Derby about 1620, and was for some time one of the 
Stanleys' residences. 

The second summer meeting took place on 23rd July, 
when the members went from Liverpool by motor, via 
Warrington, Stretton, Great Budworth, and Holmes Chapel, 
to Moreton Old Hall, the finest example of black and white 
work in Cheshire. Next a visit was paid to Astbury Church, 
which is a splendid example of perpendicular architecture. 
After visiting Congleton, the quaint half-timbered building 
of Marton Church, with its squat tower, was viewed, and a 
visit was paid to the black and white church at Siddington, 
part of which belongs to the Tudor period. The return 
journey was made via Redesmere, Capesthorne Hall, Monks 
Heath, Knutsford, and Warrington to Liverpool. 

The Society wishes to return thanks to the Editors of the 
following papers for their kindness in inserting notices of 
the various meetings held by the Society : Birkenhead 
and Cheshire Advertiser, Birkenhead News, Chester Courant, 

236 Report, &c. 

Cheshire Observer, Liverpool Courier and Liverpool Daily 



Edwin Haigh, C.C. Hon. Secretary. 

F. E. Priestley. Hon. Secretary. 

Francis Caldwell, J. P. Rylands. 

C.B.E., M.V.O. 

E. H. Rideout, B.Sc. E. Cuthbert Woods. 

F. P. Dodgson. F. L. Cheers. 

Geo. R. Norris. S. Saxon Barton, Junior. 

A. C. Livesey, A.M.I.E.E. Jno. Livesey. 

A. E. Watson, L.D.S. F. W. Bailey. 

Thos. White. G. T. Shaw. 

R. Wardman. R. Stewart-Brown. 

G. K. Bell. F. C. Beazley. 
D. L. Pilling. F. C. Beazley. 
Rev. Fredk. Blundell, C. R. Hand. 

O.S.B., F.S.A. Scot. 
Geo. W. Crowden. R. Hyde Linaker. 


Jan. 20 Lantern Evening. 

(Arranged by the Photographic Committee). 

Feb. 10 " Early Coaching in Liverpool." By A. H. 
ARKLE, O.B.E. (Second Part). 

24 " Mediaeval Carvings illustrating every-day life 

in England." By F. H. CROSSLEY, F.S.A 

Mar. 10 " The Carvings of Mediaeval Musical Instruments 

at Manchester Cathedral." By The Rev. 


24 " The Palimpsest of Liverpool : Part I. Intro- 
duction, Rivers, Brooks and Watersheds." 
By F. C. LARKIN, F.R.C.S. 

Report, &c. 237 

Apl. 7 " The Corporate Seal of Liverpool." By ROBERT 

" An English Alabaster Statuette of the 
Blessed Virgin, of the 14th Century." By 

Oct. 28 " Old Liverpool Play-bills." By G. T. SHAW. 

Nov. 10 " Isaac Greene, a Lancashire Lawyer of the 
18th Century." By R. STEWART-BROWN, 
M.A., F.S.A. 

24 " An English Mediaeval Alabaster Panel of St. 
Erasmus." By PHILIP NELSON, M.D., F.S.A. 
" Some Old Local Windmills." By 
C. R. HAND. 

Dec. 8 " The Vanished Screens of the Nave and the 
Quin Parcloses in Manchester Cathedral." 
By the Rev. HENRY A. HUDSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

238 Report, &c. 


During the past session the library of the Society has 
been used extensively by members at the Society's meetings. 
51 volumes have been issued, and 68 volumes and parts 
have been added. No binding has been done since 1914, 
and it is very important that binding be re-commenced. 

The thanks of the Society are tendered to the following 
for their very kind donations of books to the library : 

F. C. Beazley, Esq., F.S.A., Vice- President 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, London, 

vol. xxxii. 

Archcelogia, vol. Ixx. 

The Antiquaries' Journal, parts i, ii, iii, iv, for 1921. 
F. C. Larkin, Esq., F.R.C.S. Eng., Vice-President 
The Cheshire Sheaf, 3rd series, vol. xiv., Jan.-Dec., 

F. H. Crossley, Esq., F.S.A. 

History of St. Peter's Church, Chester, by F. Simpson. 

G. T. Shaw, Esq. 

The Chester Archceological Journal, vol. xiii., N.S., 

J. J. Lewis, Esq. 

Catalogue of English Historical Embroideries in 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

The Hon. Librarian 

Lancashire, by F. H. Cheetham, F.S.A. 

Hon. Librarian. 

19th January, 1922. 

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Vol. LXXII. Indexing 
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tions, Printing, 1 
and Despatching 

Stock-keeper's fee 
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Printing, stationery and notices o 
Subscriptions to other Societies 
Fke Insurance to March 25, 1921 
Paid for one copy, Vol. LXX. 
Lantern expenses 
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Names and Places mentioned more than once on a page are indexed 
only once. 

Place-names are printed in italics. 

-, 17 


" Abstracts of Deeds relating to the 

sale of pews in St. Nicholas's 

Church, Liverpool . ' ' By Henry 

Peet, M.A., F.S.A.. 215 
Adam, " loriner " of Wigan, 160 
Addingham, near Penrith, 52 
Adlington, co. Chester, 153 

co. Lane., 172, 186 

Adlington, Thomas, 9 
.dEthelfrith of Northumbria, 49 
Ainsworth, John, 187 
Alabasters, 149 152 
Alan, fuller of Wigan, 159 
Aldcliffe (Auclyff), nr. Lancaster, 

" Almoricson." See Crosse, John, 


Alneto, De. See Dawney 
Alnwick, 32 

Alsop, J. W., B.A., 234 
Alt, river, 95 
Althorp, 129 
" Amoryson." See Crosse, John, 


Amounderness, 203 
Amsterdam, 133 
" Ancient Clothing," 59 

Anderson, , 19, 22 

Anderton, James, 179, 180 


Andleser, Richard, 177 
Angers, Ulger, bishop of, 76 
Annan, 29 
Antrobus, Katherine, 219, 220 

- Thomas, 219, 220 
Anyon, Benjamin, 216, 217, 218 
Appleton, co. Chester, 198 
Aquileia, 8 

Arkle, A. H., O.B.E., "Early 

Liverpool Coaching," 1 
Ashawe, Alice, 176 

Lawrence, 176 

Margaret, 176 

Roger, 176 

Thomas, 177 

Ashbourne, 18 

Ashhurst, nr. Wigan, 210 

Ashhurst, Anne, 210 

Henry, 210 

Ashton (near Lancaster), 212 
Aspinall, William, 230 
Assheton, Alice, 176 

Ralph, 176, 177 

Astley, co. Lane., 204 
Atherton, 194 

Atherton (Adderton), Anne, 194, 
199, 204 

Frances, 187 

George, 194, 204 

John, 187, 188 

Aughton (near Ormskirk), 12, 29, 

153, 181, 230 

Axminster (Exmaster), 1, 2 
Aylesbury, 28 
Aymary, Richard, 160 

" BACHUL " of Moloc, 80 
Bagganley Hall, Chorley, 186 
Bagpipes, 102, 108, 109 
Baguley, Edward, 229 
Bailey, Thomas, 222 
Bainbridge (Bainbrigge), Edward, 

Ball, Humphrey, 171 

- Jane, 221, 222 

- Letitia, 171 
Bamber, John, 181 




Banastre (Banister), Alexander, 

Alice, 182 

Henry, 159, 170, 172, 181, 

198, 199, 202 

Isabel, 193 

- Joan, 170, 172, 173 

Juliana, 181 

Margaret, 193,195-200,203, 

204, 207, 209 

Matilda (or Maud). 159 

Nicholas, 172 

- Richard, 170 

Robert, 154 

Roger, 199 

Thomas, 172 

Wilfrid. 193, 193w, 196, 


William, 193, 195, 197-199, 

Banbury, 27 
Bangor-is-y-Coed, 49 
Bankhall, Kirkdale, 177 
Bank, in Croston, co. Lane., 170, 

Banks, John, 179, 182 

Banner , 17 

Barber (Barbor), Charles, 38 

Richard, 168 

Barbon, Westml'd., 225 
Barker, Edward, 202 

Elizabeth, 213 

Samuel, 213 

Barlow, George, 229 
Barnett, Nehemiah, 213, 214 
Barton, Elizabeth, 218, 219 

James, 216 

Richard, 218, 219 

Bates, ,17 

Bath, 6, 14, 15, 18, 20-22, 31, 32 

Bathe, Robert, 230 

Bawtry, 1, 2 

Bayeux, Odo, bishop of, 79 

tapestry, 52, 91 

Bayliffe, Edward, 227 

Richard, 227 
Beards, 57, 58 
Beazley, F. C., F.S.A. See 

Stewart-Brown, R. 
Bebington, Lower, 1 1 
Becket's chasuble, 62, 63 ; mitre, 


Beconsall, Robert, 128-9 
Belgians, Leopold, King of the, 


Bennet, John, 231 
- Philip, 231 

Bennet, William, 231 
Bernshall, Richard, 188 
Berwick, 3, 32 
Betchton (Becheton), Alice de, 128 

- Anilia de, 128 

- Ellen de, 128 

- William de, 128 
Beverley, Minster, 110, 116, 118 
Bewsey, 194 

Bicker staff e, 177 

Bidston, 130 

Biggar, 30 

Biggins (Lonsdale), 227 

- Park, 225 
Bird, Henry, 146 

Birkacre (near Chorley) Mills, 228 
Birkenhead, 1 1 

Pool, 11 

- Priory, 127 

Birmingham, 6, 15, 18-23, 28, 31-2 
" Saracen's Head," 27 

Blackburn, 29-31, 187 

Black Rock, Liscard, 136-7 

" Blacks and Mouldmeats," 179 

Blackstock, Edward, 37 

Blandford, 1, 2 

Blenheim, 141 

Blois, Bishop Henry of, 77 

Bloodworth, Elizabeth, 176 

George, 176 

Blundell, Brian, 216, 224 

- Henry, 229 

John, 229 

Katherine, 229 

Robert, 180, 229 

T.W., 234 

William, 216 

of Little Crosby, family, 229 

Bold, Peter, 215 

Bolland (Bowland), 203 
Bologna, 122 
Bolton, 20, 30 
Bolton, William, 163 
Bolton Holmes, 212 
Bolton (le-Moors), 20, 30, 186 
Bolton-le-Sands, 192, 195, 209 
Boode, Lewis W., 133, 135 

Margaret, 133-4 

Mary Anne, 134-5 

Miss, 138 

Booth, springs, 36 

Bootle (Botehyll. Botyll), Agnes 
(Alice, Annis or Avis), 162 

- Hugh, 165-6 

Bordeaux, church of St. Seurin, 

Boscherville, 124 



Brachley, Northants., 229 
Bradford, 19, 30 
Bradshaw, Thomas, 202 
Brannigan, Lawrence, 221 
Branthwait, Alexander, 202 
Brassey, J., 11 
Breac Moedog, 90-1 
Breadsall, Derby, 151 
Breres (Brears, Briers), Blanche, 
170, 174-5 

Roger, 170, 182 

Br essay (Shetlands), 77w. 80w 
Br ether ton, 183 
Bretherton, - , 22, 
Bartholomew, 20, 26-7, 32 

Daniel, 27 

Francis, 26-7, 31 

Joseph, 27 

Peter 20, 26, 29, 30 

Thomas, 27 

family, 20-1 

Bridge House, 30 
Bridges, Elizabeth, 217n 

See Briggs 

Bridgewater, Duke of, 6 
Bridlington, 30 

Bridport, (Barput, Burput), 1, 2 
Briggs, Elizabeth, 216 

Grace, 216, 217 

Henry, D.D., 216, 217 

Joseph, 216, 218 

William, 217 

See Bridges 

Brighton, 16 

- font, 58, 67, 76, 78, 96 
Brindle, 231 
Brindley, James, 6 
Bristol, 3, 15, 18, 20-3, 31-2, 11 In 
Brittany, 149 
Brittany, Joan, duchess of, 149 

- John, duke of, 149 
Brixworth, church, 91 
Brodlands, Lines., 156 
Bromborough Pool, 10 

village, 11 

Broster, Richard, 181 
Broughton (near Preston), 192, 

195, 201 
Browne, James, 185 

- John, 175 
Laurence, 178 

Brownell, John, 220-1 
Brownlow, Bridget, 177 

- John Cust, ea r l, 134 

- Laurence, 177-9 
- - Lord, 134, 142 
Buckingham, 28 

-, 7 

Bulk, mill, 210 
Bulloke, John, 168 
Burgh St. Peter, 165 
Burgon, Thomas, 198 
Burnett, Archibald, 35 
Burnley, 31 

Burroughs, Edward, 231 
Burscough, 12, 17, 28-9 
Burton in Lonsdale, 29 
Burton, in Wirral, 159 
Burton-on-Trent, 97 
Bury, 20, 30-1 

Butler, Anne, 194, 199-201, 203-5 
Sir Thomas, 194, 199-206 

Butterworth, E. H. W., 234 

Buxton, 31 

Byrom, Henry, 178 

Cadillac-sur-Garonne, 152 
Calcott, Joan, 162 
Richard, 162 

Caldwell, Ralph de, 231 

Galley, Thomas, 218 

Callow, Thomas, 220 

Cambridge, Christ's Coll., 231 

Canterbury, 58 

Canterbury, Cuthbert, abp. of, 94 

St. Thomas of, 62, 63, 76, 

79, 80 

Theodore of Tarsus, abp. of, 


Cantsfield (Cansfeld), John, 191 
Capel Curig, " Lord Penrhyn New 

Inn," 25 
Capel Garmon, 91 

Capstick, , 17 

Car left. See Eastham 

Carlips, 35 

Carlisle, 17, 20, 22, 29-32 

Cartmel, 191, 231 

" Carvings of Mediaeval Musical 

Instruments in Manchester 

Cathedral." By Rev. H. A. 

Hudson, M.A., F.S.A., 100 
Caster ton, Westml'd., 225 
Castile, 107 
Caton, 195 

Cave, Sir Ambrose, 208, 209 
Cayton, Sir William, 201 
Chad croft, Kirkby, 45 
Chad, St., 44, 67, 84-87, 96, 97 


his shrine, 92 
Chadwick, James, 5, 228 

- John, 228 
Thomas, 228 



Chalk Hill, 21 
Chambers, R., 24 
Chandler, Alderman, 14 
Chapels, of ease, 45 
Charlinch (near Bridgewater), 156 
Charteris, Christopher, 2 
Chasuble, 60-68, 95, 96 
Cheeseman, Edward, 171 

Eleanor, 171 

Cheltenham, 32 

" Cheshire Men in the Scottish 
Expedition of 1544," 232 

Chester ( Westchester) , 2, 3, 10. 
11, 18, 21, 23-25, 31, 32, 49, 
127, 162, 171, 189, 204, 221-2, 
224, 232-3 

chamberlain of, 232 

inns " Golden Talbot," 

10 ; " Pied Bull," Northgate 
Street, 11 

Chester, Bishop of, 213 

Edmund, bishop of, 220 

John, bishop of, 215, 217, 


Samuel, bishop of, 216 

Chester Hall, 29 
Chickester, 3 

cathedral, 75 

Childwall, 25, 26 

Norreys Chapel, 169 

Chippindall, W. H. : " The Lost 

Manor of Thirnby," 225 
Chippingdale (Chippindale), 195 
Chirk, 23, 25 
Chorley, Alice, 178, 179 

Bridget, 182 

Richard, 179, 182 

William, 178 

Chorley, 2, 31, 153, 169-172, 175- 
186, 228, 232 

Bagganley Hall, 186 

Crosse Hall, 176, 177, 184 

Chowbent (Cholbent), 194, 199 
Christian, Catherine, 220, 223 

John, 220, 223 

- Margaret, 224 

Nicholas, 220 

Christian Priestly Dress, 74 
Clarence Fields, 29 

Claughton, , 194 

Clavicymbal, 102, 113 
Clayton-le-Woods (Cleaton, Clay- 
ton), 179, 180 

Clayton (Cleyton), Anne, 186 

- J. Prior, 218 

- Thomas, 186 
Cleveland, John, 228 

Clinton, Roger de, 98 
Clonmacnoise crosier, 80 
Clough, James, 203 
Coaching, 1 

Cobham, , 221 

Cockermouth, 31 
Coke, Henry, 163 

Coleman, , 27 

Collingwood, George, 35 

Collom Bridge. See Cowan Bridge 

Colne, 31 

Colthurst, Henry, 199 

- Thomas, 203 
Colwich, 27 
Colyn, Thomas, 149 
Con, 29 

Congleton, 28 ;" Red Bull " inn, 


Conway, Ferry, 25 
Conyngsby, Master, 191 
Cooper, Thomas, 19, 20 

. , 17 

Copeland (Coupeland), Alan de, 


Alice de, 226 

- Richard de, 226 
Coppull, 172, 175, 179 
Corlett, Ann, 224 

Catherine, 223, 224 

Margaret, 224 

Patrick, 223 

Cornwall, 2 
Cort, Robt., 46 
Cotton, Samuel, 147 
Coventry, 2 
Coventry, James, 147 

- William, 146 

Cowan Bridge (Collom Bridge), 

190, 192 

Crawford (Crowford), 29, 30 
Crook (Crouke), John, 163 

Nicholas, 223 

Crosbie, John, 6 
Crosby, Great, 224 

Little. 229 

Crosiers, 80. 81 

Crosse (Cross, De la Croyz, De 
Cruce), Adam, 160 

- Adam del, 154, 157-9 

Agnes, 163 

- Agnes (Alice, Annis or 
Avis). 162 

Agnes del, 159 

- Alexander, 184 

- Alice, 160, 164, 176-7 

- Alison, 162 

- Almoric or Aymory, 159, 160 


Crosse, Ann, 177, 184-5 

- A vice, 166 

- Blanche, 170, 175 
Bridgett, 177 

- Christopher, 176 
Dorothy, 185 

Edmund, 161, 162, 169, 

170, 174-5, 177 
Eleanor, 177 
Elizabeth, 164, 

167, 169, 

176-8, 181, 183-5 

- Ellen, 163 

Ellen del, 159 

Emma del, 158-9 

Frances, 181-3, 185 

George, 171. 184 

Gilbert del, 159 

Henry, 160, 162 

Henry del, 159 

Hugh del, 158-160 

Humphrey, 167, 170, 174 

Imayne del, 159 

Isobel, 160 

Isolda del, 158 

James, 168, 170, 174-6 

Jane, 184 

Joan, 162, 170, 175, 185 

John, 154-5, 156w, 160-185 

- John atte, 159 

John del, 158-9 

Juliana, 181-5 

Katherine, 160-1, 171. 174 

Katherine del, 158 

Latimer, 156w 

Laurence, 169 

Letitia, 171 

- Margaret. 161, 167. 169, 170, 

Margery del, 158-9 

Matilda (or Maud) del, 159 

Mary, 167, 169, 177, 186 

Nicholas, 161 

Richard, 161-170, 176-8, 

Richard del. 157-160 

Robert, 170, 177, 179, 180, 

Robert del, 157-8 

Roger, 162, 170-1, 173-5 

Thomas, 156w, 176, 181-6 

Thurstan, 160-1 

Thurstan del, 158 

- William, 160, 162, 164, 169, 
170, 172-3, 175, 177-9, 181-3, 

- William del, 185-9 

- alias Amoryson, John, 160 

Crosse family, of Charlinch (near 
Bridgewater), 156 

, , of Lathom (near 

Ormskirk), 157-8 

-, of Shaw Hill, 186w 

" Crosse Family of Wigan, Chorley 
and Liverpool." By R. 
Stewart-Brown, M.A. F.S.A., 
and F. C. Beazley, F.S.A., 153 

Crosse Hall, Chorley, 161, 176-7, 

Lanes.. 156 

Liverpool. 170, 172, 175-7, 


Crosses, 52 

Croston, co. Lane., 181 

Crowland, St. Guthlac of, 77 

Croxteth, 228 

Croyz, de la. See Crosse 

Cruce, de. See Crosse 

Cuerden, 182, 231 

Cunscough (in Melling), 181 

Curates of Hale Chapel, 229 

Curdworth, co. Warwick, 53, 61, 

68 ; font, 96 
Curwen, Giles, 191 

Lady Elizabeth, 227 
Cust, Brownlow, 134 

- Sir Charles, 143 

- Col. Edward, 134-5 

- Sir Edward, 136, 138, 141-3 

John, 134 

- Lady, 138 

- Sir Leopold, 135, 143 

Mary Anne, 134-5 

motto, 136 

Dacre Hill (Bebington), 11 

Dalveen. 30 

Dannett, Margaret, 133 

- Rev. Thomas, 133 
Darby, Joan, 189 

Roger, 189 

Darcy, Lord, 190 
Darlington (Darneton), 2, 31 
Davenport, Richard, 12 
Daventry, 28 

Dawney (De Alneto), Isabel, 226 

, Robert, 226 
Dean (Deane, Deyne), Edward, 


Geoffrey, 204-5 

- John, 147 

Jonathan, 1467 

- Joshua, 146 

- Thomas, 146-7 
Dee, river, 25 


Deerhurst, co. Glouc., 52 
Delves, Sir Richard, 204-6 
Deodand. 24 
Derby, 18, 31-2 

West. See West Derby 

Derby, Earl of, 36 

- Edward, earl of, 172 
Ferdinando, earl of, 127, 

129, 130 

Henry, earl of, 127, 129 

James, earl of, 132 

Thomas, earl of, 128 

William, earl of, 129-131 

Dicconson (Dyconson), John, 180 

Robert, 207, 209 
Dickins, George, 232 
Ditchfield (Dichefield), Juliana, 

- Robert, 184 

William, 172 

Ditton, 172 
Dobson, John, 36-7 
, . 39, 40 

Domvile (Dounvill), John, 231-2 
Doncaster, 1, 2, 222-3 
Doom pictures," 48 
Dorchester, 2 
Dorff, John, 168 
Douglas, I.O.M., 224 
Dover, 3 
Dowse, Richard, 174 

William, 173, 175 

Dress, Priestly, 74 
Drummond, Alexander, 35 
Dublin, 23, 90 

Duckworth, , 22 

Dulcimer, 102, 119 
Dumfries, 17, 29-31 

Dummy bookcase in Leasowe 

Castle, 138, 145-6 
Dunbar, 32 
Dunchurch, 28 
Dunstable, 21 
Durham, 2, 31 

- cathedral, 151 

EARLE, Thomas, 37 

Early Liverpool Coaching." By 

A. H. Arkle, O.B.E., 1 
" Early Rectors of Woodchurch," 


Easington (Ksyngton), 199 
Easlham (Estom or Carlett) Ferry, 

10, 11 

East Meon, Hants., 54 
Eaton, co. Chester, 155 
Eaves Hall, Chorley, 161 

Eccleston, John, 179 

- Ralph, 180 

Richard, 180 

- Thomas, 167 
Eccleston, Little. Hall, 185 
Edinburgh, 2, 3, 15. 19, 22, 29-32, 


Edmundson, Benjamin, 185 
Edward the Confessor, 58 
Edwards, Elizabeth, 224 

Robert, 224 

- William, 222, 223 
Egerton, Sir John, 129 

of Egerton and Oulton, 
family, 129w, 133 
Elfnoth, abbot, 66 
Ellestnere, 25 
Ely, cathedral, 118 
Erdeswick, 233 
" Etna," steamer, 10, 26 
Eudoxia, empress, 71 
Euxton, co. Lane., 185 
Evans, William, 147 
IQ 22 

Evered. Elizabeth, 216, 217 

Evett. , 27 

Executions at Liverpool, 35 
Exeter, 1, 2, 15, 21-2, 31 
, cathedral, 103, 105 
Exmaster. See Axminster 
Eyam, co. Derby, 52 
Eydon, Northants., 229 
Eyes, Charles, 40 
Eyvis, Thomas, 163 

FACETIOUS Book Titles at Leasowe 

Castle, 145-6 
Fairhurst, Oliver, 180 
Faithwaite (Fayrthwayte) Park, 

co. Lane., 190 
Fall Well, Liverpool, 39 
Falmouth, 107 

Farrington, . 222, 

, Thomas, 213, 

William, 36w 

Farringlon's Mill, 37, 39, 40 
Farnworth, 229 

Farn worth, Dorothy, 185 

Edward, 185 

Fazakerley, 165-6, 169, 170, 179 
Fazakerley, Roger, 165 
Ferrybridge, 1, 2 

Ferryhill,' 2 

Ferry House (Tranmere), 24 

Fetiplace (Feteplace), Edmund, 

Fielden, Henry, 188 



Fithele, 102, 123 

Fitton (Fytton), Sir Edward, 200, 


Fitz-James, Richard, 115 
Fitzwilliam, Sir William, 196 
Flaw ford, Notts., church, 151-2 
Fleetwood, John, 175 

Richard, 163 

Fletcher (Fleccher, Flecher), John, 


Robert, 180 

Flookborough (Flokborowe), 195 
Flying Waggons, 13 

Fogg, Mary, 222-3 
Formby, Ellis de, 229 

Katherine de, 229 

Fossor, John, 151 

Fourteenth century English 
Alabaster of the Blessed 
Virgin." By Philip Nelson, 
M.D., F.S.A., 149 
Fox, Imayne, 159 

John, 159 

Thomas, 129;z 

Foxcroft, Jane, 227 

John, 227 

France, James, 7 

Joan, 185 

John, 185 

Friskney, co. Line., 156 
Frobisher (Frobiser), Francis, 

200, 203 

Gallows Mill (Liverpool), 33-5, 

Gamon, Henry, 217, 218 

Gardiner, , 194 

Garner, Arthur, 213 
Garstang, 2, 29, 184 
Garston, George, 170 

Margaret, 170, 174-5 

Gastrell, Peregrine, 216 
Gerard, Agnes, 162 

Humphrey, 162 

James, 231 

Joseph, 37 

Germanus (St.) of Auxerre, 9! 
Ghost Room in Leasowe Castle 

Gibbin, , 27 

Gibson, Mary, 220 
Gillibrand (Gelebrand, Gyli- 
brounde), Edmund, 169 

- George, 202, 204-6 

- Margaret, 169 

- Richard, 169 
Gillingham, Kent, 51 

Gisbum, 29 
Glasgow, 22-3, 29-32 
Gloucester, 15, 31 
Gobnet's Stone, St., 80n 
Golborne, par. Winwick, 172, 175 
Gold well, George, 173 
Golightly, Richard, 221 

- Thomas, 221 
Goosnargh, 182 

- Barnsfold, 188 

Gorden, , 146 

Gore, John, 40 
Goring Priory, 173 
Gosforth, cross, 54 
Gothard, , 27 

Grange Lane, Birkenhead, 1 1 
Grantham, 2, 135, 

Gray, , 35, 46 

Gray's Inn, 210 
Grazier (?), 30 
Greenwich, East, 178 
Gressingham, 214 
Griffin, John, 231-2 
Griffith, George, 216 
Guychard, John, 149, 150 
Gwynedd, Owen, 154 

H adding ton, 32 
Hadley, Middx., 171 
Haggerston, Northumb., 182 
Haggerston, Alice, 182 

- Thomas, 182 
Haghton, Evan, 165 
Halberstadt, Burchard, bishop 

of, 74 
Hale, 25-6 

chapel, 229 

Halghton, 195 
Halifax, 2, 19, 30, 32 
Hall, Alan del, 127 'n 
Mary del, 127 

- Robert del, 127w 

, , 229 

Hallowes, , 179 

Halsall, Anthony, 224 
Halton, Ches., Honor, 128 
Hambleton Chapel, 231 
Hamilton, 30 

Hampetonne. See Southampton 
Hand, Charles R. : " Three Local 

Windmills," 33 
Hardham, Sussex, 54 

- church, 82 
Hardys, Humphrey, 169 
Harebrowne, Thomas, 163 

- William, 163 
Hargreaves, John, 234 



Harold, 58 
Harp, 102, 117 
Harper, Jane. 220 

- Richard, 220 
Harrington, Toxteth, 41 
Harrington (Haverington), David 

de, 226 
- Henry de, 226 

- John, 179, 180. 182, 228 

- Robert. 182 

- Sara de, 226 
Harrington Estate in Liverpool, 

Harris, M., 19 

- . - , 17 
Harrison, Robert, 133 

- William, 227 
Harrogate, 30 
Harvey, John, 146 
Haster, John, 174n 
Hatlex (Haklackes). 195 
Hayward, L., 41 

Healey, 161. 175-6, 179, 182 
Heath Charnock, 172, 175, 185 

- Hall of the Hill. 176-7 
Helperby, 2 

Henley -on-Thames, 192, 196 
Henshaw, W., 18 
Hereford. 15, 31 
Hermit of Crowland. 77 
Hesketh, 29 
Hewitt, -- , 28 
Hey sham (Hyesham), 52, 195 
Higginson, Jonathan, 9 

Higkfield, Lancaster, 212 
Hill, John, 146 

- Thomas, 146 
Hillard, PhcEbe. 146 
- , -- , 147 
Hindley, The Lowe, 177-8 
Hinnington. See Honiton 
Hockliffe, 21 

Hodgson (Hoggeson), John, 174 
- Roger, 174 
Holcroft (Houlcroft), Alice, 228 

- Ellen, 228 

- John, 200, 203 

- William, 228 
Holden, Lawrence, 188 
Holewell. Thomas. 149 
Holme, John, 187 

- Thomas, 187-8 

Holme House, Whittington, 227 
Holt, co. Norfolk, 216 
Holyhead, 3, 14, 15, 23-5, 32 
Holy well, Henry, 174 

Honiton (Hinnington), 1, 2 

Hoole, 29 

Hoole (Houle), Henry, 179 

Hornby. 189 

Horndon, West, Essex, 173 

Hose (Hoes) Side, Wallasey. 146 

Hough , 147 

John del, 147, 160 
Katherine del, 160-1 
Thomas del, 160-1 

Houghton, William de, 161 

Houston, , 36 

Howgill, Francis, 231 

Hoyle, J., 18 

Hucks, 29 

Huddersfield, 30 

Hudson, Rev. H.A.. M.A., F.S.A. : 
" Carvings of Mediaeval Musical 
Instruments in Manchester 
Cathedral," 100 

- John, 226-7 
Hull. 18, 22, 30 
Hulse, Joseph, 9 
Hunter, James, 181 

- John, 35 

Huntroyde, Padiham, 189 
Hurdy-gurdy, 102. 124 
Hutt (Hale), co. Lane., 178 
Hutton, Nether. 195 
Hutton, Thomas, 223 
Huyton, 182-3 

Huyton Hey, 179, 182 

INCE, Emma de, 159 
Thomas de, 159 
Ireland, 14 
Ireland, Ann, 177-8 
George, 178, 229 

- Sir Gilbert, 179, 229 

Laurence, 167. 177 

Irish, Matthew, 24 
Irish Bagpipe. 102, 108 
Ivo of Chartres. 73 
Ivory Mace, 136 

JACKSON, Richard, 146 
Jacobites executed at Liverpool, 

35, 39 
James, Isabel, 219 

Nicholas, 179 

Janion, John, 229 

" Jerusalem rents," 231 
Jewish Priestly Dress, 74 
Johnson, Thomas, 218, 220 

- Sir Thomas, 218 
Jones, Samuel, 36w 

Juvene (Young), Richard le, 158 



KEIGHLEY, Henry, 172 
Kellett, John, 213 
Kendal, 2, 17, 20-1, 29, 31 

" White Lion " inn, 12 

Kent, Duchess of, 135 

George, earl of, 155-6 

Kenwrick, Edward, 229 
Kenyon, Adam de, 160-1 

Joshua, 147 

Katherine de, 160 

Matthew de, 160 

" Kersey prooffe," 179 
Keswick, 31 

Key, , 27 

Keys, forms of, 70 
Kilmarnock, 31 

King's Mill at West Derby, 42 
Kirkburn, font, 82 
Kirkby, Colonel, 184 

John de, 226 

" Kirkby Font." By F. Charles 
Larkin, F.R.C.S., 44. See also 

Kirkby, in Wallasey (Walley), 
127 n, 128-9 

Kirkby (in Walton), 44-99 

Kirkby Lonsdale, 225-7 

Kirkby Walley, Alice de, 128 

John de, 128 

Robert de, 128 

Kirkdale, 179 
Kirkham, 185 

Kitchen (Kechyn), John, 200 
Knight's Grange, nr. Over232 
Knipe, Tobias, 213, 214 

William, 214 

Knocktorum, 178-9 
Knutsford, 18, 28 

Kuerden (Keurden), Dr. Richard, 

LAKE, William, 165 

Lambeth Palace, 81 

Lanark, 29 

Lancaster, 2, 18, 20, 22, 29, 31-2, 

191-2, 195, 197, 199-203, 209, 

Castle Hill, 210 

Cheney Lane, 210 

- Church Street, 189 

Free School, 211, 212 

inns " King's Arms," 12 ; 

" New," 17 

mayor, 190-1, 193, 200 

New Hall, 189, 200, 202-7, 

209, 210 
New Street, 189 

Lancaster, St. Mary's Street, 189 

school, 211, 212 

Vicarage in Civil War period, 


Lancaster, Richard, 172*33 
" Lancaster Jottings," 189 
Langford, Hugh, 217, 218 
Langton (Longton), Ann, 177-8 

Jane, 177 

Philip, 178 

Robert, 177-8 

Thomas, 172 

Sir Thomas, 202, 204-6, 208- 

Larkhill Lane, West Derby, 43 

mill, 43 

Larkin, F. Charles, F.R.C.S. : 
" The Kirkby Font," 44 

Lastingham, 67 

Lathom (near Ormskirk), 128, 
153-4, 157-8, 169 

Lathom, John, 228 

Robert, 229 

Thomas, 229 

Latimer (Lattymer), Edith 156 

Sir Nicholas, 156 

Robert, 156w, 175 

Lavendon, Bucks., abbey, 168 
Lawson, John, 221 

" Leasowe Castle ; its owners and 
history." By E.' Cuthbert 
Woods, L.D.S., 127 

Ledsham, co. Chester, 176 

" Ledrybuskynnus ' (Leather 
buskins), 163 

Leeds, 2, 15, 18, 19, 21-2, 24, 30 

Leek, Staffs., 18, 52 

Leet, Simon, 12 

Legh, family, 153 

of Adlington, family, I86n 

Leicester, 18, 32 

Leicester, Robert, earl of, 232 
Leigh, George, 197 
Leith (Lyethe), 232 
Lever, Great, 176-7 

Lewis, , 17 

Leyburn (Layborne), Sir James, 

Leyland (Laylond), Sir William, 

196, 202, 204w, 205-7 
Leyland, 185 
Leylandshire , 172 
Lichfield, 2, 1, 8, 28 

cathedral, 97 

Hedda, bishop of, Tin 
- St. Chad's Well, 97 

Lightwood, William, 163, 165-6 

Lillyman, W. C., 28 



Limerick, 76 

Limoger, 91 

Lincoln, Geoffrey, bishop of, 79 

Lindsay, William de, 226 

Linley, , 22 

Liscard, 128, 146, 148 
Litherland, Henry, 128 

John, 128 

William, 219 

Liverpool, 1-43, 69, 133, 153. 160- 
2, 165-7, 169, 171-4, 178-9, 
181, 183-7, 189, 216, 218-224, 

Bluecoat Hospital, 39 

Chantry of St. Katherine, 

164, 166-7, 171 

Chapel of St. Mary del Quay 

(Key), 154, 163-4 

Charity School, 224 

churches St. George, 39 ; 

St. Nicholas, 154-5. 162-4, 168, 
171. 177, 179. 181, 215 ; St. 
Peter, 39 

cross, 163 

Crosse Hall, 170. 172. 175-7, 


exchange. 39 

executions in 1715, 35, 39 

Fall Well. 39 

Friendship Coffee House, 



Gallows Mill. 33-5, 37-40 
Grammar School 155, 164, 

Gregson's Well, 35 

inns" Angel," 18, 27, 182; 

" Barley mow," 37 ; " Black 
Horse and Rainbow," 12, 17, 
19 ; " Black Bull," 7, 10, 18 
" Coach and Horses," 22 
" Cross Keys," 17, 18; " Crown,' 
19, 20, 26-7, 31 ; " Gallows 
Mill," 34, 40 ; " George," 9 
" Golden Fleece," 7, 17 ; 
" Golden Lion," 7. 16, 17, 26 
30, 37 ; " Grapes," 25 
" London Tavern," 17-19 
" Nag's Head," 9 ; " Punch 
Bowl," 7 ; " Saracen's Head,' 
27, 32 ; " Talbot," 6, 9, 17-19 
22. 27 ; " Wheat Sheaf," 20 

White Horse," 27, 31 
' Woolpack," 228 
mayors, 129, 155, 160-3, 

176-7, 215, 217, 218 

Moss Lake, 34-5 

museum, 69, 91 

Liverpool, Norris's Mill, 35 

plans, 40 

Pool, 33-4 

Our Lady House, 167 

post office, 14 

rector, 133 

streets Audley Street, 39 ; 

Blandford Street, 40 ; Brown- 
low Hill, 215 ; Camden Street, 
34 ; Canning Place, 14 ; Castle 
Street, 28 ; Dale Street, Sn, 10, 
14. 16-18, 20, 26-7, 30-32, 37, 
163 ; Daulby Street, 34 ; 
Falkner Street, 41 ; Finch 
Street, 40 ; Gildart Street, 34 ; 
Harrington Street, 228 ; High 
Street, 10, 12. 17, 19, 41 ; 
James Street, 220 ; John Street, 
228 ; John Street (North), 14 ; 
Kempston Street, 40 ; London 
Road, 33-4, 39, 40 ; Lord 
Street, 16, 18, 22 ; Low Hill, 
37 ; Mill Street, 41-2 ; Monu- 
ment Place, 34 ; Pembroke 
Place, 34 ; Pool Lane, 228 ; 
Princes Street, 14 ; Redcross 
Street, 19, 20, 26-7, 31, 228 ; 
Stafford Street, 34, 39. 40 ; 
Strand Street, 12 ; Victoria 
Street, 14 ; Warwick Street, 
41-2 ; Water Street, 9, 18, 27 ; 
Whitechapel, 22, 38 ; William 
Brown Street, 5n ; Williamson 
Street, 25 ; Workhouse Lane, 9 

windmills, 33 

Liverpool, Adam de, J58, 160 

John de, 160 

Richard de, 160 

William de, 158, 160 

Livesey, co. Lane., 187 
Livesey, Anne, 210 

Edmund, 219 

Edward, 219 

Elizabeth, 218, 219 

John : " Tockholes Chapel," 


Porter, 21 On 
Ralph, 187, 210 
Sarah, 218, 219 
Thomas, 218, 219 

Llanarmon, 91 

Llaniestyn (Anglesey), church, 81 

Lloyd. Englefield, 11 

Loftus, Ann, 185 

- William, 185 

Logic Drummond's 3rd Regt. of 
Foot, 35 



London, 164, 167-8, 175, 179, 180, 
193, 200, 202, 206 

Charterhouse, 189 

Churches St. Martin-le- 

Grand, 165 ; St. Mary-at-Hill, 
115; St. Nicholas-in-the- 
Shambles, 154-5, 165, 166 

Hill Street, Berkeley Square, 


Inns " Axe," Alderman- 
bury, 9 ; " Bell," Wood Street, 
8 ; " Blossoms," Laurence 
Lane, 18 ; " George," Holborn 
Bridge, 2 ; " George," without 
Aldersgate, 1 ; " Hart's 
Horns," West Smithfield, 2 ; 
" Saracen's Head," Snow Hill, 

Jermyn Street, 143 

St. Katherine's, near the 

Tower, 206 

Scalding house, 164, 168 

Whittington's College, 168, 

London, Richard Fitz-James, 

bishop of, 115 

Long, , 15 

Longbakke, Joan, 163 
Longmoor, 95 
Longworth, Bella, 230 

Betty, 230 

Catherine, 230 

James, 230 

Jane, 184, 230 

John, 230 

Margaret, 230 

Mary, 230 

Nancy, 230 

Ralph, 184-5 

Trifosia, 230 

of Ormskirk, family, 230 

Lorimer, Ellis, 223 

" Loriner," 160 

" Lost Manor of Thirnby." By 

W. H. Chippendall, 225 
Lostwithiel, 135 
Low Hill, Everton, 37 
Lowood School, 190 
Lowther, 225 
Luffenham, South, 213 
Lune (Loyne), river, 211, 225 
Lunt, Richard, 179, 180 
Lupus (St.) of Troyes, 91 
Lute, 102, 121 
Lydiate, 12, 27, 177 
Lydiate, Thomas, 229 
Lyon, John, 219 

Lyon, Joseph, 223 
William. 223 

Lyons, cathedral, 83n 

Macclesfield, 18 
Magrath, James, 230 
Mainwaring (Meynwaryng), John, 

Randle, de, 231 

Man, Isle of, 223-4 

Manchester, 2, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 

19, 21-2, 31-2, 34, 179 

" Bull's Head " inn, 7 

cathedral, 100 

Manley, John, 223 
Manxwell, Sir Rees, 204 
Maps, dating of, 41 
Marbury, Richard, 197 

March, , 229 

Marlborough, 21 

Marney, Sir Henry, Lord, 190, 


Marshall, Dr. William, 212-214 
Marylebone, church, 134 
Mary port, 31 
Mason, Peter, 151-2 
Massie, Alexander, 232 
Mather's Dam, 41-2 
Mellor, co. Lane,, 181-3 
" Menistir," 90 
Meoles, John de, 127 
Meols, W., 132 
Meols, Great, 127 
Mermaids, 136-7 
Mersey, river, 10, 25 
Metcalfe, George, 195-6 

Susannah, 221, 223 

Mickleham, Surrey, 173 
Middleton, Westmorland, 225 

Cheney, Northants., 184 

Middlewich, 21 

Milan, 79 
Milford Haven, 15 
Miller, Alice, 132 
Minshull, 232 
Minshull, Elinor, 233 

Gertrude, 233 

Richard, 233 

Thomas, 233 

William, 232-3 

Mitres, 73, 75 

Mockbeggar Hall and Wharf, 

Wallasey, 132 

Moedoc, St., his reliquary, 71 
Moffat, 29 

Molaise, St., of Devenish, 91 
Molyneux, Alexander, 180 



Molyneux, John, 146 

Lord, 231 

Sir Richard, 179 

Thomas, 180 

, , 228 

Monk's Heath (Monkesheth), co. 

Chester, 206 

Monks of Bangor-is-y-Coed, 49 
Monmouth, Duke of, 130 
Moon, Ann, 219 
Moore (More), Alice, 177 

Sir Cleave, 36 

John, 177 

Judith, 179 

Richard, 179 

Rev. Thomas, 44 

William, 165, 178 

estates, 36 

Moor Hall, Aughton, 181 
Mordaunt, Edith, 156 

John, 155, 169, 173-5 

Sir John, 155-6, 165, 173-5 

John, Lord, 155, 170, 175 

Morpeth, 32 

Morton, Dr. Charles, 221 
Moulsoe (Mulsho), Bucks., 155, 

171, 173-4 

Mountain, , 28 

Mounteagle, Lord, 189, 190, 192, 

203, 205 

Mulls, George, 147 
Mural painting, 54 

Murphy, , 38 

Musical Instruments, 100 
Mythop, 210 

NAKER, or kettledrum, 104 
Nantes, 149 

Nantwich (Namptwich), 2 
Naylor, J. A., 188 

William, 223 

Nelson, Philip, M.D., F.S.A. : 
" A Fourteenth Century English 
Alabaster of the Blessed Virgin" 

Neston, 24-5 

Nevern, co. Pembroke, 52 

Neville of Raby, John, Lord, 151 

Newark, 2 

Newby, , 22 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 2, 18, 19, 21, 
30-32, 232 

Newcastle, Staffs., 198 

New Ferry, 11 

" New Hall (Lancaster), and its 
Owners," 189 

Newsham, Edward, 37 

Newton, co. Chester, 195 
Newton, Brian, 211 

- Etheldreda, 195-200, 204, 

Humphrey, 195-200, 203-4, 


Richard, 201 

Noctorum. See Knoctorum 
Norreys, Ah' son, 162 

Letitia, 171 

Richard, 171 

Thomas, 171 

William, 162 

Sir William. 169 

Norris, W., 180 

Norris's Mill, Liverpool, 35 

Northallerton, 2 

Northampton, 18 

Northwich, 21 

Norwich, 15 

Nottingham, 15, 24, 32, 151-2 

St. Mary's Street, 151 

Ockhampton (Ockinton), 2 

Oddie, John, 222 

Ogham Stone, 77, 80n 

Ogilby, John, 3 

Ogle, John, 167 

Oldton, John, 232 

Organistrum, 124 

Orleton, font, 58 

Ormskirk, 12, 22, 159, 210, 218, 

Osbaldeston, Alexander, 187 

Osborne (Orsbourn), , 28 

Oswestry, 25 
Otley, 29 
Otterspool, 42 
Otway, John, 213 
Oulton, 129w, 133 
Overton (Orton), 214 
Oxford, 6, 21-2, 31, 154, 165 

Brasenose College, 168, 174, 


Hart Hall, 183 
Lincoln College, 173 
Magdalen College, 168 
St. John's College, 129 

Padua, 79 

Palmer, John, 14, 15 

Parker, Edward, 191 

James, 186 

Mary, 186 

Parkgate, 10 

Parr (near St. Helens), 26 

Parsons, John, 188 



Parwich, co. Derby, 56w 

Pate, Master, 168 

Patten, Rev. Robert, 35 

Patton, Ralph de, 226 

Paulinus, St., 229 

Pavia, 79 

Peacock, , 22 

Peel (I. of Man), 91n 

Peet, Henry, M.A., F.S.A. : 
" Abstracts of Deeds relating 
to the sale of pews in St. 
Nicholas's Church, Liverpool," 

Pemberton, Elizabeth, 164, 167 
- family, 156 

Pengwern (Shrewsbury), 97n 

Penington, Henry, 223 

Penrith, 17, 20, 29, 31 

Penwortham, 12 

Peover Hall, 133 

Peploe, Samuel, 220 

Percy, Eleanor, 110, 116 

Perry, , 40-1, 43 

Perugia, 79 

Peters, Ralph, 188, 228 

Pews (Gallery) in St. Nicholas's, 
Liverpool, 215 

Pickance, William, 221 

Pickering (Pykeryng), Sir Chris- 
topher, 191 

Fix, 181 

Plant, , 27 

Plantagenet, Henry, 99 

Pleasington, 187 

Plumbe, Henry, 163 

Plymouth, 2, 3, 21-2 

Pola, 79 

Pont Cysyllte, 25 

Poole, John, 179 

Poppehowe, Thomas, 149 

Portative Organ, 102, 114 

Porter, Anne, 210 
Henry, 209, 210, 213, 214 

Margaret, 210 

Porton (? Portorn), Wilts., 165-6 

Port Patrick, 31 

Postlethwaite, Robert, 147 

Pattern (Portorn), Wilts., 165-6 

Poulett, George, 198 

Poulton, 177 

Poulton, Wirral, 127-8, 147 

St. Luke's, 50 

Pownall, co. Chester, 195 
Powys, Salop, 97w 
Praers, Randle de, 231-2 

Richard de, 232 

Thomas de, 231-2 

Praetorius, Michael, 109 
Prescot, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 35-8, 40 

inns " Angel," 9 ; " Bull," 

9 ; " Legs of Man," 7, 9 
Lane, 39 

Preston, 2, 17, 19, 20,22,29, 31-2, 
34-5, 39, 171, 182-4, 186-7, 
192, 195-6, 205 

Battle of, 35 

" George " inn, 12 

Procter, G. W., 220 
Psaltery, 102, 118 


Quick (Quike, Quykk), Eugene 
(Ewin), 173, 175 

RACING on the Wallasey Leasowes, 

Radcliffe (Ratcliffe), Alice, 201 

Anne, 194 

John, 194 

- William, 232 
Radcliffe Tower, 194n, 199 
Rainford (Raynesford.Raynforth), 

Catherine, 217, 218 

Elizabeth, 146 

George, 165 

John. 146 

Peter, 217, 218 

Thomas. 165-7, 169 

family, 156 

Rainhill, 111 
Ramsey, I.O.M., 220 
Randies, John, 9 
Ratisbon, 64 
Rawcliffe, Upper, 184 

" Rays," modes of representing, 


Recorder, 102, 106 
Redburn, 28 
Reily, Ann, 146 
Relics, 80, 90-1 
Reynolds, , 7 

Catherine, 217 

Hugh, 217 

William, 217, 218 
Rhuddlan, 154 
Ribble, river, 8 
Richardson, Elizabeth, 147 

- Robert, 147 
Richmond, Joseph, 224 

Robert, 220 

S., 188 
Rideing, Thomas, 222-3 
Rigley, Lanes., 200 
Rigniaden, Thomas, 207, 209 



Rimer, Edward, 220 
Rimington, Thomas, 205 
Ripon, 11 In 
Rivington, 162 

School, 231 

Roads, Trunk, of Britain, 3 
Roberts, W., 24 
Robinson, Daniel, 146-7 

John, 136 

Joshua, 147 

Thomas, 146 

Rochdale, 19, 20, 30 

glebe, 230 

Rochester, Sir Robert, 206-7 
Rock House, Rock Ferry, 10 
Rogers, Thomas, 146 

W. T., 234 

Rome, 79 

St. Peter's ad Vincula, 71 

Rood Screens, 49 

Rose, William, 37 

, , 28 

Ruffin, 86 

Runcorn, 26 

" Rupert's drop," 39 

Rushton, co. Chester, 155 

Rylands, William, 233 

SADLER, Sir Ralph, 211 

St. Albans, 171 

St. Bees, 54 

St. David's, Pembroke, 92 

St. Helens, 5, 31 

St. John of Jerusalem, lands of 

Hospital of, 172, 231 
St. Neot's, 165 

St. Werburgh's, Chester, 86, 128 
Salesbury, 193tt 
Salisbury, 1, 2 

cathedral, 65 

Samson, Richard, 128 
Sandiford, Thomas, 216, 217 
Sandbach, 21, 27 
Sanquhar, 31 

Santiago, 124 

Sark Bridge, 29 

Savage, Edmund, 232 

Scarborough, 18, 30 

Scalding House, 164, 168 

Scarisbrick, 169 

Sclater, William, 191 

Scotford, 195 

" Scots' tonsure," 67 

Scottish bagpipe, 102, 109 

Seacombe, 127-8, 147 

Seacombe (Secum), Robert, 216 

William, 177 

Sebastopol, 141 
Seed, Nicholas, 147 
Sefton, 185 

- church, 163 
Selby, 30 

Sellet Mill, 227 

Sens, 62, 76-7 

Shap, 29, 31 

Shaving of the clergy, 57-8 

Shaw, Richard, 223 

- Robert, 232 
Shaw Hill, Chorley, 153 
Shawm or Oboe, 102, 110 
Sheffield, 31 

Sherlock, William, 229 (two) 

Shields, 30 

Shirburn (Shireburne), Sir 

Richard, 209 

Roger, 231 

Showley, co. Lanes., 181-3 
Shrewsbury, 15, 21, 23-5, 31-2, 


St. Mary's, 113 

Sicily, Roger, count of, 74 
Simkinson, William, 195-6, 200- 


Simpson, Thomas, 18, 19 
Singleton (Syngilton), George, 


John, 200 

Margaret, 192, 194 

-, 203 

Skipton-in-Craven, 29, 30 
Slack (Slake), George, 168 
Slitting Mil's at Birkacre, 228 
Slyne, 195 
Smith, Isaac, 37 

John, 185 

William, 146 

- W., Bishop of Lincoln, 174n 
Smythe, Thomas, 207, 209 
Southampton (Hampton), Earl of, 

Southworth, Anne, 212 

George, 212 

- Thomas, 182, 212 

Sir Thomas, 200, 202, 204-6 

Speed, Hugh, 221 

Speke, 26. 169. 17 J, 180 
Spencer, Alice, 129 

Sir John, 129 

Sporting Rights, 232 
Stafford, 18 

Staff, pilgrim or traveller's, 78-9 
Stalmine, 214 
Stamford, 1. 2 



Standish, Christopher, 201 

John, 201 

Peter, 185 

Stanley, Edward, 177 

Sir Edward, 108, 189, 190 

Elizabeth, 181 

Lady, 189 

Peter, 177, 181 

Thomas, 147 

Sir Thomas, 128 

Thomas, Lord, 128 

, , 181 

family, 132 

Stantton, H. H., 19. 20, 26, 27 
Star Chamber panelling, 138 
Starkey (Starkie, Sterky), Anne, 
194, 196, 199-208 

Etheldreda, 195-6, 207 

Geoffrey, 189 

Joan, 189 

John, 156 

Lawrence, 189-208 

Margaret, 192, 194, 195, 207 

Master, 174 

Oliver, 195-6, 201 

Richard, 189 

Simon, 197 

Thomas, 197 

, , 180, 232 

Stewart-Brown, R., M.A., F.S.A., 

and F. C. Beazley, F.S.A. : 
" The Crosse Family of Wigan, 
Chorley and Liverpool," 153 

Stigand, archbishop, 58, 63 

Stockport, 31 

Stokenchurch Hill, 21 

Stokes, , 230 

Stone, Staffs., 2, 14, 27-8 

Stonehewer, John, 7 

Stonehouse, James, 38 

Stonyhurst, 209 

Stony Stratford, 28 

Store, Thomas, 221 

Stotesbury, Northants., 229 

Stowe, church (near Lichfield), 

Strange, Alice, Lady, 129 

Ferdinando, Lord, 129 

Strathclyde, 49 

Stretton, co. Chester, 180, 189, 

Strickland, , 213, 214 

Sir Thomas, 194 

Strong, Thomas, 147 

William, 147 

Stursacres, Hugh, 179 
Sunderland, 30 

Sutton, co. Chester, 25, 156 
Sutton, Gilbert, 169 

John, 168 

Mary, 169 

Thomas, 9 

Swan, Robert, 229 
Swansea, 15 

Symphony, or Hurdy-gurdy, 102, 

Syon, abbesses of, 193, 193w, 194 

TABOR, or Drum, 102, 104 
Tadcaster, 19, 24 
Talbot, Isabel, 193n 

John, 193 

Talk o'th' Hill, 28 
Tarleton, 12 
Tarleton, Edward, 216 
Tau-staff, 79, 80 
Taylor, Bryan, 210 

Daniel, 146 

Edmund, 228 

Edward, 171 

Eleanor, 171 

Katharine, 171 

Margaret, 163, 210 

Telford, Thomas, 23 

Tetsworth (near Oxford), church, 


Teu, John le, 232 
Themberton, Elizabeth, 164 
Thicknes, Richard de, 231 
Thirnby (Thyrneby), 225, 227 

Little, 227 

Wood, 227 

Thirnby, Alice de, 226 

Isabel de, 226 

Sara de, 226 

Thomasson, James, 163 
Thompson, J. T., 234 
Thornhill, 30 
Thornton (in Wirral), 25 
Thornton Hough (in Wirral), 160 
Thorpe, Edmund, 163 

" Three Local Windmills." By 

Charles R. Hand, 33 
Tockholes (in Blackburn), 187 
" Tockholes Chapel." By John 

Livesey, 187, 
Toft, co. Chester, 184 
Tonsure, 67 
Torcello, 79 
Tostig, 225 
Tournai, 77 
Towcester, 28 
Toweleson (Tolnson), George, 213, 




Toxteth Park, 181 

Toxteth Windmill, Harrington, 41 

Trafford, Edmund, 232 

Sir Edmund, 207 

Tranmere, 1 1 

- Ferry, 24-6 

Hill, 11 

Pool. 11 

Whetstone Lane, 11 

Trent Valley, 97 
Treves, 79 

Trotter, Margaret, 175 

Thomas, 175 

Trumpet or Clarion, 102, 112 
Trunk Roads of Britain, 3 
Tuebrook, 95 

Tunstall, 192 

Tunstall, Sir Marmaduke, 197-8 

William, 190, 192-4 
Turner (Towrner), William, 200 
Turnpike Gates, 12 
Turvey (Tyrvey), Beds., 165-7, 
170, 173 

- All Saints, 165, 167 

St. Nicholas, 155-6 

Tuxford, 2 

Tyldesley, Thurstan, 198 
Tyrer, Alderman, 36 

George, 218 

Margaret, 147 

Thomas, 36, 217, 218 


Tyre'r's Mill, Liverpool ,36 

Ulverston, 31, 231 

Upholland, 172 

Uplitherland, 153 

Urmston (Urmson), Samuel, 147 


Urswick, Master, 191 

Venice, 79 


Wadding ton, 199 
Wainwright, T. T., 234 
Wakefield, 2, 30 
Waley, family, 154 
Waleys, Richard le, 157-8 

Robert le, 157-8 

Walker, . 18 

- J. and A., 40 

John. 233 

" Walker," 159, 160 
Wallasey (Wallesea). 127-8, 130, 
132, 146, 148 

Font, 50 

Wallasey, Hall, 127 

- Manor, 128w, 129, 131 

- New Hall, 132 

- Old Hall, 132 

See Kirkby in Wallasey 
Walley. -- , 128 

See Whalley 

Walter, fuller of Wigan, 159 
- , Sons of, 159 
Walton, Elizabeth, 169 

- Roger, 169 
-- , 28 
Walton-le-Dale, bridge, 8 
Walton-on-the-Hill, 12, 44, 95, 

159, 163, 169, 170-2, 174-5, 
179. 180, 230 

- St. Mary's, 163 
Ward, Abel, M.A., 221 

- Alice, 222 

- Charles, 221-3 

- Henry Townley, 223 
- Jonathan, 221-2 

- Mary, 221-2 

- Thomas, 202, 219 

- William, 206 
Wareing. John, 219 
Warren (Waren), John, 171 

- Katherine, 171 

- Thomas, 168 
Warrington, 2, 4-6, 8, 12, 18, 19, 

27-8, 189, 202, 204-6. 

- inns ' George," 10 ; " Red 
Lion," 7 

Warwick, 27 
Watt, Miss, 234 
Wavertree, 25-6, 162 

- Hall, 6 

- Lane, 6 
Webster, William, 216 

Welford, 18 

Wells Green, 28 - 

Weltham, Little, Suffolk, church, 


Wem, 24 

Westchester. See Chester. 
West Derby, 171-2, 179 

- Clubmoor, 224 

Edge Lane Road, 6 
- King's Mill, 42-3 
-- Mill Lane, 43 

- Pilch Lane, 224 

- Thomas Lane, 224 
West Ilorndon, Essex, 173 
Westminster, 191 

- St. Margaret's, 115 
Wetenhale, Adam de, 232 



Wetherby, 29 

Whalley, 29 

Whalley (Waley), Thomas, 187 

William, 218-220 

Whitby, 67, 99 
Whitchurch, 24 
Whitehaven, 20, 31 

White Roding, Essex, 173-4 

Whitfield. , 229 

Whitley, Col. Roger, 13 
Whitwell, 198, 202 
Whittington, 225-6 

Holme House, 227 

Little Thirneby close, 227 

Sellet Mill, 227 

Widders, William, 9 

Wigan, 2, 12, 31, 35, 153-4, 
157-8, 160-2, 171-2, 174-5. 
178, 191-2 

church, 230 

mayor, 158 

Wigan, Hugh de, 159 

Margery, de, 159 

Roger de, 159 

William de, 159 

Wilcock, Deborah, 147 
Wildbore, Augustine, D.D., 212, 


Elizabeth, 213 

William, Duke of Normandy, 58 
Williamson, Anne, 186, 219 

- John, 186 

Mary, 186 

Wilson, Thomas, 147, 202, 204 
Winchester, Hedda, bishop of, 77 
Winchester, font, 58, 76-7, 96 
Windell, Richard, 216 
Winder, George, 207, 209 
Windsor, St. George's Chapel, 151 
Wingfield (Wyngfeld), Sir Richard 


Winmarleigh, chapel, 201 
Winstanley, 169 
Winstanley, Edmund, 169 

Elizabeth, 169 

John, 179 

Ralph, 182 

Winwick, 52 

Wirral, 133, 135, 154 

Woburn, 173 

Wolverhampton, 18 

Woodchurch, 178-9 

Woods, E. Cuthbert, L.D.S., 

" Leasowe Castle : its owners 

and history," 127 
Woodside Ferry, 10, 11, 25 
Woolfall, in Huyton, 181, 183 
Woolfall, Frances, 181 

John, 163 

Thomas, 181-2 

Woolton, 25-6 

Little, 224 

Much, 172 

Woosey, G., 185 
Worcester, 15, 31 
Worsley, Ralph, 195 
Worthington, 172 
Worthington, Richard, 172 

Sarah, 218, 219 

Wraxall Manor, Wilts., 15 

" Wrecking," in Cheshire and 

Cornwall, 134 

Wrenbury, co. Chester, 156w 
Wrench, Jane, 228 
Wrexham, 25 
Wrightington ( Wry thtyn tone), 

John. 167 
Wulfad, 86 

Wulfstan, archbishop, 67, 74 
Wulphere, King of Mercia, 86 

Wyatt, .27 

Wyresdale, 214 

Yarmouth, 3 
Yate, Ann, 184 

Samuel, 184 

Yates, , 22, 40, 41, 43 

Yestin, St., his tomb, 81 

York, 1, 2, 18, 19, 22, 24, 28-30. 

97-8, 162, 191, 229 
Young, , 232 

Edward, 147 

William, 147 

Zara, 79 

Printed by J. ROBERTSON & Co.. LTD., St. Annes-on-tht-Sta. 

No. 1 

The Year's Work 



Published by the Congress of Archaeological Societies 

(in union with the Society of Antiquaries of London) 
and printed by the Hampshire Advertiser Company, Limited, 45, Above Bar, Southampton. 


Price, I/- 

Congress of Archaeological Societies 

(in union with the Society of Antiquaries of London). 

President : 

Hon Treasurer : 

Hon. Secretary. 

Hon. Auditor : 
G. C. DRUCE, F.S.A. 

Assistant Treasurer : 

Council : 








D.Sc., F.S.A. 

COL. J. W. R. PARKER, C.B., D.L., F.S.A. 
And the Officers of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Congress. 


Chairman : 

Committee : 




COL. F. W. T. ATTREE, R.E., F.S.A. W. J. HEMP, F.S.A. 







W. G. COLLINGWOOD, F.S.A. COL. O. E. RUCK, F.S.A. (Scot.) 

O. G. S. CRAWFORD, F.S.A. W. M. TAPP, LL.D., F.S.A. 

Hon. Secretary : 
ALBANY F. MAJOR, O.B.E., F.S.A., 30, The Waldrons, Croydon. 


Publications of Congress. 


The following may be obtained from Messrs. Archibald 

Constable & Co., Ltd., 10 Orange Street, Leicester 

Square, W.C.2. : 

INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS (1665-1890), in one volume ; 
compiled by the late Sir Laurence Gomme, F.S.A., etc. ; 
price 255. net. (Published in 1907.) 

ANNUAL INDEXES FOR THE YEARS 1891-1907 (inclusive) ; price 
is. each net (except 1902, out of print). 

The following Indexes (excepting the 'first) may be 

obtained from the Assistant Treasurer of Congress, 

Society of Antiquaries : 

out of print. 

price is. 

price is. 


The Hon. Secretary is endeavouring to make up a complete 
reference set of the published reports of Congress, and would 
be very grateful for single copies of reports of the following meetings : 

jth (held 1895), loth (1898), nth (1899) and 12th (1900) 


The following may be obtained from the Assistant 
Treasurer : 

INSCRIPTIONS ; drawn up by a special committee appointed 
by Congress in 1906 ; 4 pp., price 3d. post free. 


Reports of the Committee for promoting the transcription 
.and publication of Parish Registers, with Calendar of Registers. 

FIRST REPORT, 1892. Out of print. 
SECOND REPORT, 1896. Out of print. 


Publications of the Earthworks Committee. 

The following may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary 
(Mr. Albany Major, 30 The Waldrons, Croydon) : 

FORTIFIED ENCLOSURES ; revised edition, 1910, 23 pp. 
and 43 plans, illustrating the various classes of earth- 
works ; price is. each ; 12 copies, 73. 6d. 

Report issued), 1905, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, 
and subsequent years ; price 6d. (A single joint Report 
was issued for 1918-19). 

The Hon. Secretary would be very glad to hear if any society 
or individual has spare copies of the Reports for 1904, 1906, 1910 
and 1913, and of Appendix I. (1904) and II. (1905). These Reports 
are out of print and very scarce. 

Meetings of Congress. 

The Congress meets annually at the end of November in the 
apartments of the Society of Antiquaries of London, at Burlington 
House. Each affiliated society is invited to send two delegates, 
and to suggest for discussion any subject of general archceological 


Societies wishing to become affiliated should communicate in 
the first instance with the Hon. Secretary of the Congress, Ordnance 
Survey Office, Southampton. The annual subscription is i, 
payable in advance on July ist. A great deal of unnecessary trouble 
will be avoided by using banker's orders, which will be supplied 
on application to the Assistant Treasurer. 

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Report of the Council, June 30th, 1921. 

The financial position of the Congress continues to be satis- 
factory. The credit balance is 38 95. 6d. Thanks are again 
due to Mr. G. C. Druce, F.S.A., for auditing the accounts. 

It is with great regret that the Council records the death of 
Mr. George Clinch, who had for many years acted as Assistant 
Treasurer of the Congress and who had compiled the Archaeological 
Index in recent years. Mr. Clinch's death, which occurred very 
soon after the last Meeting of Congress, resulted in certain changes 
to which Congress is asked to give effect by formal ratification. 
Dr. Norman expressed to the Council his desire to resign the 
office of Hon. Treasurer ; the Council has accepted his resignation 
with regret, and recommends that Mr. Paley Baildon, F.S.A., 
be appointed Hon. Treasurer to succeed him. The work formerly 
done by Mr. Clinch is being carried on by Mr. A. E. Steel, who 
has given great help at a critical time in the affairs of the Congress. 

No Societies have resigned and no new ones have been 
affiliated during the year. 

The number of affiliated Societies is now 40. It is the 
desire of the Council to add to its numbers year by year until 
all the principal Archaeological Societies of the Kingdom are 
included. By adopting this policy the Congress will not only 
increase its material resources and output, but will also be able 
to prove itself of greater use to each individual Society. With 
this latter object in view, the Council proposes for the consideration 
of Congress a new method of publishing its Annual Reports. 
It is proposed in future to condense, if necessary, the printed 
report of the proceedings at the Congress, and to print in addition 
a summary account of " The Year's Work in Archaeology." 
This account will attempt to give a bird's-eye view of all important 
excavations and discoveries which have been made during the 
preceding calendar year, beginning with the year 1921. It 
will be bound up with the Report of the Earthworks Committee 
and will be sold to affiliated Societies at the lowest price com- 
patible with the cost of production. It is hoped that this 
combined Report will prove interesting to individual members 
of Societies, and particularly to those workers who would like to 
know the latest archaeological news from all parts of the country. 
Incidentally, printing, binding and distributing a single Report 
instead of two will be a measure of economy. The scheme can 
only succeed if it receives the practical support of affiliated 
Societies, who are asked to assist the Hon. Secretary in the very 
arduous work of compilation. It is suggested that they do this 
by sending him a sort of summary of progress during 1921 within 
the county or area they cover. Such summaries should only 
include the more important excavations and discoveries made 


during the year within the area, whether by members of the 
Society or by others. Casual finds of importance should be 
included. It is not intended to forestall the full published 
accounts which will no doubt appear at a later date. Forms 
already exist suitable for entering these notes upon, and will be 
supplied, if required, on application to the Hon. Secretary. The 
method of compilation will thus be precisely similar to that so 
successfully employed in preparing the Earthworks Report, 
which will, of course, be continued as before. 

According to rule the following six members retire from 
Council: The Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, Mr. J. W. Willis Bund, 
Dr. Philip Norman, Dr. Horace Round, Lord Crawford, Major 
Freer. In order to meet the wishes of affiliated Societies for more 
complete representation on Council, it is suggested that the 
following resolution should be adopted : That the six retiring 
members of Council shall not be eligible for re-election until a year 
has elapsed. Affiliated Societies not already represented on 
Council are invited to suggest names of representatives likely to 
be able to attend Meetings of Council. Such names should be 
sent to the Hon. Secretary. 

The Council wish to draw the attention of affiliated Societies 
to one aspect of relief-works for the unemployed. Wherever 
these involve disturbance of the soil, important archaeological 
discoveries are certain to be made sooner or later, and equally, 
certain to be lost or destroyed through ignorance, unless systematic 
supervision is organised in each area. The Council consider that 
this will form a suitable subject for discussion at the forthcoming 

Report of the Proceedings at the 
29th Congress. 

The Twenty-ninth Congress was held in the rooms of the 
Society of Antiquaries of London, at Burlington House, November 
29th and 30th, 1921, under the Presidency of Sir Hercules Read, 
LL.D., President of the Society of Antiquaries. 

The following Societies sent delegates : 

Society : Delegates : 

British Archaeological Association W. A. Cater (Hon. Research Secretary), 

Francis Weston 

Royal Archaeological Institute G. C. Druce 

Prehistoric Society of East Anglia Guy Maynard (Hon. Secretary) 
Society of Genealogists of London Rev. C. Moor ) 

Cambrian Archaeological Associa- W. J. Hemp, T. E. Morris 


Society : 
National Museum of Wales 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of 

Berkshire Archaeological and 

Architectural Society 
Bristol and Gloucestershire 

Archaeological Society 
Buckinghamshire Archaeological 


Cambridge Antiquarian Society 
Carmarthenshire Antiquarian 

Cumberland and Westmorland 

Antiquarian and Archaeological 

Derbyshire Archaeological and 

Natural History Society 
Dorset Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Field Club 
Essex Archaeological Society 
Hampshire Field Club and 

Archaeological Society 
Kent Archaeological Society 
Lancashire and Cheshire Anti- 
quarian Society 
Leicestershire Architectural and 

Archaeological Society 
Oxford Architectural and 

Historical Society 
Somersetshire Archaeological and 

Natural History Society 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 
Surrey Archaeological Society 
Sussex Archaeological Society 
Wiltshire Archaeological and 

Natural History Society 

Delegates : 

Dr. D. R. Paterson. Dr. R. E. Mortimer- 

Sir William Fry (Vice-President), E. W. 

Rev. P. H. Ditchfield (Hon. Secretary) 

Roland Austin (Hon. Secretary) 
Edwin Hollis, James Berry 

Professor E. Prior, Cyril Fox 

George Eyre Evans (Hon. Secretary) 

T. H. B. Graham, 
(Hon. Editor) 

R. G. Collingwood 

W. J. Andrew, P. H. Currey (Hon. 

His Honour Judge Udal, Canon J. C. M. 

R. C. Fowler (Hon. Editor) 
William Dale (Hon. Secretary) 

Aymer Vallance 
George Bethell 

Major Freer 

Professor J. L. Myres 

H. St. George Gray (Secretary) 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society 

Rev. H. A. Harris (Hon. Secretary) 
M. S. Giuseppi, Arthur Bonner 
Col. Attree, R. Garraway Rice 
B. Howard Cunnington (Hon. Cur. of 
Mus.), Rev. E. H. Goddard (Hon. 
Col. Parker, E. W. Crossley (Hon. 


In addition to the above delegates and to the President and 
Officers of Congress, there were present : Miss Nina F. Layard 
and Dr. Philip Norman (Members of Council), and Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner (Member of the Earthworks Committee). 

The Proceedings of the first day were devoted to the business 
affairs of the Congress. Copies of the Report of the Proceedings 
at the last Congress had been printed and distributed. Owing 
to the lamented death of Mr. George Clinch (which occurred very 
soon after the last Congress), the Council had provisionally 
arranged for the work, formally done by Mr. Clinch, to be con- 
tinued by Mr. A. E. Steel. Dr. Norman had asked the Council 
to accept his resignation as Hon. Treasurer, and the Council had 
done so, nominating Mr. W. Paley Baildon as his successor. 
These provisional arrangements were all confirmed unanimously 
by Congress. 


Mr. W. Paley Baildon then presented his Report as Hon. 
Treasurer. The financial position of the Congress was quite 
satisfactory, the balance in hand on June 3oth being 38 95. 6d. 
Major Freer drew attention to the desirability of using 
Bankers' Orders for subscriptions, and the Hon. Secretary assured 
him that this was being done and that the necessary forms would 
sh'ortly be distributed to Societies. 

The Treasurer's Report was carried unanimously. 
Mr. Albany Major, O.B.E., Hon. Secretary of the Earthworks 
Committee, presented the Report of the past year, which is printed 
in full elsewhere. The Report was approved unanimously. 
Arising out of the Report, the following resolutions were passed 
unanimously by the Congress : 

" That the Congress of Archaological Societies desires 
to support as strongly as it can the appeal put forward by the 
National- Trust for funds in order to enable it to carry out 
the purchase of Cissbury Ring, near Worthing, and would ask 
all archcsolo gists to assist the proposal by any means in their 

(Proposed by Colonel Attree, seconded by Major Freer.) 
The President hoped that the National Trust would be able 
to acquire Cissbury, a site of the greatest archaeological importance, 
which had been investigated by General Pitt-Rivers and other 
archaeologists after him. 

It was agreed that the Congress should make a small con- 
tribution to the fund, the exact amount being left to the discretion 
of the Council. 

" That the Congress of Archceological Societies, having 
heard the Report of the Earthworks Committee for the present 
year, wishes to express its regret at the destruction of a portion 
of the Middlesex Grim's Dyke at Pinner Green, and to urge on 
the Ancient Monuments Board the desirability of ' scheduling 
for preservation, under the Ancient Monuments Acts, the 
portion of the dyke which still exists at Pinner, together 
with other remains of the dyke which are of value, either as 
illustrating its construction or indicating its course and extent." 
(Proposed by Mr. Francis Weston, seconded by Mr. H. 
St. George Gray.) 

The Report of the Council, dated June 3oth, 1921, having 
been printed and distributed, was taken as read on the proposal 
of Major Freer, seconded by Colonel Attree. An amendment to 
the wording of the Resolution in the Council's Report, proposed 
by the Hon. Treasurer, was approved, and the Resolution there- 
fore should read as follows : 

" That the six senior Members of Council (other than 
Officers] retire at each Annual Meeting, and shall not be eligible 
for re-election at that Meeting." 

Arising out of the Report, the Hon. Secretary explained 
two proposals contained therein, viz., to print an annual summary 
of the year's work, and to secure adequate supervision of 
unemployment schemes that involved disturbance of the soil. 
The details of procedure in both cases were discussed by Major 
Freer, Sir William Fry, Mr. T. E. Morris, Mr. Albany Major, 
the Rev. E. H. Goddard, Mr. St. George Gray and the Hon. 
Treasurer. It was decided that as regards the " Year's Work " 
proposal, the methods outlined in the Council's Report should 
be adopted ; and that as regards unemployment schemes, the Coun- 
cil should be authorized to take such action as might be deemed 
necessary in the best interests of Archaeology, it being left to the 
Council to decide upon the exact procedure adopted. The 
President said that it would probably be found advisable to send 
communications to the Press, since the preservation of antiquities 
was one which might well be of interest to others besides archaeo- 
logical students. 

Under the new rule the following Members of Council 
retired: The Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, Mr. J. W. Willis Bund, 
Dr. Philip Norman, Dr. Horace Round, the Earl of Crawford and 
Major Freer. 

The following eight Members were elected unanimously to 
take their place and to fill two vacancies : Mr. Roland Austin, 
Mr. W. Parker Brewis, Mr. R. G. Collingwood, the Rev. E. H. 
Goddard, Mr. H. St. George Gray, Mr. W. J. Hemp, Professor 
J. L. Myres and Colonel Parker. 


The Proceedings on Wednesday, November 30th, began at 
ii a.m. with the opening remarks of the President. He took as 
his subject the Preservation of old Stone-work, which was to be 
brought before the Congress by Professor Prior. A good deal of 
attention had been given to the care of interiors, but not much to 
that of exteriors. Our climate was responsible for a great deal 
of decay, as could be seen from an examination of Westminster 
Abbey, where only one small piece of original stone-work had 
survived. The natural agents of destruction were supplemented 
by human ones in the form of deleterious gases emitted from 
factory chimneys and the like. The salt fumes of factories were 
very harmful. How long, for instance, could the very fine stone- 
work of the John Rylands Library, at Manchester, be expected 
to last amid such unfavourable surroundings ? Attempts to 
stop this process of decay had not hitherto been conspicuously 
successful. Hardening processes sometimes caused the whole 
of the exterior to flake off, thus doing more harm than good. 
He had much pleasure in introducing Professor Prior, who was 
Slade Professor of Fine Art at Cambridge, and who had something 


to tell the Congress of new methods of preserving old stone-work 
from decay. 

Professor Prior (Cambridge) said that hitherto two views had 
been current, to replace ancient original work by modern imitations 
and to preserve it intact in its genuine state. The adherents 
of the first view had hitherto held the field and had scored so many 
runs that there was little left for the other side to do. There was 
very little genuine stone-work left, but it was now generally 
agreed that what there was should be left and preserved rather 
than replaced. To make use of a literary comparison^ what could 
be our knowledge of Homer if he survived only in Pope's trans- 
lation ? The day of mere conjecture was past. Old stone-work 
could be effectually preserved by established scientific processes. 
Professor Noel Heaton was describing the methods employed 
at the Royal Society of Arts that evening. Archaeological 
Societies could create sympathy and interest throughout the 
country and could give advice as to preservation. 

The Rev. E. H. Goddard (Wilts) asked how long the pre- 
serving process might be expected to last. Past experience in 
this respect was not encouraging. What was good for one sort 
of stone was not good for another ; no single process could be of 
general application. He thought there were occasions when 
restoration was justified. It was better to see that a building 
was decently clothed than that it become exposed by decay. 

Professor Myres (Oxford) suggested that what was required 
was to focus a large variety of experiments in preservation so 
that architects could go and inspect the results. Perhaps 
Professor Prior would make a communication to Council, relative 
to Professor Heaton's paper. A comprehensive report was 
needed to assist Societies in giving advice to architects. 

His Honour Judge Udal (Dorset), enquired as to the 
weathering of Hamdon Hill stone. Mr. Gray (Somerset) said 
it was very variable. Mr. Collingwood (Cumberland and West- 
morland), referring to some remarks on the urgency of 
scheduling fabrics, said that his Society had already done this. 
After further discussion in which Messrs. Aymer Vallance, Morris 
and Currey took part, Professor Prior thanked the Congress for 
the interest shown in the subject, which was now removed from 
the realms of conjecture. 

The President, summing up, said that the subject under 
discussion was capable of scientific treatment, causes rather than 
symptoms being now attacked. The thanks of the Congress 
were due to Professor Prior for his remarks. 


Professor Myres referred briefly to the late Professor Haver- 
field and his work in terms which fully expressed the feelings 


of the Congress. Professor Haverfield's library was bequeathed 
by his will to the Ashmolean Museum, and, with the rest of his 
estate, was held in trust by a representative committee. The 
Haverfield Trust had two main objects in view : (i) the formation 
of a Corpus of Inscriptions, to be published in the form of supple- 
mentary volumes : (2) the carrying out of an archaeological survey 
of Roman remains reduced to map form. In both these under- 
takings, Archaeological Societies could give the Trust great 
assistance. It was hoped that the Library would become a central 
storehouse of information relating to Roman Britain, and that 
reports of finds and similar information would be sent to it from 
all parts of the country. 

Mr. Crawford (Hon. Secretary, Congress) said he felt sure 
that aU those who were taking part in the Archaeological Survey, 
with which he was most closely associated, would be only too 
willing to assist the Haverfield Trust. 

Mr. Collingwood (Cumberland and Westmorland) informed 
the Congress that he was engaged upon the compilation of the 
Corpus referred to by Professor Myres. Two thousand inscrip- 
tions were estimated to exist, and he was anxious to obtain 
fresh readings of all these. It was a big undertaking, but the 
labour would be greatly lessened if he were provided with 
photographs or rubbings of inscriptions beforehand. Members 
of Archaeological Societies could assist him greatly in his work by 
sending these to him, since preliminary study at home shortened 
the time required on the spot. 

Mr. Fox (Cambridge) referred to the survey of Southern 
Cambridgeshire now being carried out. 

The President was glad to think that the great name of 
Professor Haverfield would be perpetuated by the Trust formed 
by his will to carry on his work. 


The afternoon was devoted to a discussion of the Archaeo- 
logical Survey being carried out in connection with the Ordnance 
Survey. The Hon. Secretary, who is also Archaeology Officer of 
the Ordnance Survey, gave a brief outline of the very satisfactory 
progress made up to date. 

Mr. Gray (Somerset) referred to the work in Somerset being 
done by Messrs. Bulleid, Balch and Wicks, some of the results 
of which could be seen in the 6in. maps exhibited. As an example 
of the need for such work, he said that in a given area of the 
Mendips, 57 tumuli only were marked on the Ordnance Maps, 
whereas 163 were now known to exist, and one new Camp had been 

Mr. Major (Hon. Secretary, Earthworks Committee) referred 
to the work being undertaken by the Croydon Natural History 


Society in conjunction with the Surrey Archaeological Society. 
Some criticisms were made of the Hon. Secretary's " Notes for 
Guidance in the Field," copies of which were distributed at the 

Mr. Crawford replied briefly to Mr. Major's criticisms and 
expressed the hope that the " Notes " would be found useful 
by field-archaeologists. It was easier to criticise than to construct . 
The " Notes " would be offered for sale by the Ordnance Survey 
at 4d. a copy and the accompanying "Specimen Field Sheet" 
(Wilts, Sheet 29, S.W.) at is. 6d. a copy. The " Notes " were 
intended to assist those engaged in the Archaeological Survey to 
recognize and classify earthworks, and to make public the system 
of nomenclature to be adopted in future on the Ordnance Survey 

After a further discussion of details, in which Messrs. Morris 
and Fox took part, the President, in summing up, said that there 
were many signs that we were at last becoming a civilised nation. 
The Ancient Monuments Act was evidence of this, as was also the 
appointment of their Secretary, Mr. Crawford, to the recently 
created post of Archaeology Officer at the Ordnance Survey. 
When the Archaeological Survey being carried out from there was 
completed, we should have a record as good as could be provided 
by any human means. The Congress had, he considered, been 
a most successful one ; its influence was far-reaching and not to 
be measured in numerical terms. 

Report of the Earthworks Committee. 

The information received by the Committee this year shows 
an increase of activity under all heads, destruction, unhappily, 
not excepted. Indeed, the destruction of a portion of the Middle- 
sex Grim's Dyke, at Pinner Green, is the most serious case of the 
kind brought to your Committee's notice within recent years, and 
shows up strikingly the difficulties in the way of those who desire 
to protect ancient earthworks. Although the dyke was clearly 
marked on the O.S. Maps, no one connected with the Housing 
Scheme put forward by the Hendon Rural District Council seems 
to have called attention to it, or to have suggested that it ought 
to be preserved, and no local resident raised a voice on its behalf. 
The scheme seems to have been approved by the Office of Works 
and ought, your Committee understands, to have been submitted 
to the Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments before approval, 
but it appears that this was not done. This is the more 
unfortunate, as some modification of the scheme would, no doubt, 
have been possible, which would have saved a well-marked and 
typical portion of the dyke, interesting in its contrast to the yet 
more imposing fragment to the east of it, which so far has escaped. 
As soon as the Committee heard of the destruction that had been 
wrought, the matter was reported to the Chief Inspector and to 
others likely to be interested, and urgent representations were 
made. It is believed that the danger of further damage has been 
averted, but your Committee is strongly of the opinion that the 
fine piece of Grim's Dyke which still remains at Pinner Green 
should be scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Acts, together 
with other portions which are, at present, in no immediate danger. 

There are two cases reported of destruction on the line of 
the Roman Wall, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne, one of these being 
also due to a Housing Scheme. The Wall itself has long perished 
in these parts, but it is very desirable that the traces of its course 
which still remain should be preserved. 

Belated reports of damage or destruction, due either directly 
or indirectly to the war, come from Northumberland and Wilt- 
shire, and it is probable that there are many cases of damage 
done to 'minor earthworks to which attention has not been called. 

The Wiltshire case occurred on the outskirts of Salisbury 
Plain and your Committee is glad to record that at the instance 
of the Society of Antiquaries, Colonel Hawley has been appointed 
Inspector of the Antiquities on the Plain, which are in urgent 
need of the watchful care of an archaeological expert. Unofficial 
activity in recording known and searching for unknown earth- 
works is also increasing. The Sussex and the Yorkshire Archseo- 
logical Societies have started on a survey of the earthworks 
o f their respective counties, and the number of unrecorded earth- 

works brought to notice from other quarters, notably from Wales, 
Hertfordshire, Middlesex and Surrey, is remarkable. In the 
latter county a local Society, the Croydon Natural History and 
Scientific Society which has undertaken a Regional Survey of 
a large area in its neighbourhood, seems to be doing very good 

Apart from the discovery of unrecorded earthworks, reports 
by Dr. Eric Gardner and Mr. D. H. Montgomerie on details of 
certain well-known earthworks in Devonshire and Sussex which 
are not in existing plans, shows the large field that is open even 
for the study of recorded works ; while reports from various 
quarters suggest that the remains of many ancient earthworks 
may still be in existence, hidden in road and boundary banks 
for which they have been utilised. This seems not improbable 
when we consider the network of banks, ditches and trackways 
that surround ancient habitation sites in regions that have never 
been enclosed or highly cultivated, e.g., Salisbury Plain, the 
South Downs, the hills of Dorset, the Yorkshire Wolds, etc. 

Your Committee is glad to know that an attempt is being 
made by the National Trust to acquire Cissbury Ring for the 
public, and they hope the project will be warmly supported by 
archaeologists. A report by Mr. H. S. Toms shows that this is 
another well-known work which will repay closer study, and also 
that it is another of the works which is being greatly damaged 
by rabbits. Several recent reports of your Committee have 
pointed out the harm done by these insidious agents of destruction, 
and it is to be hoped that the National Trust will shortly be in a 
position to show how their ravages can be checked. 

The exploration of earthworks is still hampered by cost of 
labour, but in Wales this difficulty has not prevented a good deal 
of work, and there has been much activity in Hampshire where 
archaeologists have been able to do the work themselves or the 
cost has been borne by the owner. Special attention should, 
however, be called to the work begun by the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society on the great Cambridgeshire dykes and other 
earthworks in their neighbourhood. The tendency has hitherto 
been for workers connected with our Universities to go far afield 
for excavation and to neglect the problems at their doors. The 
example set by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society might, with 
advantage, be followed by the sister University, in the case of 
earthworks so near Oxford as the Dyke Hills at Dorchester and 
Sinodun on the opposite side of the Thames. 

Should it be decided, as proposed by your Council, to issue 
in future a general review of the Year's Work in Archaeology in 
addition to the Earthworks Report, information about mounds 
and tumuli not connected with defensive earthworks will be 
transferred to the general review. 

Your Committee regrets to record the loss of Mr. Charles 
Lynam, F.S.A., a Member of the Committee since May, 1905, 
who died on the 2oth February, 1921. Messrs. J. P. Bushe-Fox, 
F.S.A., W. J. Hemp, F.S.A., and T. Cann Hughes, F.S.A., have 
joined the Committee. 

Your Committee wishes further to express its great regret 
at the death of Mr. George Clinch, who had rendered it invaluable 
help, and its appreciation of the assistance it has had from Mr. 
A. E. Steel, who has succeeded Mr. Clinch as Assistant Treasurer 
of the Congress of Archaeological Societies, in the preparation of 
the Bibliographies attached to the last and present Reports. 

The information on which the Report is based follows under 
the usual head, and thanks are again due to the Secretaries of 
affiliated Societies and other correspondents who have furnished 

England and Wales. 


CARMARTHENSHIRE. A small earthwork on the right bank 
of the River Llwchwr, near Llangennech, which is mentioned in 
a " Survey Plan " of 1808 as " Old Fortification," but had been 
lost sight of and forgotten, has been re-discovered. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. A small earthwork, about 90 ft. square, 
has been discovered by Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler in the probable 
line of the Roman road, ij miles N.W. of the Roman fort at 

DENBIGHSHIRE. The existence of the remains of a Roman 
fort in the valley of the Llugwy, near Bettws-y-coed, which has 
long been suspected, has been verified by the spade. 

DEVONSHIRE. Dr. Eric Gardner, F.S.A., has sent the 
following report on details in the construction of the under- 
mentioned earthworks which do not appear in the plans in the 
Victoria County History : 

- Payhembury. The eastern entrance of Hembury 
Camp is limited by a hedge and no earthworks are shown E. 
of it, though the very interesting approach to the entrance lies 
there. This consists of a prolongation of the end of the third 
rampart southwards, protecting a deeply sunken path which 
runs up from low down on the side of the hill and leads to the 
east entrance. 

- Membury. The eastern entrance, as shown on 
the plan, consists of a narrow breach in the rampart, alongside 
a blind recess. The narrow bank is undoubtedly modern, and the 
blind recess is formed by the inflection of the ends of the ramparts 
flanking a true entrance, these two inflected ends being joined by 
a very modern bank. 

DEVONSHIRE. Dumpton Camp. A long bank can be traced 
throughout most of its course, running up the hillside to the 
southern end of the upper terrace outside the eastern entrance 
and protecting a path. Hembury and Membury are within six 
miles of Dumpton. All three have eastern entrances with inflected 
ramparts, and two have interesting outworks. 

ESSEX. Dr. J. Horace Round sends the following notes : 

Chrishall. In Morant's, Essex (1768), there is a 

mention under Chrishall, II., 606, of " a bank which probably 
ran through Hertfordshire to Middlesex." He states that 
" the land above the bank in the same fields is inherited by the 
eldest brother ; that below the bank descends by Borrough- 
English to the youngest." From his language I gather that the 
bank was already in decay, so that it may well be no longer 

Good Easter. The late Mr. Chalkley Gould, in 

his article on Essex earthworks in the Victoria County History, 
Essex, I., 303, stated that "at Good Easter, by the Church, is a 
batch of four moated enclosures, close together but not conjoined," 

These enclosures must have been those of Paslowes, Imbers, 
Fawkeners and Bowers. These were the prebendal homes of 
four canons of S. Martin-le-Grand, each of whom is known to 
have had a house there. 

Great Canfield. This perfect example of the mound 

and court castle^was not dated by Mr. Gould (V.C.H., I., 290). 
I have just sent to the Essex Archaeological Society a note upon 
it proving that in 1221 the De Veres had here a castle, which is 
mentioned in conjunction with their stronghold at Hedingham 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. An oval earthwork with an area of 
half-an-acre has been discovered 6ooft above the sea level on the 
shoulder of the Wenallt, two miles N. of Whit church, near 
Cardiff. It forms one of a series of similar works in South Wales. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. St. Alban's. In the parish of St. Michael's 
there is a well-marked dyke, known as the " Devil's Ditch," 
which in the Victoria County History, as well as in the Hertford- 
shire Inventory of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments 
(England) and in the O.S. maps, appears as a short, isolated length 
of bank and ditch with no extension either way. Mr. G. E. 
Cruickshank, F.S.A., and the Hon. Secretary, however, in con- 
tinuation of their examination of dykes near St. Alban's, 
mentioned in the last Report, have traced this both E. and W. 
for a considerable distance beyond what appears. Eastwards 
it has been traced across Watling Street and down to the River 
Ver, while beyond the river the line is continued by a bank and 
ditch up to and through Ladies' Grove, as far at least as 

Batch Wood. Westwards it can be traced right through Gorham- 
bury Park, while beyond it the line appears to be carried on by 
hedgerows extending almost continuously to Nash Mills on the 
River Gade. 

HERTFORDSHIRE. The Hon. Secretary has also visited the 
" Fosse" at Verulamium, which runs out from about the centre of 
the west side of the Roman fosse at an acute angle towards the 
N.W., and is only shown in the O.S. maps as extending for less than 
a quarter-of-a-mile. It is suggested in the Victoria County History 
and in the Hertfordshire Inventory that it returned at an angle 
to form an outwork of the Roman fortress, though the former 
authority notes an extension beyond the supposed point of return 
through a copse and into an arable field beyond. But, as a matter 
of fact, although ploughed out in this field, its continuation on 
the same line can again be traced three or four hundred yards 
further on in Gorhambury Park, where it joins up with the earth- 
works referred to below. 

Gorhambury Park. The Hon. Secretary has 

found traces of an extensive system of earthworks here, including 
small quadrangular works, Jong lines of dyke, trackways, etc., 
which require to be studied and planned before they can be 
further described, or understood. 

Ware. A new camp (at Widbury) has been 
discovered, and reported to the Ordnance Survey by the owner, 
Mr. J. H. Buxton, of Easneye. It lies between Widbury House 
and Widbury Wood, and the ditch is weU-presejrved on the S.W. 
and E. sides of the camp which coincide with field boundaries. 
The site has been visited and the necessary additions made for 
publication on the next edition of the O.S. maps; but as a new 
edition of the 25-inch sheets [Herts, 30 S.W.] was published in 
1921, the camp will only appear on the 6-inch Sheet now in course 
of preparation. 

HERTFORDSHIRE-MIDDLESEX. Mr. Cruickshank and the Hon. 
Secretary have also made further investigations of the course of 
Grim's Dyke. (See Report for 1919). Eastwards they have 
traced it from a little beyond Potter's Bar Station, on the G.N.R., 
almost to the boundary between the two counties, distant a mile 
or more. At the western end the dyke seems to split into several 
branches beyond Cuckoo Hill, at Pinner Green. There are, at 
least, three or four traceable between East cote and Ruislip. 
Their exact course through enclosed ground between Cuckoo 
Hill and Haydon Hall at Eastcote is uncertain, but W. of this 
the two northernmost branches run into Park Wood, while a 
branch from the most northerly runs due N. and forms the eastern 
boundary of the Wood. It has not yet been followed further. 
The southerly branch follows the north bank of the River Pinn, 
from the road W. of Haydon Hall to the next lane westwards. 

Just beyond this it crosses to the S. of the river and divides 
into two. The southern arm follows the main road into Ruislip, 
passing to the south of Manor Farm. The other arm runs midway 
between this and the river, passes just N. of Manor Farm and has 
been traced for half-a-mile or more beyond, but the investigation 
of these various branches is not yet complete. 

MIDDLESEX. Mr. G. E. Cruickshank and the Hon. Secretary 
have recently verified the existence of the following unrecorded 

Bentley Heath. Banks and ditches in a field to 

the N. of the church, under Mr. Cruickshank's observation 
for some time, which appear to consist of the remains of a moated 
site and enclosures connected with it. 

- Ruislip. Various banks and a mound in the 
fields N. and E. of Manor Farm, to which their attention was 
drawn by Mr. H. S. Braun. Manor Farm stands within an oval 
moat, and the other earthworks, which are not in the O.S. maps, 
appear to include the remains of another quadrangular moat 
with other enclosures. There was at Ruislip a cell of the Abbey 
of Bee Harlewin in Normandy, to which the Manor belonged 
formerly, and these banks and ditches mark, no doubt, the site 
of the monastic buildings, etc. 

Wrothairi Park. A big bank which runs round 

the north-west corner of the park from mid-way up its western 
side to mid-way along its northern side, whence it diverges towards 
Bentley Heath. Grim's Dyke is merged with it along the W. 
side of the park, but the relationship of the two works is not clear. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. Bedwas. Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., 
has found a small square earthwork on a high moor immediately W. 
of Twyn Cae-Hugh on Mynydd y Grug, probably a Roman camp. 

The clearance of trees in Priory Wood, a mile E. 

of Caerleon, has revealed a quadrangular earthwork with an area 
of three or four acres. The site might, it is stated, well be Roman, 
except that the corners are angular, not rounded. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. Lieut. -Colonel E. R. B. Spain, C.M.G., 
has examined the course of the Black Dyke, which crosses the 
Roman Wall a little W. of Broomlee Lough and runs between the 
North and South Tyne. He apparently finds nothing to support 
the theory that it is a continuation of the Scottish Catrail, or 
of dykes in Durham and Yorkshire. A full account will be given 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

SUFFOLK. Sicklesmere. Further examination of the Roman 
site, discovered by Mr. G. Basil Barham in 1904, and described 
by him in " The Antiquary," July, 1906, has enabled him to trace 
out the occupied area which, in his view, probably marks the 
site of the station of Villa Faustini in Iter V. of Antoninus. Con- 
siderable remains of the ramparts on the S. and S.W. sides, and 

of what appears to have been a small amphitheatre on the hillside 
to the N.W., are still visible. Pottery found ranges from Samian 
to the crudest Romano-British, and coins were found of seven 
rulers, dating from A.D. 14 to A.D. 337. In the Victoria County 
History the site is erroneously described as at Whelnetham. 
. SUFFOLK. Whelnetham. In the latter parish, however, 
Mr. Barham has found a small oblong, rectangular work, enclosing 
two small mounds to the S.E. of the site described above. 

SURREY. The following unrecorded earthworks are reported, 
discovered for the most part by Members of the Croydon Natural 
History and Scientific Society in the course of a Regional Survey 
of a large area round Croydon undertaken by the Society : 

Chaldon. A quadrangular earthwork just S. of 

Tolworth Farm, whose southern rampart has been almost, if not 
entirely, obliterated by a chalk pit, found by Mr. J. M. Newnham. 
A parish boundary runs along its western face, and just below it 
the Pilgrims' Way goes diagonally down the slope of the Downs. 

Godstone. A quadrangular earthwork just N. 

of and partly in the grounds of the rectory, found by Mr. C. C. 
Fagg, F.G.S., President of the above Society, and Mr. Newnham. 
The earthwork lies within and near the north-eastern corner of 
the remains of a much larger enclosure, also apparently quad- 
rangular, and there are traces of an approach from the south-east 
angle of the latter to the south-east corner of the earthwork. 

Merstham. A quadrangular earthwork in a field 

between Coldroast Farm and the highroad, found by Mr. Fagg. 
There are traces of other ancient banks in the field as well as 
immediately to the S. round Boorsgreen and Furzefield Shaw. 

There are also traces of what appear to be scarped 

banks running^ across the south slope of Ashstead Hill, between 
Furzefield Shaw and Upper Gatton Park, a little below the brow 
of the hill. On the slighter of these, which is some thirty yards 
below the upper one, there is a small pear-shaped earthwork on 
the shoulder of the hill. 

- Epsom. A large enclosure, roughly quadrilateral,, 
within banks of very low profile, at the extreme N. angle of 
the golf course on Epsom Downs. This appears in the 6in. O.S. 
map of 1897 as " Cricket Ground," apparently enclosed. There 
are traces of an entrance in the middle of the south side with a 
trackway approaching it. 

- Wallington. Remains of an earthwork on the 
banks of the Wandle, close to the boundary between the parishes 
of Beddington and Wallington, found by Mrs. J. E. Birch. There 
is a large circular depression in the enclosure not far from the 
river bank. A reference to an earthwork, apparently the one 
in question, is quoted in " Historical Notes on Wallington," by 
the Rev. J. Williams, 1873, but no authority is given and the work 


is not mentioned in the Victoria County History or shown in the 
O.S. maps. 

SURREY. Walton-on-Thames. Traces of the old boundary 
bank and ditch of Oatlands Palace grounds (1537-1650) recently 
noted in Oatlands Park by Dr. Gardner. 

Woodmansterne. Remains of a large quadrangu- 
lar earthwork on the cricket field near the church, discovered by 
Mr. J. M. Newnham. 

In addition to the above the Hon. Secretary 

reports a boundary bank following the boundary between the 
parishes of Chipstead and Merstham, which he has traced from 
the Brighton Road, near the Star Inn at Hooley, into and across 
Upper Gatton Park ; also traces of ancient earthworks in field 
and road-banks round Chipstead ; and apparent traces of what 
seems to have been an extensive system of earthworks extending 
across the hills from Upper Gatton Park to a point between Epsom 
and Ewell. In connection with the latter, he believes he has 
succeeded in locating the remains of two banks shown in a very 
rude plan of an estate at Banstead in Manning and Bray's History 
of Surrey as running across Preston and Ewell Downs (now 
enclosed). These banks would appear to have diverged from the 
neighbourhood of " Buckle's Gap " at the N.E. corner of 
the golf course on Epsom Downs, whence the one ran nearly 
N. and N.E., its course being still marked by the parish boundary 
between Epsom and Ewell, while the other ran first W., then 
turned nearly S. along the western boundary of " The Knolls," 
beyond which its course is marked by field-banks to Preston 
Hawe and beyond. 

SUSSEX. The Sussex Archaeological Society has appointed 
a Committee to make a survey of the earthworks of the county, 
and the Committee has issued an appeal to all Sussex folk to help 
them to carry out the work. 

Cissbury Ring. The National Trust has started 

a scheme for the purchase of Cissbury Ring, near Worthing, and 
appeals to the public and to archseologists in general for support . 
- Mr. H. S. Toms reports the discovery and survey 
of four more rectangular enclosures, ditched and banked, in Ciss- 
bury Ring. These are in addition to the three described by 
General Pitt-Rivers. 

Ringmer. Mr. Toms also reports a castle-mound, 

Norman, with dry ditch at Clay Hill Farm. He states that the 
work is in a very perfect state and is not in the O.S. maps. 

Mr. D. H. Montgomerie, F.S.A., reports the follow- 
ing details which do not appear in the plans of the earthworks 
referred to either in the Victoria County History or in the O.S. 
maps, and are apparently unrecorded : 

Pulborough. The vallum and ditch of the Roman 

camp near Hardham, which maps and plans only show to the 
S. of the L.B. & S.C.R., can be traced also to the N. of the 
railway, round the enceinte, completing the quadrangle. 

SUSSEX. Park Mount. The well-marked rampart and ditch 
of a bailey run out in a curve from the mount on the S. W. on to a 
steep natural slope. 

Dr. Eliot Curwen and Mr. A. Hadrian Allcroft 

report the discovery of various fresh earthworks, including a big 
valley entrenchment to the E. of Harrow Hill, another probable 
village site in Rewell Wood (see the Report for 1920), covered 
ways on Amberley Mount, Rackham Hill, etc. These will be 
described in forthcoming papers in the Sussex Archaeological 

WILTSHIRE. Salisbury Plain. At the instance of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Lieut. -Colonel W. Hawley, F.S.A., has been 
appointed Inspector of the various antiquities on Salisbury 

Wanborough. Mr. A. D. Passmore reports the 

discovery of a slightly oblong, quadrangular earthwork, containing 
two mounds, at Sugar Hill on the S. edge of the parish of 
Wanborough. It has well-rounded corners and two apparent 
entrances, one near the centre of its southern face, the other 
at its S.W. corner. 

Wansdyke. In continuation of an examination 
of Wansdyke which was interrupted by the war (see Reports 
for 1914, 1916 and 1917), the Hon. Secretary, in conjunction with 
Mr. H. C. Brentnall, has again followed the whole course of 
Wansdyke from the W. of Savernake Forest to its termination 
under Inkpen Hill. Their examination included various remains 
of banks and ditches which may mark its course through the 
forest, but no continuous line has yet been traced through this. 
He has also followed the branch described by Sir R. Colt 
Hoare, as diverging southward at a point on Merril Down, a 
little E. of Great Bedwyn, from that point to the neighbourhood 
of Ludgershall. Detailed Itineraries have been published in 
the Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. 

YORKSHIRE. Several Members of the Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Society are engaged in the work of marking all the earth- 
works of the county on the in connection with the scheme 
of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England). 

Gilling. Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A., has dis- 
covered that the Scott's Dyke, near Gilling, was levelled for the 
passage of the Roman road from Watling Street to Carlisle. 

- Ilkley. The question of preserving the Roman 
fort is being brought before the Ilkley District Council. 

Stanwick. Mr. Wooler also reports that he has 
discovered some outer earthworks of the " British " camp at 


Stanwick (described in his Monograph on the Roman fort at 
Piercebridge), which are entirely different in character from the 
rest of the defences. He is inclined to date them to the first 
half of the first century A.D., and believes that they were con- 
structed for the use of archers. 


CARNARVONSHIRE. The gradual and unavoidable destruction 
of the hill-fort on Penmaenmawr continues. 

MIDDLESEX. Harlington. A small square earthwork, shown 
in the O.S. maps just S. of Harlington, has been so completely 
effaced by cultivation that it is difficult to be certain of its site. 
Pinner Green. In March, 1921, Mr. H. S. Braun 
reported that a well-marked part of Grim's Dyke had been com- 
pletely destroyed by a Housing Scheme carried out by the Hendon 
Rural District Council. The matter was at once referred to the 
Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments, Mr. C. R. Peers, F.S.A., 
who set enquiries on foot. The Clerk to the Council tried to make 
out that no part of the dyke had been injured, but this was shown 
to be incorrect. Not only was the portion of the dyke destroyed 
clearly marked in the O.S. maps, but the Clerk of the Works 
and the workmen employed were well aware that they were at 
work on the site of an ancient earthwork. Two houses at least, 
had been built actually upon it, and it had been further cut up 
in making roads and gardens. A proposed extension of the 
scheme threatened with destruction one of the finest parts of the 
dyke which at present has escaped. In reply to the representation 
made, the Office of Works has now been informed that it is not 
proposed to carry out the extension of the scheme. There may, 
however, be some danger of the land being utilised for allotments, 
and a careful watch ought to be kept locally. But for the present, 
although attention was drawn to the scheme too late to avert 
irretrievable damage, it is hoped that no further destruction 
will take place. 

Ruislip. Part of the oval moat, surrounding 

Manor Farm on the site of Ruislip Priory, has been filled up to 
make a lawn tennis court. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. Roman Wall. Two cases of destruction 
along the line of the Wall of Hadrian have been reported. To the 
E. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, between Byker and Wallsend the 
construction of a new road has obliterated part of the fosse, while 
to the W., near Wallbottle Dean, the vallum has been cut through 
and built upon by the East Newburn Urban District Council 
in carrying out the Wallbottle Housing Scheme. 

Countess Park Camp in N. Tynedale has been 

damaged by the felling of the trees on its area and the extensive 
burning of rubbish, which has injured the stones and ramparts 


of the camp and its hut circles. The damage was probably done 
during the period 1918-20, but has only just been reported. 
^SUFFOLK. Mr. G. B. Barham reports that the walls of the 
Roman station at Sicklesmere are being gradually ploughed 
down. (See also under Preservation and Record.) 

SUSSEX. Mr. Hadrian Allcroft reports that a covered way 
on Bury Hill, with an adjacent large bell-barrow, has been 
ploughed over. 

Mr. H. S. Toms reports great damage from rabbits 

to the ramparts of Cissbury Ring. 

WARWICKSHIRE. Mr. T. Douglas Murden reports that the 
remains of a moated site, situated in Ward End, a suburb of 
Birmingham, have been obliterated. Only one arm of the moat, 
filled with water, remained in front of Treaford Hall. This has 
now been drained and filled in. 

WILTSHIRE. A ditch marked on the O.S. maps on the out- 
skirts of Salisbury Plain has been partially destroyed during the 
war by the construction of Perham Down Camp. It runs, in so 
far as its course is known, from a point about a mile S.E. of 
Ludgershall Castle across Perham Down to Lambdown Furze, 
a distance of something less than a mile. From observations 
made by Mr. Percy Farrer, it would appear to have been a track- 
way. The camp is right across it, but it is still well marked on 
either side of it. 

Hill Deverill. The Rev. J. W. R. Brocklebank 

reports that the Parish Council has built six cottages within the 
enclosure of a reputed " British " village in this parish. The site 
is marked on the N. and W. by ditches, still some 3 feet 9 inches 
to 4 feet deep, the former a hundred yards long, the latter seventy- 
four yards. Seventy-five yards of the northern ditch will be 
practically effaced in laying out the gardens of the cottages. 
Nothing of importance was found when the foundations were 


CAMBRIDGESHIRE. The Cambridge Antiquarian Society has 
begun an examination of the Fleam Dyke between Cambridge 
and Newmarket (Cambs., 48 S.W.). The excavations conducted, 
up to the present, have shown the profile of the ditch and the 
original mode of construction of the vallum, and have yielded 
evidence bearing on the date of the earthwork. It seems to have 
been constructed in three stages, the two reconstructions being 
probably, and the original bank possibly, post-Reman. Several 
cuttings were made between the disused railway-cutting and 
Dungate Farm. The investigation will be continued next season. 

Excavation during the present season has also 

shown that the ramp which carries Worsted Street across the 
Gogmagog Hills, is an example of Roman civil engineering, and 


not, as has generally been believed, the partially levelled vallum 
of a pre-Roman dyke. The site of the excavation is on Sheet 47 
S.E., near B.M's 191-8 and 156. 

CARNARVONSHIRE. The excavations of the Roman fort at 
Segontium has been continued under the direction of Mr. A. G. K. 
Hayter, F.S.A., and Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler. This has 
shown that this fort began its career as an earthwork in the 
latter part of the ist Century, A.D. It was subsequently walled 
in stone. The work will be continued. 

- Excavations at the earthwork, discovered by Dr. 
Wheeler, near Carnarvon, revealed post-holes and Roman pottery 
and glass. The bank has been capped by a line of boulders, and 
the ditch was flat-bottomed. 

- Mr. Harold Hughes, F.S.A., has continued the 
examination of the fast disappearing hill-fort at Penmaenmawr 
for the Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

CHESHIRE. Mr. R. Hyde Linaker has been examining a 
moated site at Aston Hall in an endeavour to ascertain its date 
and origin, and has discovered the finely chiselled hexagonal base 
of a sandstone pillar, and made one or two other small finds. 
But at present, in spite of extensive trenching, nothing has been 
iound to throw light on the problems referred to. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. During the excavations in 1920 in the 
hill-fort of Dinorben, near Abergele, cuttings through ramparts 
and ditches threw much light on successive occupations. Owing 
to excessive cost of labour, work was not continued during the 
past year, but it is hoped to resume it in 1922. 

- A good deal of successful exploration work on 
the site of the newly-discovered fort near Bettws-y-coed is reported. 
(See under Preservation and Record.) 

HAMPSHIRE. The site of an Early Iron Age village on 
Worthy Down, near Winchester, has been excavated by Mr. 
R. W. Hooley, F.G.S. (see also p. 16). 

Dudsbury. Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A., began 

an examination of Dudsbury on the River Stour, near Wimborne 
Minster, in April, 1921. The outer ditch was tested in four places 
on the western side of the camp, where the outer earthwork has 
been ploughed and spread. No prehistoric relics were found 
in the filling of the ditch, but only sherds of green-glazed and 
yellow-glazed mediaeval pottery which lay on the bottom of the 
ditch. The western entrance, shown in Warne's plan, was 
disproved. Excavation revealed that the ditch was continuous 
here, and also that a recent causeway had been made across it 
with modern drain pipes and brickbats in its filling, probably 
for the sake of access to the area of the camp which is under 
cultivation. The diggings in this outer ditch seem to indicate 
a mediaeval origin for this outwork, which is surprising. But at 


present it must be left at that. Subsequently, a trench was cut 
across the inner ditch, usually water-logged, but dry in the summer 
of 1921, which revealed an abrupt ditch wholly different from 
that of the outer work, filled with peat, at the bottom of which 
was found a bone-polished rim-sherd, that in body, form and 
handling indicates pre-Roman pottery. Excavations within 
the area yielded no result. 

HAMPSHIRE. Hengistbury Head. Mr. H. St. George Gray re- 
ports that trenching close to the shore of Christ church Harbour, 
as mentioned in the last Report, has been continued at intervals 
during the year, and some interesting relics, including a fine 
bronze bridle-bit of the late Celtic period, have been found. 

Stanpit Marsh, Christ church. This area on the 

N. side of Christchurch Harbour, having been acquired by Mr. 
H. Gordon Selfridge, Mr. Gray has been able to examine a large 
mound of sand, called Crouch Hill. Some excavations were 
carried out there in October last and a number of flint implements 
and pieces of ornamented pottery of the Bronze age were found, 
but no incinerated human remains. 

St. Catherine's Hill, Christchurch. In August the 

small square enclosure on this hill (Sheet 86 N.E.) was tested by 
Mr. W. G. Wallace. The site has been supposed to be that of a 
mediaeval chapel within a Roman earthwork. The chapel site 
revealed no traceable foundations ; only broken " foreign " stones, 
bedded pell-mell amidst decayed mortar, sherds of mediaeval 
pottery and rare fragments of painted glass. Three trenches were 
cut through the surrounding low earthwork, which showed that 
the ditches were shallow and not defensive. No relics were found 
in these trenches, excepting one nondescript sherd. The only 
possible indications of Roman occupation were a few oyster 
shells, but these were found on the chapel-site associated with 
mediaeval pottery sherds. 

Barley Pound. The excavations of the Farnham 

Field Club on the site of the Norman earthwork at Barley Pound, 
near Crondall (Hants, Sheet 28, N.W.), last summer were rewarded 
by the uncovering of the foundations of a wall eight feet thick, 
with pottery and other small finds of the Norman period. 

An account and plans of these last two sites will be found in 
Dr. Williams-Freeman's Field Archceology as illustrated by Hamp- 
shire (Macmillan, 1915). 

MERIONETHSHIRE. Mr. Willoughby Gardner, F.S.A., has 
carried out excavations in the castle-mound at Rug, near Corwen. 
The mound is an enlarged Bronze age barrow which contains a 

MIDDLESEX. The Committee appointed by the British 
Archaeological Society, the London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society and the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies, 


with a view to excavation at Brockley Hill (Sulloniacae) , has 
applied for the necessary permission, and if this is obtained it is 
hoped to begin work next year. 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. Margidunum (on the Foss-way, 8 miles 
E. of Nottingham). Excavation has been continued by Dr. Felix 
Oswald, and shows that four ditches formed the defences of 
the camp on the S. side. A series of shallow rectangular pits 
with iron slag adhering to their base show that during the 
Nero- Vespasian period, iron-smelting was carried on just within 
the ramparts. Foundations, probably of barracks, are being 
uncovered and a stone-lined well has been cleared out. Several 
large flagons and other pottery, belonging exclusively to the close 
of the 3rd century, with coins of Tetricus and Carausius were 
found in it. 

YORKSHIRE. Scarborough. Preparatory excavations have 
been made for the purpose of locating the site of the Roman coast- 
guard fort. The mediaeval chapel in the castle yard has been 
dug out and some traces of the fort have been found at a lower 
level than the chapel foundations, but further exploration is 
deferred until next year. 


Mr. T. J. Westropp reports that the great anxiety and unrest 
in Ireland has told severely against all archaeological work, and 
that the few who devote themselves to the study of prehistoric 
matters and of earthworks have been able to accomplish very 
little ; while the exorbitant cost of publication has been equally 
hurtful on the literary side. 


The following cases of destruction have come to Mr. 
Westropp's notice : 

COUNTY CLARE. The removal for road-metal of half a 
stone ringwall or cattle-bawn at Crossard, Inchiquin. 

COUNTY MAYO. The removal by turf-cutters of an early 
Tochair, " togher " or causeway, across Cloonascarragh Bog : 
the destruction of a square earthwork used as a refuge by the 
people of Castlebar when the Crown forces retreated before the 
French in 1798 ; and the rapid removal of a rath On the escar by 


The Year's Work. 

The following notes on excavations and discoveries have 
"been received by the Hon. Secretary : 


BERKSHIRE. Bones of bison continue to be found in Brain's 
Pit at Newbury Station, but little else, and nothing that assists 
the dating of the gravel, which is the lowest in the Kennet 
Valley at this point. The pit is being carefully watched. 

A flint factory site between Thatcham and Newbury was 
excavated during September by Messrs. Crawford and Peake. The 
working floor was sealed up by a natural deposit of peaty soil 
and shell-marl about 2 feet thick. An account was read before the 
Prehistoric Society of East Anglia on March 29th, and will be 
published in their transactions. 

A bronze spear-head, found by a workman in the gravel-pit 
at Colthrop, Thatcham, was obtained from him by Dr. G. A. 
Simmons, and presented to the Newbury Museum. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. An Early Iron age cemetery with 
inhumations has been found at Foxton (Cambs., 53, S.E.), 
about 250 yards due N. of the Railway Inn. The objects, 
which are at present in the keeping of Mr. Cyril Fox, Red Gables, 
Milton, Cambs., are of La Tene III. and IV. type. A cordoned 
vessel of barrel shape and a spear-head were found with one of 
the skeletons. The discovery was made during gravel-digging. 
Mr. Fox hopes to excavate it this year. (See also Antiquaries 
Journal, January, 1922, pp. 57, 58). 

CHESHIRE. Polished stone celt found in Chester City by 
Professor Newstead, 1914. 

Fragments of a " Neolithic urn " found. (Professor Robert 
Newstead, Grosvenor Museum, Chester). 

CORNWALL. Two bronze implements were found in making 
foundations for workmen's cottages at Biscovey, parish of St. 
Blazey, E. of St. Austell (Corn., Sheet 51, N.W.),and were exhibited 
by Mr. Smallwood at a meeting of the Royal Institution of 
Cornwall on May 23rd, 1922. One other was found but lost again 
or stolen immediately afterwards. They are at present in the 
Truro Museum, where it is to be hoped they will find a permanent 

DORSET. A bronze sword was found in the Backwater, 
Weymouth, during the construction of a new bridge. It was 
brought up in the " grab " in compact gravel and mud from 4 feet 
below the present bed of the Backwater. It is now on loan in the 
Dorset County Museum. (Captain John E. Acland, Dorchester). 

A large number of Kimmeridge shale discs and flints have 
been found near Kimmeridge by the Rev. A. Joyce Watson, 


Savernake Vicarage, Marlborough, who has observed near by 
the " foundations of huts constructed of Purbeck Stone, and 
apparently occupied by the shale workers." These are exposed 
at the edge of the cliff, and near by are " many discs together 
with pottery, bones (many of them sharpened), and a number of 
little flint tools, possibly used in turning, made by breaking a 
flint flake transversely." 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. The Barnwell gravel-pit continues to 
yield abundant remains. Mrs. Clifford, Barnwood Cottage, 
Gloucester, reports discoveries of teeth and bones of mammoth, 
Rhinoceros Tich., bison and ox, and Neolithic flint implements. 
The objects are all in her possession. An implement from the 
same gravel-pit is illustrated in the Antiquaries Journal (Vol. i., 
p. 234), where it is described as " either of late Acheulian or 
early Mousterian age probably the former." 

HAMPSHIRE. A number of flint implements continue to be 
found in the Basingstoke District. The finds include flakes and 
implements of Palaeolithic Age from high altitudes, arrowheads 
both leaf-shaped and tanged, and a fine greenstone celt. An 
illustrated account of some of these finds appears in the current 
number of the Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club (Vol. 
ix., Pt. 2). 

A village of the Early Iron age on Worthy Down (Hants, 
Sheet 41, N.W.), near Winchester has been excavated by Mr. 
R. W. Hooley, F.G.S., Earlescroft, St. Giles' Hill, Winchester, 
Hon. Curator of the Winchester Museum. Attention was first 
drawn to the site by the discovery there of about a dozen iron 
currency-bars (described and illustrated by Mr. Hooley in the 
Antiquaries Journal, October, 1921). By means of tapping the 
ground with, the butt-end of a pick (and sometimes with an iron 
ram) a complete plan of the ditches and pits was made before 
digging commenced. A full account will be published in due 

During digging on the new housing-site on the S.W. outskirts 
of Winchester, pottery bearing many resemblances to that found 
by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington at All Cannings Cross, Wilts., was 
discovered. Mr. Hooley succeeded in uncovering what he con- 
sidered to be an oven containing many large pieces of a vessel. 
The objects will be placed in the Winchester Museum. It is hoped 
to do some more digging on the site this summer. 

During August Mr. W. G. Wallace excavated the northern- 
most of the row of barrows which have somehow got marked 
upon the Ordnance Map (Hants, 86, N.E.) as Roman Watch- 
Towers. He found a cremated interment and a Bronze-age 
urn of the overhanging rim type which is now in the keeping of 
the Earl of Malmesbury, Heron Court, Christchurch. An account 


will be published in the Transactions of the Bournemouth Natural 
Science Society. 

Barrows have been noted (i) in the fork between the junction 
of the G.W.R. and L.S.W.R., S. of Winchester (Hants, 
50, N.W.) (2) in Borough Field immediately S. of the point 
where the L.S.W.R. crosses the Micheldever Valley, E. of and 
touching the railway embankment (Hants, 33, N.W.). The 
latter is ploughed nearly flat, but quite easily visible even from the 
train. Both are round. 

KENT. An urnfield of the Early Iron age has been discovered 
near Swarling Farm, Petham, and has been excavated by the 
Society of Antiquaries (Kent, 46, S.W.). A full account will 
be published in due course. There are many points of resemblance 
to the Aylesford cemetery. (See Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i., 

P- 339)- 

MIDDLESEX. Mr. Fred Turner, F.R.Hist. Soc., Librarian 
and Curator of the Brentford Public Library and Museum, writes : 
" I have recently seen at least another dozen stakes or piles in the 
river-bed near the old outlet of the Brent at ' Old England ' ; 
one of them the best has been drawn and placed in our 
Museum ; it measures about seven feet, six feet of which was 
embedded in the ground. It looked a perfect specimen when 
drawn up, but the drying process has resulted in the usual cracks." 

NORTHUMBERLAND. Colonel E. R. B. Spain writes : " On 
February I4th, 1921, a siding on the N.E. Railway was being 
cut through a field on Low Morralee Farm, on the Ridley Hall 
Estate (Northumberland, 93, N.W.). One side of the cutting 
iell in, and amongst the debris was found a cinerary urn containing 
two other vessels, and some burnt bones. One of these vessels 
is unique. About 6 feet W. from where the find was made, 
was found a burial by inhumation ; the body was lying N. and 
S., but details are not ascertainable. With it was a bronze 
knife, 3 \ inches long. The objects are in the possession of the Hon. 
F. Bowes-Lyon, of Ridley Hall. (Proc. Soc. Ant., N ewcastle-on- 
Tyne, 3 Ser., Vol. x., p. 29). 

In August, 1921, a cist was excavated by Mr. Bosanquet 
and his son in the parish of Rock. The site is the plantation 
known as Heiferlaw Plantation on the old edition (Sheet 27, S.W.), 
and Ellsnook Wood on the new edition (Sheet 29, N.W.). In the 
cist was found a beaker. The cist was in the top of a mound, 
and it is thought that it is not the primary interment. The 
mound is certainly partly artificial. Excavations are to be 
resumed this summer. (Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, Rock Moor, 

The remains of an ancient burial-mound have also been 
found during the revision of Northumberland. It is situated 
15 chains W. of Blawearie, parish of Old Bewick, and 

half-a-mile N.E. of the cup-and-ring marked rocks. Of the 
mound, or more properly the cairn, itself, little remains ; but 
an outer surrounding circle of stones survives (diameter 33 feet). 
Inside this circle are smaller stones, the remains doubtless of the 
cairn. The stones of the circle touch each other, and some of 
them lean outwards. (This feature is very often observed; it 
was produced originally by the pressure of the caim, for which it 
formed a kind of retaining wall). Inside are two cists placed side 
by side, with a distance apart of about 2 feet. Each is formed of 
four stone slabs placed upright on their edges, and forming a 
rectangle, with a covering stone lying close by. Their direction 
is N.W. and S.E. ; they are 3 feet 6 inches long, i foot 6 inches 
broad and three feet deep. Depressions within the circle give the 
impression that other cists may have been removed. (Sergeant 
Brennan, R.E., April, 1922). 

SOMERSET. Mr. H. St. George Gray reports as follows : 
The illustrated report (with contoured plan and sections) on 
the Excavations at Murtry Hill, Orchardleigh Park, near Frome, 
September-October, 1920, by Mr. H. St. George Gray, is published 
in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., Vol. Ixvii. (1921), issued March, 1922. 
The site represented a chambered Long Barrow. The work was 
carried out under the auspices of the Somerset Earthworks 
Committee, and Dr. A. Bulleid was associated with Mr. Gray in 
this work. 

A stone (basalt ?) celt, ground, of Neolithic type was found 
by a man on July 6th, 1921, in a potato plot, 2 feet deep, in the 
parish of Babington, but close to the Highbury Methodist Chapel 
in Kilmersdon Parish. It is now in the Somerset County Museum. 

Small implements, cores and flakes of flint have been collected 
(1921) on Shapwick Heath, f of a mile S. of Shapwick Railway 
Station. Similar series are noted in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., Vol. 
li,, Pt. i., p. 71, and Vol. Ivi, Pt. i., p. 92. 

Flint implements of Neolithic type have been picked up by 
Mr. R. H. Fitzjames, of Clifton, on the surface in some quantities, 
(i) at Stanton Drew in a field about J of a mile from the Stone 
circles, (2) in a ploughed field E. of the camp at Charterhouse- 

After seven years' cessation (the result of the war) the 
excavations at the Meare Lake Village, near Glastonbury, were 
resumed on August 29th, 1921, and were continued for three 
weeks. The work, as previously, was under the direction of 
Dr. A. Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George Gray. The antiquities 
discovered were numerous and interesting, and are now exhibited 
in the Somerset County Museum, but no full report upon the work 
has yet been issued. If funds permit it is not unlikely that the 
excavations will be continued next September, for not one-half 
of the Meare Lake Village has yet been explored. 

Mr. E. K. Tratman reports as follows : During 1921 the work 
commenced by the University of Bristol Spelaeological Society in 
1919 in the caves of the Burrington district was continued. The 
results will be published in the second number of the Proceedings. 
The main result of the 1921 work has been the definite proof 
that an Upper Palaeolithic site exists at Aveline's Hole (" The 
Cave " on the O.S. map, Somerset, 18, N.W.) at the foot of Bur- 
rington Combe. Artefacts of bone and flint have been found 
as well as numerous bones of birds, mammals and human beings 
of the period. Among the artefacts are a double-rowed six- 
barbed harpoon of antler (found 1920), and a shell necklace 
(found in fragments in 1920-21). The material was removed by 

The Keltic Cavern (which has been renamed " Read's 
Cavern ") on the southern margin of Mendip Lodge Wood, only 
yielded a few additional objects of the Early Iron age. 

Owing to the wearing away by the elements of a large sand- 
bank at Brean Down near Weston-super-Mare (Somerset, 
16, N.W.), several portions of human skeletons and fragments of 
pottery have been exposed. The pottery is black and coarse, 
and without ornament. 

All the above objects are in the Museum of the Spelaeological 
Society, Bristol. 

SUSSEX. The activities of the members of the Sussex 
Archaeological Society are mainly included in the report of the 
Earthworks Committee. The Society has recently taken up the 
survey of Sussex, and has been provided with the necessary maps. 

Dr. Eliot Curwen reports a disc-barrow on Cock Hill, S.E. of 
Harrow Hill, which proved not to be circular ; and a very fine 
" Celtic road " running across the Brighton and Hove golf-links. 
Mr. Hadrian Allcroft reports the same disc-barrow, and a 
number of barrows in the Lewes district, " chiefly ' rings ' and 
' discs ' found by Mr. H. S. Toms." 

WILTSHIRE. The past year has seen a great deal of activity 
in Wiltshire. By far the most important event has been the 
continued excavation of the Iron age village at All Cannings 
Cross. The finds made bear out previous conclusions as to its 
age. Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington are preparing a full account of 
their work there. The excavations will be continued this year. 

The revision of the county by the O.S. has given a stimulus 
to field-work and many new discoveries have been made. Mr. 
Passmore has found a small circle of stones in a valley S. of 
East Kennett and several barrows, both long and round. ,He 
also superintended the work carried out recently at the Devil's 
Den in Clatford Bottom. This burial-chamber is now in no 
danger of falling, and it is scheduled under the Ancient 
Monuments Act. The Rev. H. G. O. Kendall has pointed out the 


sites of several antiquities not hitherto recorded on the O.S. 

With the aid of both published and unpublished drawings 
and plans of Avebury, Mr. Crawford has been able to discover 
the sites of many stones not previously located exactly. These 
will be marked on the new edition of the O.S. map. An account 
of the unpublished plans made by Stukeley about 1720 wiD be 
delivered by Mr. Crawford at the annual meeting of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society at Swindon (July 3ist, 1922). It will 
be fully reported in the Wiltshire Gazette (Devizes). These 
plans, the property of Mrs. St. John of Dinmore, Herefordshire, 
were not previously known to be in existence. 

An account of the work being done at Stonehenge will be 
found in the Antiquaries Journal for January, 1921 and 1922. 

A sarsen stone in Bowood Park deserves notice. It was 
originally discovered by the Earl of Kerry who identifies it with 
the Hoar-stone whose existence is indicated by old estate-maps. 
It is very unusual to find a sarsen stone resting directly upon the 
greensand, and its presence there may be due to human agency. 
Two other sarsens exist in the Park. The site of the Hoar-stone 
will be marked on the O.S. map. 

YORKSHIRE. Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S., Editor, East Riding 
Antiquarian Society (Municipal Museum, Hull), reports that 
various stone and bronze implements have been found on the 
Yorkshire Wolds, and will be described in the Transactions, 
"which he edits. They are in the Hull Museum. 

Mr. E. W. Crossley (Broad Carr, Holywell Green, near 
Halifax) reports, on behalf of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 
that a celt has been found on Rishworth Moor, S.W. of Halifax 
(W.R., Sheets 244 and 245). See Y.A.J., Vol. xxvi., p. 304. 

Mrs. Cunnington reports that a hoard of bronze implements 
was found at the end of 1921 or shortly afterwards near Ripon 
and is now in the Museum there. " It seems to consist of a dozen 
or more socketed celts, and a dagger or small bronze sword. The 
latter seems to be leaf-shaped, with flat handle and rivet -holes cast 
in one with the blade." 


Mr. P. M. C. Kermode reports as follows : A polished 
stone axe-head, very badly weathered, 3^ inch long, with 
rounded sides, was found on the Mule Hill in the S. of the 
island in April, 1921, by Professor Sir W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 
who presented it to the Manx Museum. 

A fairly good socketed bronze axe was turned up under the 
shingle at Port Mooar on the E. coast in September, 1921, by 
Mr. Foulis when digging a bed for his boat. It measures 4^ inches 
long. One face is much worn, the other shows a decoration of 


three ribs from a well-defined neck moulding, with indications of 
two other slight mouldings down the angles. It has been 
presented to the Manx Museum. 


GUERNSEY. Colonel de Guerin reports that rough Neolithic 
implements made of felsite, diorite, and granite have been found 
at the following sites : 

1. Lancresse Common, Vale Parish, in sand-pit near Nid 
de 1'Herbe ToWer, and also about 100 yards N. of the " dolmen " 
of La Varde. The finds consist of flint implements and flakes of 
fragments of Neolithic pottery, some with incised patterns. 

2. Le Crocq Point, St. Saviour's Parish. Finds consist of 
a large celtiform implement of diorite in a midden with potsherds, 
baked clay, etc. 

3. Jerbourg Point, St. Martin's ; objects found in surface, 
near Doyle's Column. 

The above were found by Mr. J. W. Sinel. The late M. 
Adolphus Collenette has in collaboration with Mr. Sinel found 
many stone implements and other objects. These are in the 
Guille-Alles Museum, Guernsey. 

JERSEY. Mr. E. T. Nicolle, Soc. Jersiaise, 9 Pier Road, 
Jersey, reports that pit-dwellings have been found at He Agois, 
St. Mary's Parish. They are about 14 in number, between 12 
and 14 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep. Only one has been 
examined up to the present. The objects found include charcoal, 
potsherds (one piece being 4 inches square and almost | inch 
thick, and of coarse texture), and a fine barbed arrow-head of 
quartz. Further excavations will be made this year by the 
Societe Jersiaise. 

A bronze knife, identical in form with Evans' Fig. 261, 
has been found in a disused well in St. Brelade's Parish, and is 
at present in the possession of the proprietor. 


BERKSHIRE. An iron wheel-tyre with remains of the wooden 
axle and spokes, the bones of a horse, and a human skull in a 
perfect condition were obtained by Dr. G. A. Simmons, Edgecumbe, 
Newbury, in the gravel-pit near the mills at Colthrop, Thatcham. 
The Roman road from Silchester to Speen passes within a few 
yards of the site, and the remains may, therefore, be of Roman 
date. Wooden piles are also to be observed all along the S. 
side of the pit, but their age is doubtful. 

CHESHIRE. Excavations by Professor Newstead in the 
garden of No. 6, King's Buildings, Chester, near the N.W. corner 
of the City Walls, have revealed a well-defined stratum of relics 
of the period 81-117 A.D. The evidence of dating is taken 


chiefly from the ten a sigillata, of which the following shapes were 
noted : decorated, 29, 37 (all transitional), 67 and 78 ; plain, 
15, 18 and 27. Potsherds of coarse pottery were abundant and 
a large number of different vessels (all early shapes) were 
represented, including some new types, and two pieces of clean 
glazed ware probably from the Holt kilns. Of glass vessels 
there were fragments of a ist century pillar-moulded bowl ; 
a piece with oval facets cut with a wheel, window glass and pieces 
of bottles with reeded handles ; coins of Titus (one) and Domitian 
(one) were found. A full report will be read before the Chester and 
North Wales Archaeological Society, whose Secretary has kindly 
obtained these details for the Editor from Professor Newstead. 

DEVON. A Roman dwelling has been found near Seaton, 
and a short note about it will be found in the Antiquaries Journal, 
Vol. i., p. 237, 8. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. The finds from the Roman cemetery 
include a fine brooch and many pots. Owing to the casual nature 
of the finds, which are being made during gravel-digging, it has 
not been possible to record the associations of objects in graves. 
A report on the human remains is being prepared by Professor 
Sir Arthur Keith. (Mrs. Clifford, Barnwood Cottage, Gloucester, 
where all the objects found are). 

A note on the finds appears in the Antiquaries Journal, 
Vol. i., p. 236. 

A stone coffin was found in April " in the slope of the hill at 
Lower Slaughter, quite close to Buckle Street." It contained 
the skeleton of an adult male, about 5 feet 3! inches high, in 
the prime of life. (See Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i., p. 340). 

About two hundred feet of the S. wall of Roman 
Cirencester has been uncovered by Mrs. Cripps of that town. 
It was made of rubble set in hard cement, but the facing of squared 
stones has been torn away throughout its length. The wall 
measures on an average from 10 to n feet in thickness without 
the facing. Two bastions were found, between which was a gate 
about 12 feet wide. It probably carried a single arch. The finds 
include much Samian, some pieces with leaden rivets, bronze 
fibulas, bone pins, and pottery. The excavations have been 
covered in. (Summarized from an account in the Wiltshire 
Gazette, March 23rd, 1922). 

HAMPSHIRE. A good tesselated Roman pavement has been 
discovered on the high ground above Longstock on Mr. Barker 
Mill's property. It appears to belong to a large and important 
villa (Hants, 31, S.E.). 

KENT. Mr. Hubert Elgar reports as follows : A bowl of 
gritted ware was found in excavating sand at Boro-green, March, 
1921 (Kent, 30, S.W.). The site is near that where Romano- 
British graves were found in October, 1899. When found, the 


DOW! stood on a large flint nodule, but it was broken in removal. 
It contained charcoal, and is now in the Maidstone Museum. 

A vessel of terra sigillata ware (Form 33, Dragendorff) was 
found in April, 1921, on the site of the Romano-British inter- 
ment discovered at Sandling, Maidstone (Kent, 31, S.E.), in 
October, 1919. Height 5-5 inches, diameter of mouth 10-5 
inches, of base 4-6 inches. It is now in the Maidstone Museum. 

Several Romano-British interments were discovered at 
Ospringe, near Faversham, in October, 1921 (Kent, 34, S.W.). 
The burials have been photographed in situ and excavated by Mr. 
W. Whiting, of Ospringe. The site is about 340 yards W. of 
the Roman cemetery discovered in 1920 and described by Mr. 
Whiting in Arch. Cantiana, Vol. xxxv. A short account was 
published in the Kentish Express, March i8th, 1922, and the 
original discovery is noted in the Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i., 
p. 141. 

A Romano-British interment was found in excavating gravel 
at Kennaway, near Ospringe, in April, 1921 (Kent, 34, S.W.). 
The find consisted of a cinerary urn containing burnt bones, a 
bulbous vessel, a one-handled flagon of brick-red ware, and a 
thin fragment of a vessel of black ware. (Mr. Whiting, Ospringe). 

SOMERSET. Mr. H. St. George Gray reports as follows : 
Lines of a Roman building were revealed by scorching, due to 
-the 1921 drought, on the lawn at Drayton Vicarage (Somerset, 
72, S.E.). Reference to the O.S. map shows that Roman 
coins and other objects have been found in two places a little to 
the W. of the Vicarage. (Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., Vol. Ixvii., 
p. Ixxviii.). 

The drought also revealed the existence of foundations in 
the modern cemetery on the Bristol road, half-a-mile to the N.W. 
of the Church at Keynsham (Somerset, 7, N.W. and S.W.). 
Sherds of pottery, pieces of flue-tiles and tesserae had been collected 
when graves had been dug. (Proc. S.A.S., Vol. Ixvii., pp. xxi 
and Ixxv.). 

Several sherds of pottery were found in August, 1920, in 
digging a grave in the N.E. extension of the churchyard at 
Burrowbridge (Somerset, 62, S.W.). This new burial-ground is 
the lower part of the slope of " Burrow Mump." The potsherds 
subsequently came into the possession of the County Museum. 

A few fragments of pottery were found by the Yeovil 
Volunteers in 1916, while digging trenches in a field adjoining, 
and to the N. of Two Tower Lane in the parish of Barwick, 
near Yeovil (Somerset, 90, N.W.). They have recently found 
their way to the County Museum. 

Mr. Gerald J. Grey reports : Sir Alexander Lawrence, of 
Brockham End, Lansdown, Bath, has lately been excavating 
a Roman site with some rough foundations of a building on his 


property ; and he has in his possession a quantity of Roman 
pottery, etc., taken from the site. 

STAFFORDSHIRE. In the course of excavations for new 
buildings at " The Butts," Wall, Staffordshire, during September, 
1921, some Roman pottery and other remains were found. The 
following is an extract from a letter dated October 2nd, 1921, 
from Mr. R. J. K. Mott, of Wall House, Crowcombe, Taunton : 
" The buildings that were uncovered in ' The Butts ' field at 
Wall were the Roman baths and a large villa. The latter was 
covered in again, and part of the former, but a smaU part of the 
baths remains uncovered, and a hypocaust is protected by an 
iron roof. All the finds were removed to a small Museum that I 
built in the village, where plans of the excavated buildings may 
be examined. I think it unlikely that there exist any more 
foundations of buildings in ' The Butts,' as trial trenches in 
various directions yielded no results. I found traces of walling 
in Castle Croft, but did not uncover much." 

The plan of the buildings has been incorporated on the 25 
inch Ordnance Map (Staffs. 58, 6), and the correct name of the 
Roman town LETOCETUM has been inserted. 

WILTS. The Rev. A. Joyce Watson, Savernake Vicarage, 
Marlborough, writes, Nov. 7th, 1922 : " A considerable length 
of the Roman road where it crosses Braydon Hook has been 
exposed by turf-cutting operations .... The causeway shows up 
well with its large flints, as the surface has, of course, been com- 
pletely peeled off ... The discoverer has a horse-shoe which he 
found, and there are numerous fragments of rough tile and brick 
among the flints." 

YORKSHIRE. Mr. Sheppard reports the discovery of a Roman 
skeleton with iron bracelet and large bone beads, pottery, and other 
remains in a trench at Middleton-on-the- Wolds (Yorks., Sheets 
177 and 178, Hull Museum). 

Mr. Crossley reports that the excavation of the Roman fort 
at Ilkley was continued for the third year, and completed during 
1921 (Yorks., W.R., 169, S.W.) ; and that excavations to locate the 
Roman coast-guard fort in Scarborough Castle yard were begun. 
Traces of the fort were found, but the exploration has not yet been 
completed. (Yorks., N.R., Sheet 78). 


10, Kimbolton Avenue, Bedford, reports that fragments of pottery 
are being found in the rabbit scrapes on the earthworks of " The 
Hillings " (Castle Mound and Bailey). These will be submitted 
to Dr. T. D. Pryce and Professor Sten+on. 

DURHAM. In the Antiquaries, journal for April, 1922, Vol. 
ii., pp. 141-3, is an account of further discoveries made in the 


'Saxon cemetery at Hartlepool in October, 1921. The finds 
consisted of skeletons and a flat pillow-stone (not sculptured). 
The skeletons have been reburied in St. Hilda's Churchyard. 
The Rev. Bertram Jones, Rector of Hartlepool, concludes : 
" The knowledge gained from these discoveries proves that the 
Hartlepool Saxon cemetery, which was first discovered in 1833, 
is of considerable extent, and certainly stretches from Baptist 
Street to St. Hilda Street, and possibly even farther." 

When the cemetery was first discovered a number of tomb- 
stones or pillow-stones with crosses sculptured on them were 
found. Of these, only seven complete stones have been preserved. 
Four of them are in the British Museum, two in the Museum of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and one is in 
the Cathedral Library at Durham. (V.C.H. Durham, Vol. i., 
p. 212. Three of these in the British Museum are figured in 
the plate opposite p. 212). 

HAMPSHIRE. An eleventh-century cross-base with sculp- 
tured designs has been found at Winchester by Colonel Sir Charles 
Close, Director-General of the Ordnance Survey. The stone 
stands at present in the garden of Lieut. -General Sir Edward 
Altham, and is believed to have been taken there many years 
ago from the churchyard of St. Faith, which is only a hundred 
yards distant. A full account with drawings appears in the 
current number of the Hampshire Field Club Proceedings. 

SOMERSET. Mr. H. St. George Gray reports as follows : 
The summer of 1921 has been remarkable for the discovery 
at Glastonbury Abbey of the site of the monument mentioned by 
John of Glaston as having been erected to the N. of the Ecclesia 
Velusia to record by a line drawn S. its ancient eastward 
termination. On exploring the ground southward the foundations 
of Norman walling were discovered lying alongside St. Mary's 
Chapel to the N., and suggestive of a former stone encasement 
of the Ecclesia Vetusta, as hinted by James Parker, on the 
precedent of York. Considerable remains of the N. wall of 
the N. transept have also been brought to light, together with 
many relics of fine tabernacle-work and encaustic tiling. These 
excavations are being carried on, as for several seasons past, 
under the direction of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society, 
with the permission of the Abbey Trustees. 

SURREY. The workmen employed on making a new motor- 
road from Thornton Heath to Purley in the Spring of 1921, dis- 
turbed a human skeleton in widening Edgehill Road, Russell Hill, 
in Croydon parish, and further work revealed the remainder of 
the skeleton with a bronze buckle and iron knife. These are 
considered by Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., to be Anglo-Saxon, 
dating from the early 6th century. Human remains are reported 
to have been discovered many years ago in the immediate 


neighbourhood during road-making, but no proper investigation 
was made at the time. Exact details of the present interment 
cannot be obtained, but the position of the body was probably 
north to south. 

SUSSEX. In the Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i., p. 236, is a short 
note on new discoveries in the Saxon cemetery at Eastbourne, 
described first in Sussex Archceological Collections, Vol. Hi. It is 
said that the cemetery probably belongs to the sixth century. 

YORKSHIRE. Mr. Crossley reports that foundations of a 
mediaeval chapel in Scarborough Castle yard were uncovered and 
planned. (Yorks. N.R., Sheet 78). One hundred and twenty- 
two coins (Charles II. to George III.) were found at Bridlington 
(Yorks. E.R., Sheet 146) on the site of an ancient dwelling-house. 
Sixty-one were of gold, the rest silver. 

Anglo-Saxon burials were discovered at Clifford (Yorks. 
W.R.,i8g, S.E.). 


The Rev. Canon Quine has collected, at Lonan Parish 
Church, a number of rude unhewn stones bearing artificial 
markings or grooves made for some definite purpose ; some 
of these, which suggest an early script are said not hitherto 
to have been met with in the British Isles. The examples 
collected are from neighbouring sites, and are associated 
with traces of earthworks. Other examples have been found 
(and in many cases copied) and recorded on the Ordnance Maps, 
in eight out of the nine eastern parishes, and in three out of the 
eight western parishes of the island. They occur at heights of 
between 350 and 700 feet, and seem associated with human 
settlements on the dry ridges or spurs at right angles to the 
mountain range of the island. They are generally weathered 
blocks of trap-rock, roughly polygonal in form, and measure 
from two to four feet in length. All natural causes such as 
ice-grooving, plough-marks, etc., have been considered ; but the 
marks are said to be of such a character as not to be accounted 
for by these explanations. 



Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler, of the National Museum of Wales, 
Cardiff, reports as follows : 

BRECKNOCKSHIRE. A long-cairn at Pen-y-Wyrlod, three- 
quarters-of-a-mile E. of Llanigon was excavated by the Woolhope 
Club. The megalithic cist (without entrance-passage) at the 
E. end yielded the remains of twelve persons, animal bones, 
two potsherds and some flint flakes. A smaller chamber at the 


W. end contained charcoal, and in the mound were glass beads and 
a coin of Crispus. (Western Mail, September 5th, 1921 ; Arch. 
Camb., 1921, pp. 296-9 ; Man, 1922, 6). Cairns, one round 
and two long on Ffostill Farm, near Talgarth, were partially 
excavated by Messrs. C. E. Vulliamy and A. F. Gwynne. 
One of the long-cairns, 108 feet long and 68 feet wide at the E. 
end, contained an eastern chamber, n feet by 4 feet, without 
entrance passage. In the chamber were remains of at least 
eight persons, including a cranium of dolichocephalic type. 
With the bones were three pieces of worked flint, one " cracked 
by fire." (Western Mail, Nov. 29th, 1921 ; Arch. Camb. 1921, 
PP- 300-5). 

CARNARVONSHIRE. The Graig Lwyd stone-axe " factory," 
on the N.E. slopes of Penmaenmawr, was further explored. A 
hearth was found and several implements, similar to those re- 
covered during the previous excavations, described by Mr. S. 
Hazzledine Warren in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Inst., Vol. xlix., pp. 342-65, and Vol. li., pp. 165-99. 

Hut-circles and enclosures at Rhostryfan, 3! miles S. of 
Carnarvon, were partially excavated by Mr. Howel Williams. 
Glass beads, iron slag, and a piece of bronze with late Celtic 
repousse ornament, were found. 

DENBIGHSHIRE. At Rug, near Corwen, a castle-mound, 
built over a Bronze-age barrow, has been further explored by 
Mr. Willoughby Gardner, F.S.A. 

FLINTSHIRE. A round barrow in Ffrith-y-Garreg Wen, 
about i miles S.S.W. of Whitford, was excavated by Mr. Howel 
Williams. It contained several interments, and the finds included 
a small pierced whetstone and a cinerary urn containing a bronze 
knife. (Arch. Camb. 1921, pp. 265-89). 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. Barrows and cairns, explored by the 
National Museum of Wales on Murgam Mountain, included a 
large round barrow, known as the Twmpath Diwlith, which had 
originally been built of turves and had later been enlarged with 
earth. The primary interment consisted of fragmentary burnt 
bones in a rough cist; the secondary interment had been rifled. 

MONTGOMERYSHIRE. A hoard of about thirty flint arrow- 
heads, mostly barbed and tanged together with a number of 
roughly worked flint flakes, has been found in the peat near 
Llyn Bugeilyn, midway between Machynlleth and Llanidloes. 


CARNARVONSHIRE. The excavation of Segontium, the Roman 
site at Carnarvon, was resumed by the Segontium Excavation 
Committee. The ramparts of the main fort, a corner turret, the 
N.W. gateway, and parts of two internal buildings, were examined. 
The evidence suggests three main periods of occupation : (i) 


c. 80-120, (II.) c. 200-220, and (III.) c. 250-380. (Arch. Camb. 1921, 
pp. 170-204. 

A small earthwork, about go feet square, was discovered 
ij miles N.N.E. of Carnarvon, near the cottage " Bryn Glas." 
Trenches showed that the work was of c. 100 A.D. and apparently 
unfinished. In the " hill-fort " of Braich-y-Ddinas, Penmaen- 
mawr, excavations were resumed by Mr. H. Harold Hughes, 
F.S.A. Several stone hut-circles were cleared, and the finds 
included two Kimmeridge shale bracelets, a Romano -British 
silver snake-bracelet, and apparent traces of lead-working. 

MONMOUTHSHIRE. Roman pottery, including 2nd century 
Samian and a 2nd brass of Faustina the Younger, were found, 
apparently in association with foundations during the laying of 
a sewer, half-mile S. of Church Road Station, Machen. This is 
the first record of Roman remains in the district. 


GLAMORGANSHIRE. Hut-circles and cattle-enclosures on the 
1,500 feet contour-line, i \ miles N. of Blaenrhondda, were partially 
excavated by the Rhondda Naturalists Society, but the finds 
leather and iron slag were inconclusive. 


Mr. J. G. Callander, Director of the National Museum of 
Antiquities, Queen Street, Edinburgh, reports as follows : 

The excavations on the hill fort on Traprain Law, East 
Lothian, were continued last summer (1921) by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, the results, both in the discovery of 
structures and of relics, being most satisfactory. In the four 
previous seasons devoted to the examination of the site, four 
distinct levels of occupation, dating from the end of the first 
century of this era to the beginning of the fifth, had been 
recognised, and it was considered that the fort had been 
inhabited intermittently. No evidence of earlier sites of 
habitations had been detected, though the discoveries of a few 
Bronze age relics, from time to time, and of a burial deposit 
of four cinerary urns and one incense cup urn indicated that the 
hill had been visited by people of that period. Last summer, 
however, four other occupational levels were identified, indicating 
that probably the hill was continuously inhabited at least during 
the first few centuries of this era, also that there had been settle- 
ments during the late Bronze age and early Iron age. 

On every level rude stone foundations of oval enclosures and 
of hut-circles were encountered, and paved areas and hearths 
of rectangular and oval form were laid bare. Passing through the 


occupied area was an ancient roadway with walled sides in places, 
showing the ruts made by wheeled vehicles and a central hollow 
made by the feet of the animals which dragged them. 

As in previous years, a rich harvest of relics, which included 
some types of objects never before found in Scotland, was secured. 
Three socketed axes, three pins and a razor, all of bronze, were 
found within a very restricted area ; the razor was of crescentic 
form, with a ring at one end of the back and a perforation near 
the other, and resembled a continental more than a native type. 
A number of fragments of clay moulds for casting bronze swords 
and axes, a spear-head with lunette openings in the blade, and 
other objects were also recovered the sword moulds had been 
reinforced by a metal rod running longitudinally through the 
clay. Belonging to late Celtic times was a socketed and looped 
axe of iron and a handsome bronze pin with a massive head 
projecting from one side of the top of the stem. Amongst the 
other relics found were a considerable number of fragments 
of armlets of jet and parti-coloured glass ; of bronze there were 
four harp-shaped fibulae, two of dragonesque form, and two of 
penannular shape with bulbous ends ; examples of finger rings, 
dress fasteners, two pins with the projecting ring-heads formed of 
six pellets, and a waster or unfinished casting of another, two 
terret rings, one enamelled, several looped studs, and a bronze 
girdle ring of Scandinavian type. A very small spoon-like object 
of silver, with perforated bowl and loop at the end of the handle 
for suspension, belongs to a class of relic occasionally found in 
the North of France and in different parts of central Europe, 
Iron objects included two small sickles, a spear-head with midrib 
and open socket, the point of a sword blade, and a hoe. Stone 
objects consisted chiefly of whetstones and whorls, but there 
were several hammerstones, four stone axes, a few small balls, 
possibly used as sling stones, a broken leaf-shaped arrow-head, 
another of lop-sided form, a number of scrapers of flint, and two 
small conical objects of coprolite shaped like a spinning top. 
Fragments of Samian ware and of other kinds of Roman pottery, 
including the greater part of a mortarium, were recovered, as 
also a considerable quantity of sherds of very coarse hand-made 
native pottery. Eight Roman coins were found ; they consisted 
of i Nero, 2 Antoninus Pius, I Trajan, i probably Gallienus, 2 
Carausius, and a fourth century coin unidentified. 

It is intended to resume the excavation of the site during the 
coming summer. 

H.M. Office of Works have carried out excavations at the 
abbeys of Melrose, Dryburgh, Jedburgh, Culross and Crosraguel, 
Restennet Priory, and at Castle Urquhart and Burleigh Castle. 
The most interesting discoveries in the matter of relics were a 
leaden casket of conical form containing a human heart, another 


vessel of lead of somewhat similar shape, and a third of the same 
material rather larger than and shaped like a band-box which 
were found at Melrose, and two corroded masses of iron arrow- 
heads found at Castle Urquhart. 


Mr. E. C. R. Armstrong, of the National Museum, Dublin, 
reports as follows : 

The year, 1921, was not productive of important archaeo- 
logical results in Ireland. To organise excavations was impossible 
owing to the disturbed state of the country. With the exception 
of the discovery of coins at Abbeyland, Navan, County Meath 
(See Antiquaries Journal, Vol. i., p. 341) no finds of interest 
were reported. 

Professor A. Francis Dixon, of Dublin University, has com- 
municated particulars of a small unpublished " dig " which, 
with the assistance of Mr. Arthur W. Bretland, Chief Engineer 
of the Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland, he was able 
to carry through at Lecarrow, County Roscommon. Here a 
small stone circle was opened up in extending the quarry to the 
N. side of the Railway. The circle consisted of small loose 
stones with one stone about 2 feet long set on end in the middle. 
Beneath the central stone the skeleton of a young adult man was 
found. This individual was powerfully built ; but the bones were 
unfortunately broken into small pieces before they were examined 
carefully. At a letter date two small urns of Bronze age date 
were discovered near the N. edge of the circle. These had 
been placed on the lime stone rock just four feet below the surface. 
With the urns was a large collection of burnt human bones repre- 
senting portions of, at least, four individuals. The burnt frag- 
ments represented much smaller individuals than the skeleton 
found in the middle of the circle. It is believed that the latter 
belonged to a later period. With the burnt bones were found 
three implements ; two made from red deer antler, and one 
from a portion of the sacrum of red deer. Beneath the sod, 
inside the circle, bones of many animals, and parts of several 
human children's skeletons, were discovered. 


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280. " Notes on Roman finds in North Wilts." Ibid., pp. 389-395. 
PEERS, C. R. and SMITH, REGINALD. " Wayland's Smithy, Berkshire." 

Ant. Journ., 1921, pp. 183-198. 

See also Hawley, Col. W. 

SIMPSON, W. D. " The Hill-fort in the Barmekin of Echt, Aberdeenshire." 

P.S.A. Scot., Vol. liv., pp. 45-50. 
SMITH, REGINALD. See Peers, C. R. 
SPAIN, COL. J. R. B. " Brans Walls Camp, Keilder Burn, Northumberland." 

P.S.A., Newcastle- on-Tyne. 3 S., Vol. x., pp. 82-4. 
SUMNER, HEYWOOD. " Ancient Earthworks in the Bournemouth District." 

Proc. Bournemouth Nat. Sci. Soc., Vol. xxi., 1919-20, pp. 48-67. 
" A Descriptive Account of Roman Pottery Sites at Sloden and Black 

Heath Meadow, Linwood, New Forest." Chiswick Press, London, 1921. 
RITCHIE, J. " The Stone Circle at Broomend of Crichie, Aberdeenshire." 

P.S.A., Scot., Vol. liv., pp. 154-172. 
Ross, PERCIVAL. " The Roman road north of Low Bottom Bridge to 

Brougham Castle, Westmorland, and on the route of the Xth Iter." 

Bradford Antiquary, 1921, N.S., Pt. 21. (Revised Edition; see last 

Earthworks Report, 1920, p. 15). 



England. Essex, Vol. i. (1916) 

Wales. Merionethshire (1921) 

TOMS, H. S. Articles on Cissbury, Caburn and Seaford Camps. Sussex 

Daily News, loth March, 6th April, 4th and 2ist May, nth June, 1921. 
VOLLIAMY, C. E. '* The Excavation of a Megalithic Tomb in Breconshire." 

Arch. Camb. 7 S., Vol. i., pp. 300-305. 
WALLACE, W. G. " Earthworks in the Bournemouth District south of the 

River Stour." Proc. Bournemouth Nat. Sci. Soc., Vol. xii. 1919-20, pp. 

WESTROPP, T. J. " The Promontory Forts and Traditions of the Districts of 

Beare and Bantry, County Cork." Journ. R. Soc. Ant. Ireland, Vol. 

1., pp. 140-159 (Pt. i.) ; Vol. li., pp. 1-16 (Pt. 2.).' 

" The Beginnings of Historical Tradition and Survival of Celt Myth- 
ology in Ireland." Journ. Galway Arch, and Hist. Soc., Vol. ix., Pts. 

i. and ii. 
WHEELER, R. E. M. " Some problems of Prehistoric Archaeology in Wales." 

Arch. Camb., 7 S., Vol. i., pp. 1-18. 

" Excavations at Segontium." ib-id., pp. 170-204. 

" Archaeology in Wales, January, 1914 September, 1921." Bulletin 

of the Board of Celtic Studies, Vol. i., Pt. i. (October, 1921), pp. 64-90. 

(Lists of finds and bibliography). 

Affiliated Societies. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. W. G. Strickland, Esq., 63, Merrion 

Square, Dublin. 
Cambrian Archaeological Association. Canon C. F. Roberts, M.A., Llanddulas 

Rectory, Abergele (N. Wales), Capt. H. Lewis, Pentwyn, Pentyrch, 

Cardiff (S. Wales). 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. G. D. Hardinge- 

Tyler, Esq., M.A., F.S.A,, 19, Bloomsbury Square, W.C.i. 
British Archaeological Association. Frank Lambert, Esq., M.A., " Areguipa," 

Grove Hill, S. Woodford, E.i8. 
British Record Society, Ltd. Thomas Blagg, Esq., F.S.A., 120, Chancery 

Lane, W.C.2. 
Selborne Society (Antiquities Section). W. M. Webb, Esq., F.L.S., The 

Hermitage, Hanwell, W.7 
Society of Genealogists of London. Mrs. Rowan, 5, Bloomsbury Square, 

Berkshire Archaeological and Architectural Society. Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, 

M.A., F.S.A., Barkham Rectory, Wokingham. 
Birmingham and Midland Institute (Archaeological Section). H. M. Francis, 

Esq., Midland Institute, Birmingham. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. Roland Austin, Esq., 

38, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 
Buckingham, Architectural and Archaeological Society for the County of. 

W. Bradbrook, Esq., F.R.C.S., Bletchley. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society. F. J. Allen, Esq., M.D., 8, Halifax Road, 

Cambs. and Hunts. Archaeological Society. Rev. John Griffin, Wood Walton 

Rectory, near Peterborough. 
Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society and Field Club. George Eyre Evans, 

Esq., Ty Tringad, Aberystwyth. 
Chester & North Wales Archaeological and Historical Society. Rev. R. A. 

Thomas, O.B.E., M.A., The College, Chester. 


Cornwall, Royal Institution of. G. Penrose, Esq., Museum, Truro. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society. 

Edward Wilson, Esq., Airethwaite, Kendal. 
Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. Percy H. Currey 

Esq., F.R.I.B.A., 3, Market Place, Derby. 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. Rev. Herbert Pentin, 

M.A., St. Peter's Vicarage, Portland. 

Essex Archaeological Society. Rev. T. H. Curling, Halstead Vicarage, Essex. 
Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society. W. Dale, Esq., F.S.A., 

F.G.S., St. Margaret's, Oakmount Avenue, Southampton. 
East Herts, Archaeological Society. R. T. Andrews, Esq., 18, Bull Plain, 

Kent Archaeological Society. Richard Cooke, Esq., The Croft, Detling, 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. G. R. Axon, Esq., 184, 

Hamilton Road, Longsight, Manchester. 
Lancashire and Cheshire, Historic Society of. Philip Nelson, Esq., M.D., 

F.S.A., Beechwood, Caldei stones, Liverpool. 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. Major Freer, 

V.D., D.L., F.S.A., The Stonygate, Leicester. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, The Society of Antiquaries of. Robert Blair, Esq., 

F.S.A., Harton Lodge, South Shields. 
Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. Fredk. Johnson, Esq., 8, 

Theatre Street, Norwich. 
Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. Miss M. V. Taylor, Ashmolean 

Museum, Oxford. 
Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Guy Maynard, Esq., The Museum, 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. A. E. Cooper, 

Esq., 42, St. John's Hill, Shrewsbury. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. H. St. George 

Gray, Esq., The Castle House, Taunton, Somerset. 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. The Rev. H. A. Harris, Thorndon Rectory, 

Eye, Suffolk. 
Surrey Archaeological Society. Hilary Jenkinson, Esq., F.S.A., 29, Cheyne 

Row, Chelsea, S.W.3. 
Sussex Archaeological Society. W. E. Nicholson, Esq., Barbican House, 

High Street, Lewes. 

Thoroton Society. George Fellows, Esq., Barrow-on-Soar, Loughborough. 
Wales, National Museum of. Dr. W. Evans Hoyle (Director). 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. Rev. E. H. Goddard, 

M.A., Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 
Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (Hereford). W. R. Scobie, Esq., 2, Offa 

Street, Hereford. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society. E. W. Crossley, Esq., Broad Carr, Holy well 

Green, Halifax. 
Yorkshire East Riding Antiquarian Society. Rev. Canon Cooper, M.A. , 

Filey Vicarage, Filey. 


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